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Full text of "History of Burlington and Mercer Counties, New Jersey : with biographical sketches of many of their pioneers and prominent men"

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Pioneers and Prominent Men. 







188 3. 




Several histories of Burlington County have been published, yet there was a feeling that 
none of them fully covered the whole ground. To supply this want the author, by diligent 
research, hopes he has in some measure succeeded. Imperfections, omissions, and errors have to 
some extent undoubtedly crept in, but the labor has been conscientiously performed, as it was not 
for this day only, but for all coming time. 

The author feels indebted for valuable assistance to Dr. Joseph Parrish, William John 
Potts, Esq., Hon. Edwin Salter, Richard F. Mott, Leah Blackman, Judge Clayton A. Black, 
Mahlon Hutchinson, Esq., Capt. William H. Shaw, Judge William Parry, Judge Clayton Lip- 
pincott, Barclay White, and Franklin Woolman, Esq., and Charles Lippincott, author of the 
" Lippincott Genealogical Tree." E. M. Woodwaed. 

Ellisdale, N. J., Nov. 30, 1882. 


There is no better mode of gathering material for the history of a State than by the prep- 
aration and publication of the history of its several counties. The publishers who are engaged 
in such work ought to be encouraged in their arduous and expensive labors. 

The county of Mercer, which has been organized as such only forty-five years, would afford 
a very limited scope to its historian if he were to confine his researches to such period. He 
would hardly do justice to his work unless he runs back to the original settlement of the several 
townships within the territorial boundaries of the new county, and describes the progress they 
have made in all the departments of civilization. In doing this he will sometimes repeat what 
the histories of the original counties contain, while for some historic matter, when the narrative 
cannot well be divided, he may wisely refer the reader to those histories. 

Separate histories of Trenton and of Princeton have heretofore been published, but there 



has beeu no full history of Mercer County published. The " Historical Collections of New 
Jersey," by Barber and Howe, in 1844, in a volume of five hundred pages, was useful, but it 
could give only a few pages to each county. 

The county of Mercer is remarkable for the large number of eminent and distinguished 
men which it contains. Our limited space has compelled us to omit even the names of many 
distinguished scholars and divines, most of whom are or have been connected with our higher 
institutions of learning. 

With our thanks to the local historians who have explored the several townships, we make 
no apologies for not having done more than what we now respectfully submit to our readers, 
believing that the older the book grows the more it will be valued. 

John F. Hageman. 

Prixcetox, N. J., Dec. 11, 1882. 






























-Location — Geographical Nomenclature — 

Geology — Pines — Streams, Etc. . . 1 

-Aboriginal History 3 

-Land Titles and Early Settlement of the 

County ....... 6 

-Civil Government 13 

-Colonial Wars 17 

-The Revolutionary War .... 21 
-List of Soldiers in the Continental Army — 
State Troops and Militia from Burlington 

County 31 

-War for the Union . . . . . 35 
-Old Roads and Courses of Travel in Early 
Times — Steamboats on the Delaware — 
Colonial Post-Offiees of Burlington County 53 
-Canals and Railroads ..... 58 
-The Legal Profession and Distinguished 

Men 63 

-The Medical Profession , , . , 72 
-The Press of Burlington County . . 93 
-Burlington County Civil List ... 98 
-Agriculture — Burlington County Agricultu- 
ral Society 99 

-Mount Holly Insurance Company — Burling- 
ton County Timber Protecting Company 
— The Grange Movements — Burlington 
County Lyceum of History and Natural 

Science 105 

-Executions that have Taken Place in Bur- 
lington County — Finances — Indebtedness 
— Population of County — Marriages, 
Births, and Deaths — Consolidated Statis- 
tics of Schools — Electoral Vote of New 

Jersey 108 

-Burlington Township and City . , . 109 
-Societies, Associations, and Benevolent In- 
stitutions 129 

-Northampton Township (Mount Holly) . 175 

-Bass River Township 226 

-Beverly Township and City , , , 231 

-Chester Township 247 

-Chesterfield Township 275 

-Cinnaminson Township . . . , 291 

-Delran Township 305 

-Eastampton Township , . , , 312 

-Evesham Township 316 

-Florence Township 327 

-Little Egg Harbor Township . . . 332 
-Lumberton Townshij) , . , . . S43 
-Mansfield Township , . . *, .352 
-Medford Township 360 


XXXIV. — Mount Laurel Township 
XXXV, — New Hanover Township 
XXXVI. — Pemberton Township and Borough 
XXXVII. — Randolph Township , , . , 
XXXVIII.— Shamong Township .... 
XXXIX. — Southampton Township 

XL. — Springfield Township . . . , 
XLI, — Washington Township 

XLII. — Bordentown Township, Borough, and City 
XLIII. — Westampton Township 
XLIV. — Woodland Township . , , , 
XLV. — Willingborough I'ownship , 



nvcEE-OEie, aouisrrcizr . 
























Location, Boundaries. Area, and Physical 

Features 523 

Aboriginal History — Land Titles and First 

Settlements 525 

Organization — Townships, Cities, Villages, 

and Population . . , , , 520 

-Places of Historic Interest , , . . 529 
•The Seat of the State Government and of 

National and State Institutions , , 530 

■The Seat of High Educational Institutions , 531 
-Administration of Justice — County Court- 

House — Offices and Jail — Court Officials . 533 
■Highways — Railroads — River and Canal 

Navigation 536 

-Manufactures . , , , , .537 
Statistics — Banks — County Finances — Agri- 
culture — Public Schools .... 539 

-The Press 640 

•Religion — Churches — Religious and Benev- 
olent Societies .,.,,, 645 

•The Bench and Bar 550 

•Medical Practice and Physicians , , 571 
•The Revolutionary Period — Battles of Tren- 
ton and Princeton • , , , , 585 

The Late Civil War 594 

■Princeton 595 

City of Trenton 664 

•The Borough of Chambersburg . . , 748 

East Windsor Township .... 756 

•Ewing Township , . , , , 781 

Hamilton Township , . . . , 794 

•Hopewell Township 816 

Lawrence Township . . . • , 843 

Millham Township . . , . . 868 

•Washington Township . . , , 861 

West Windsor Township , . . . 868 



Applegate, E. T. R. 

Armstrong, Thomas D 

As^anpink Bridge . 

Baker, Caleb . 

Baker, William 

Bishop, William 

Bispham, Charles . 

Black, Charles 

Black, Joseph H. . 

Black, George 

Black, John . 

Black, John, Jr. 

Black. Thomas 

Bonaparte, Jo.«eph . 

Bordentown Female Colleg 

Borton, Uriah 

Braddock, R. S. 

Brainard School-House 

Brewer, J. H. 

Buckman, John 

Burlington Library Ho 

Buzby, R. 

Calvary Pre:-byterian Church 

Carr, Josejih . 

Chambers, Robert . 

Coleman. James B. 

Collins, Isaac . 

Conrow, Clayton 

Conrow, Darling . 

Conrow, Nathan H. 

Cubberley, David W. 

Curlis, William B. . 

Curtis, J. S. . 

Darnell, Job . 

Darnell, David 

Davies, Edward 

Davis, James M. 

Dayton, William L. 

Deacon, Henry C. . 

Dean, Jesse 

De Cou, Isaac 

Dilatush, Joseph Y. 

Dill, John R. . 

Dippolt, Charles 

Doane, Bisho]) 

Douglns House, the 

Duffell, S. T. . 

Eagle Pottery-Works 

Edge, Thomas G. . 

Ege, Ralph 

Eldridge, Alexander 

Ellis, Charles . 











between 172 





















. between 86, 87 















between 270, 














between 378, 










between 166, 


" 746, 



between 816, 









between 692 











! Emley, Oliver H. P facing 387 

: Etruria Pottery 692 

I Evans, Ezra . . . . . . . facing 324 

I Evesham Friends' Meeting-house, Mount Laurel . . 375 

j Exton, Adam facing 746 

' "Fell, Peter between 746, 747 

First Presbyterian Church, Trenton .... 718 

Fish, Benjamin facing 700 

[ Fox, George 148 

Franklin, G. H facing 581 

Friends' Meeting-house, 1785 146. 

' Friends' Meeting-house, 1685 146 

Friends' Meeting-house, 1845 149 

Friends' Meeting-house, Westfield .... 297 

Friends' ]\IeetiDg-hou?t', Mount Holly . . . .189 
Friends' Meeting-house and Academy, Moorestown . 258 

Garwood, Robert F facing 308 

Gaskill, Job H " 409 

Gauntt, Franklin " 89 

Golding, Moses ...... " 695 

Green, A. B " 791 

Green, George S ''732 

Greenwood Pottery Company . . . between 692, 693 

Grubb, Edward B facing 165 

Grubb, Gen. E. Burd , " 45 

Gulick, John S. ...... . "661 

Haines, George " 88 

Haines, John C 268 

Haines, Joseph C facing 351 

Haines, Joseph F "311 

Haines, Nathan "135 

Haines, William " 327 

Haines, S. W "812 

Hall, H. B " 92 

Hall, John '-721 

Hamill, S. M "854 

Hamraell, John " 810 

Hancock, Thomas ..... between 166, 167 

Haven, AV. D. facing 682 

Headquarters of Col. Rahl .... " 668 

Hendrickson, David T " 806 

Hendrickson, E. L. 792 

Hewitt, Charles facing 684 

Hough, William A "793 

Hulme, Joseph K " 388 

Hunt, Abraham, Residence of 669 

^ Hunt, Elisha between 270, 271 

Hunter, Samuel R. facing 309 

, Hunter, Washington " 310 

I Hutchinson, M. ..... . •' 70 

' I.-ick, Gen. M'illiam " 435 

Job, A. F "781 



Jone.', Samuel facing 274 

Lalor, William S. . 


Lippincott, Clayton 


Lippincott Coat of Arms 

" 222 

Lippincott, Thomas 


Lippincott, Wallace 


Lippincott, W. R. . 


Longstreet, H. H. . 


Maddock, Thomas . 

" 690 

Map Delaware River from Burlington to 

Trenton " 50 

Map of Indian Reservation . 

between 414, 415 

Map, Outline. Burlington County . 


Map of Williugborough Township and AVest Hampton, 

showing Location of Lands, 1680-90 . facing 510 

Map, Outline, of Mercer County ... " 523 

Map, Site of Trenton in 1714 . 


Map, Town of Burlington, 1696 

between 108, 109 

Matlack, Asa .... 

.' 269 

Matlack, Asa . 

facing 269 

Matlack, Clarkson . 


Matlack, William . 

" 270 

McCosh, James 

" 629 

McCully, J. S. 

. 689 

McGill, Alexander T. 

facing 641 

Mcllvaine, Jasper S. 


Mcllvaine, William R. 


McPherson, Joseph 

between 742, 743 

Merritt, Ewan 

facing 69 

Milnor, Thomas 

between 172, 173 

Mitchell, John 

facing 168 

Moore, Cyrus 


Moore, Randoljih H. 


Morris, Thomas E. . 


Mott, Gershom 


Odenheimer, W. H. 


Ott, Joseph 

" 691 

Parry, William 

" 301 

Pearson, Charles L. 

between 744, 745 

Phillips, Joseph M. 

. 843 

Phillips, William W. L. 

facing 582 

Powell, B. B. . . 


Price, W. B. . 

" 1C6 

Read, Zachariah 


Reed, Alfred . 


Riggs, George 

between 172, 173 

Risdon, Theodore H. 

facing 225 

Robbins, George R. 

between 580,581 

Robbins, George R. 

" 580, 581 

Roberts, David 

facing 272 

, Robison, C. B, 

! Rogers, Samuel W. 

Rogers, William D. 
I Schanck, S. M. 
1 Scobey, Kinneth 

Scott, Stacy H. 

Scudder, E. W. 

Sholl, Joseph 
j ' 

Shreve, Alex. 

\ Shreve, Joseph 

I Smith, Charles P. 

j Smith, John K. 

Smith, Richard S. 

Stockton, Commodore R. F. 

Stockton, Samuel 

Stokes, Charles 

Street, J. Fletcher 

Stryker, T. J. . 

Sykes, George 

Taylor, A. W. 

Taylor, James 

Thomjtson, L. P. 

Trenton Iron Company, Works of 

Trenton Rubber- Works 

Tulane, Paul . 

Union Steam Forge-Work 

Van Syckel, B. 

Voorhies, Maj. 

Vroom, Peter D. 

Wall, Garret D. 

Wall, James W. 

Warrington, Joseph 

Weart, S. S. . 

White, William H. 

Whitehead, William 

Whitehead Brothers, Manufactory 

Wikoff, James H. 

Wilkins, Joshua B. 

Wills, Zebedee M. 

Wills, Samuel . 

Wills, Henry W. 

Wood, Isaac 

Wood, William 

Woodruff, Aaron D 

Woodward, E. M. 

Yard, E. B. . 

Yard, Edwin M. 

Yard, William S, 

Young, William 












between 172, 


















between 388 

































between 816 
















between 744 









between 732 


" 732 







:m:vv jersey 

JEliujCLVtul cxjivessiy for- tJus Wo?^ 







n:e,^w jersey. 





During the glacial epocli the polar ice, now con- 
fined within the frigid zone, extended southward and 
covered much of the northern portion of our conti- 
nent. The great ice-sheet was several thousand feet 
thick in Kew England and New York. Near its 
southern limit, in our State, it diminished to less 
than one thousand feet, and did not cover the higher 
crests. Beginning on the eastern side of the State at 
Perth Amboy, it extended to the Delaware below Bel- 
videre, about forty miles northward of Trenton. The 
southern half of the State was an island, with its coast 
line several miles farther west than at present, and 
Cape May, as also a large portion of Atlantic County, 
was beneath the ocean. On the western side there 
was a broad bay, which extended north to the mouth 
of the Delaware, at the present site of Trenton. Dur- 
ing the melting of the great glacier, the resulting 
floods, charged with enormous masses of floating ice, 
scraped the earth and rocks from the mass beneath it, 
a"nd spread it in the wide valley that hemmed in the 
swollen river of that time from Trenton southward 
to the distant sea. A portion of this displaced mate- 
rial forms the soil of that portion of Burlington 
County adjacent to the river ; but all that eastward 
of the river slope has been dry land since and prior, 
to the glacial epoch, and was the ier^a firma of the 
rude chippers of flint to which reference will be 
made, — land that nourished an arctic fauna and 
flora, forests now peculiar to the wilds of British 
America, and in which the ancestors of the Eskimos 
of to-day hunted the extinct mastodon, the reindeer 

and musk-ox, and found in the chilly waters of the 
ancient Delaware and along the dreary sea-coast 
both the walrus and the seal. 

The first recognition we find of the bounds of Bur- 
lington County is in the act of Assembly, 1G94; but 
its limits were more definitely settled by the act of 
Jan. 21, 1709-10, declaring that the line of partition 
between Burlington and Gloucester Counties begins 
at the mouth of Pensauquin, alias Cropwell Creek ; 
thence up the same to the Fork; thence along the 
southernmost branch thereof, sometimes called Cole 
Branch, until it comes to the head thereof; thence 
upon a straight line to the sbuthernmost branch of 
Little Egg Harbor River; thence down the said 
branch and river to the mouth thereof; thence to the 
next inlet on the south side of Little Egg Harbor's 
most southerly inlet; thence along the sea-coast to 
the line of partition between East and West Jersey ; 
thence along the said line of partition by Maiden- 
head and Hopewell to the northernmost bounds of 
the township of Amwell ; thence by the same to the 
river Delaware ; thence by the river Delaware to the 
first-mentioned station. This surface was reduced by 
the act of March 11, 1713-14, establishing Hunterdon 
County, making the Assunpink Creek the northern 
boundary, and still further by the act of Feb. 22 
1838, erecting Mercer County, and making Crosswicks 
Creek from its mouth to Keith's province line the 
northern boundary of Burlington County. It is now 
bounded north by Crosswicks Creek, which sepa-, 
rates it from Mercer County; northeast by Keith's 
province line, which separates it from Monmouth and 
Ocean Counties ; southeast by the Atlantic Ocean • 
southwest by Little Egg Harbor or Mullica River' 
which separates it from Atlantic County, and bv 
Pensauken River, which separates it from bloucestcV 



County ; and on the northwest by the Delaware River. 
Its most southern latitude is 39^ 28', and most north- 
ern, 40° 11^; its extreme eastern longitude from "Wash- 
ington is 2° 41', and most western 1° 52'; its greatest 
length, northwest and southeast, fifty-two miles, and 
breadth, east and west, thirty-one miles. Its area is 
551,553 acres, or 8G1.77 square miles, which includes 
14,137 acres, or 20.09 square miles of bays, inlets, 

Starting from the Assunpink Greet, the head of 
tide-water, there is a gravelly, blnffbank, which varies 
in height from twenty to one hundred feet, and finally 
disappears near the town of Burlington, being re- 
placed there and thence by almost continuous level, 
sandy shores, terminating at Cape May. The whole 
county is alluvial, composed of sand, gravel, loam, 
and clay, variously blended. The diluvian of the 
Delaware Valley above the Falls through long periods 
of time, when the volume of the river, fed by the melt- 
ing glacier, was far greater than it is now, was spread 
over a strip of about fourteen miles in width and par- 
allel with the river, forming with the aggregations 
from the sea a very fertile loam. Strips of sand, and 
sometimes masses of stiff clay, are found in this loamy 
belt, as also rounded hills, stratified gravel. East 
of this belt is a mass of sand, overlying clay, and 
extending for nearly forty miles to the marshes 
which border the sea-shore. This sandy district 
seems like a great plain, sloping gently from its cen- 
tre towards the Atlantic and the Delaware, with 
rounded hillocks a few feet in height, and furrowed 
by streams of water which give it drainage. Between 
the loamy belt that borders the river and the sand 
district proper there is a long narrow strip, where the 
clay, approaching the surface, mingles with the sand, 
forming a tolerable soil, producing oak. A like belt 
extends along the bay coast and up the Mullica or 
Little Egg Harbor River and its branch, the Atsion 
River, and then bending to the northeast, and within 
a few miles of the first-mentioned belt, extends until 
it meets a like but broader strip that runs back to 
the coast. The whole sand district is known by the 
name of " The Pines." In the eastern portion of The 
Pines, and partly in Ocean County, are situated the 
East and West Plains. It is remarkable for having 
been entirely bare of trees ever since the country has 
been known. Some spots are entirely bare of vegeta- 
tion, but most of it is covered with a low growth of 
bushes and dwarf pines and oaks of one or two feet 
high. An object as tall as a man can be seen for 
miles across these plains. They are barrens. In the 
southeastern part of the county, bordering the prin- 
cipal tributaries of the Little Egg Harbor River, are 
located the two great deposits of bog iron ore in the 
State. The most western of these is connected with 
the waters of Atsion River, and most of its branches, 
extending from near the sources of these streams in 
a tolerable wide bed southeastward to Landing Creek. 
The length of the tract, within which the bog ore is 

found in nearly all the tributaries, is about twenty 
miles, while its average breadth is about three miles. 
The other, or eastern tract, lies along the Tulpe- 
haukin or Wading River and its several branches. 
It covers an area quite as extensive, as the former. 
Several minor deposits of bog ore are confined to the 
limits of the marl region, one on Talman's Creek, a 
tributary to the Rancocas, another on the south 
branch of the same river. Gordon^ says there were 
in Southern New Jersey "fourteen furnaces, includ- 
ing cupolas, and fourteen forges, mainly dependent on 
bog ores for their supply. These furnaces and forges 
are all abandoned now. The leanness of the ores 
and the amount of sulphur and phosphorus in them, 
together with the cost of charcoal, their only avail- 
able fuel, have led to their discontinuance. The ore 
is still being deposited, and, if of value, could be dug 
in considerable quantity. In time it may be utilized. 
Independent of the value of the pine timber in this 
extensive tract of land, which is cut into valuable 
lumber or burned into charcoal, the great wealth of 
this section is its cranberry bogs. The peat lands and 
savanna lands — the cedar, whortleberry, and maple 
swamp bottoms, — which but a comparatively few 
years back were of little value, by grubbing, ditch- 
ing, sanding, and planting now produce from one 
hundred to one hundred and fifty bushels, an average 
crop, of cranberries, worth this year (1881) three dol- 
lars a bushel. Already our bogs supply more than 
half of all raised in the United States, and only a 
fraction of the land suitable for the culture of this 
fruit is yet improved. 

The clay deposits of this county are extensive and 
valuable. There is a belt extending from the Raritan 
Bay to the Delaware at Bordentown, thence, follow- 
ing the bank to Kincora, it recedes inland, and passing 
the Rancocas a mile above Bridgeborough and the 
Pensauken some distance above Cinnaminson bridge, 
coming back to the Delaware again at Gloucester City. 
Clay for the manufacture of bricks and tiles is found 
in many parts of the county, and bricks have been 
burned for local use in very many yards scattered 
through the county. On the Delaware, where the 
facilities of cheap transportation are unequaled, there 
are a number of yards where bricks and draining tiles 
are made, and their manufacture might be increased 

The marl region, which occupies a strip of country 
from six to fifteen miles wide, and stretches from the 
Atlantic below Sandy Hook to Salem on tlie Dela- 
ware, passes through the county between The Pines 
and the Delaware. It is found at various depths from 
the surface, and in beds sometimes thirty feet and 
more thick. The earliest use of it was in 1768 in 
Monmouth County. It was not, however, generally 
used until the beginning of this century, but it is now 

' "A Gazetteer of the State of Jfew Jersey," by Tbomas F. Gordon, 1834. 



highly prized as a fertilizer, and immense quantities 
of it is yearly dug. 

The streams of Burlington flow either northwest 
to the Delaware or southeast to the Atlantic. The 
shed or dividing ridge which separates these waters 
crosses the county line at the head of the Tuscomsco, 
a tributary of the Atsion River, and, curving to the 
north, leaves the county nearly east to the starting- 
point. Those emptying into the ocean are the Mul- 
lica and Wading Rivers and Shoruds and Westecunk 
Creeks and their tributaries ; those flowing into the 
river the Crosswicks, Black's, Craft's, Assiscunk, Ran- 
cocas, and Pensauken, and their branches. The 
streams are generally crooked and sluggish, and the 
larger are navigable for ten or twelve miles from their 
mouths. Burlington County is well supplied with 
pure water. Springs and streams abound, and there 
are very few spots where water cannot be obtained 
by digging wells. In boring an artesian well on the 
stock farm of Pierre Loriliard, Esq., near Jobstown, 
at the depth of three hundred and fifty-six feet con- 
siderable wood was found.' In boring another for the 
Hon. A. K. Hay, at Winslow, a gum log one foot in 
diameter was found at the depth of three hundred 
feet.' Along the Atlantic coast, "surface wells" 
sunk to the depth of from three to twelve feet supply 
good water, but driven or tube wells of from twenty 
to forty feet yield a bountiful supply of most excellent 

The chief cities and towns are Mount Holly (the 
seat of justice), Burlington, Bordentown, Pemberton, 
Moorestown, Crosswicks, Tuckertown, Yincentown, 
Beverly, Florence, Wrightstown, Juliustown, Med- 
ford, Jobstown, Recklesstown, Columbus, Fields- 
boro', Luniberton, Evesham, Jacobstown, Jackson- 
ville, Delanco, Edgewater, Riverside, Palmyra, 
Riverton, Bridgeborough, Cookstown, and Haines- 



When the great ice-sheet that covered the north- 
ern portion of our State during the glacial age 
gradually melted away, vast masses of gravel were 
carried down and deposited beyond its foot. Of such 
is the coarse, unstratified gravels that form the bluff 
at Trenton. In this gravel, at depths of from five 
to forty feet, and often with great bowlders above. 
Dr. Abbott, of Trenton, and such competent geolo- 
gists and archaeologists as Professors Whitney, Shaler, 
Parkman, and Carr, of Cambridge, Mass., as well as 
others, have found numbers of rudely-chipped stone 

1 Annual Report of State Geologj-, by Prof. George A. Cook, 1879, pp. 
« Ibid. » Ibid. 

implement^, which are believed to have been made 
by that earliest race of men, known in Europe as the 
paleolithic or river-drift folk. 

Of this gravel and its contained relics of a vanished 
people. Dr. Abbott has written that, in his opinion, 
the Delaware River, " now occupying a comparatively 
small and shallow channel, once flowed at an eleva- 
tion of nearly fifty feet above its present level, and it 
was when such a mighty stream as this that man first 
gazed upon its waters, and lost those rude weapons in 
its swift current that now in the beds of gravel 
which its floods have deposited are alike the puzzle 
and delight of the archaeologist. Had these first 
comers, like the Troglodytes of France, had con- 
venient caves to shelter them, doubtless we would 
have their better wrought implements of bone to tell 
more surely the story of their ancient sojourn here, 
but wanting, them, their history is not altogether lost, 
and in the rude weapons now deep down beneath the 
grassy sod and flower-decked river-bank we learn the 
fact of the presence in the distant past of an earlier 
people than the Indians."* 

Dr. Abbott's arguments to prove the existence of 
man as early at least as the concluding stages of the 
last glacial epoch are almost conclusive. He re- 
marks that "just in proportion as these relics — stone 
implements generally — are rude in manufacture and 
primitive in type they are more deeply imbedded in 
the soil." ^ "When, also, we consider that the sev- 
eral conditions of glacial times were largely those of 
Greenland and arctic America, and that there is un- 
broken land communication between the desolate 
regions of the latter and our own more favored land, 
and, more important than all, that there now dwells 
in this ice-clad country a race which, not only in the 
distant past, but uutil recently (if they do not now), 
used stone implements of the rudest patterns, it is 
natural to infer that the traces of a people found here, 
under circumstances that demonstrate a like condi- 
tion of the country during their occupancy, are really 
traces of the same people." Professor Dawkins* says, 
"These facts can hardly be mere coincidence, caused 
by both peoples leading a savage life under similar 
circumstances. They aflbrd reasons for the belief that 
the Eskimos of North America are connected by 
blood with the paleolithic cave-dwellers of Europe." 
Dr. Rink, in his "Tales of the Eskimo," London, 
1875, says, " The Eskimo appear to have been the 
last wave of an aboriginal American race which has 
spread over the continent from more genial regions, 
following principally the rivers and water-courses, 
and continually yielding to the pressure of the tribes 
behind them." 

The peculiar implements which are characteristic 
of these gravels are quite diflereut from the ordinary 
"relics" of the later Indians, and must not be con- 

* American Natumlist, June, 187G. 

* Nature, vol. xi. p. 215, Jan. 14, 1S75. London. 

* CHVC-Ilunting, by \V. B..jd Dawkius, p. 3J8. London, 1S74. 


founded with them. They are all large, rudely 
chipped, and present either a well-defined sharp or 
cutting edge and a point or both. No trace of a 
polished or ground surface is ever found upon them. 
The art of polishing stone originated with the later 
Indians. These implements "maybe described as 
being usually of large size, longer than it is wide, 
thick in the middle and sharpened at the edges. One 
end is more or less pointed, and the other, which was 
doubtless intended to be held in the hand, is thick 
and rounded. Their most distinguishing character- 
istic is that both sides or faces are chipped into a 
shape more or less convex and symmetrical. An im- 
plement of this description, it will be seen at a glance^ 
is entirely unlike the ordinary Indian axe or toma- 
hawk, made of polished stone, and very generally 
provided with a groove around the middle, intended 
to hold a handle made of twisted wythes."^ 

It is such objects as these, found under the circum- 
stances mentioned, that warranted Dr. Abbott in re- 
marking of the bluff facing the Delaware at Trenton 
" that the accumulation of these gravels was gradual, 
and considerable time may have elapsed from the 
date of the first or lowest of the gravels before addi- 
tional material was brought from above. Beyond the 
limits of these gravels stretched in every direction a 
Tast area of habitable ground, as I have mentioned, 
with a fauna adapted to supply man with every need, 
and how natural that the primitive American should 
have gone to these then accumulating beds of shingle 
to select and chip into proper shape the pebbles that 
thus worked upon constituted his only known weapons, 
■ — the same the world over : Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
'America ! 

" No cataclysm drove him from the spot, and all 
those years that the ever-increasing beds of sand, 
gravel, and bowlders were accumulating he dwelt 
here, familiar, it is now known, with the mastodon, 
and likewise with the bison, reindeer, musk-ox, and 
the fauna of the present time ; and when the last of 
these transporting floods had wholly passed away, this 
primitive man was America's sole occupant, and left 
upon the surface of the latest stratum of sand and 
pebbles that floods from a once glaciated valley 
brought from the mountains beyond the same rude 
implements of stone that his ancestors had lost in 
the underlying gravels beneath his feet."^ 

Leaving this question of our State having been in- 
habited by man of a glacial age, we come to the red 
Indian of the Northwest, and the universally accepted 
conclusion of his partial Asiatic origin. He presents 
to us just such a type of unprogressive life as the 
nomads of the Asiatic steppes. He exhibits no 
change from his precursors of the fifteenth century, 
and perhaps the forests of America may have shel- 
tered him, just as they have sheltered and pastured 

1 Prof. H. W. nojnes, Boston Soc. Kat. nistory, Jan. 10, 1881. 

2 Troc. Boeton Soc. Nat. Hietory, p. 124, 1881. 

its wild herds of buffalos, for countless centuries since 
the continent rose from its ocean bed.' 

Heckewelder, the Moravian missionary, records the 
following tradition in the history of Indian nations: 
The Lenapes (Delawares) resided man j hundred years 
ago in a far distant country in the western part of 
our continent. For some reason they determined to 
migrate eastward. After a very long journey they 
reached the Mississippi, where they fell in with the 
Mengwe (Iroquois), who were likewise in search of 
new homes. The Lenapes sent a messenger to the 
Alligewi (Allegheny), who were a powerful nation 
inhabiting the country east of the river, who refused 
them permission to settle in their neighborhood, but 
expressed a willingness for them to pass through their 
country. The Lenapes commenced crossing, but when 
the Alleghenys discovered they were a numerous 
people (not to be counted by thousands), moved by 
fear, they fell upon the advance of the divided host, 
slew many, and threatened the others with annihila- 
tion should they persist in the passage. The Iroquois, 
who had witnessed the attack, proposed to join the 
Lenapes in a war of conquest and extermination, and 
to share with them the conquered territory. The 
united force crossed, a great battle was fought, a long 
and bloody contest ensued, the Alleghenys aban- 
doned their country, and fled down the Mississippi 
never to return. The conquerors divided the country, 
the Iroquois taking the lands about the great lakes 
and their tributary streams, the Lenapes those to the 
south, whence these gradually moved eastward, even 
to the Atlantic coast. Until the white man came the 
Delaware, or Lenapewihittuck [i.e., the river of the 
Lenape), was in the very heart of their settlements. 

At the time of the first settlement of Europeans in 
America the Lenapes were the head of the Algonquin 
nations; by a succession of wars with the Dutch, the 
English, and the Iroquois, thej' were compelled some 
time about 1670 to yield to the latter and become a 
" nation of women," — i.e., a nation without power to 
make war or peace on their own account, or to sell 
lands. In this condition they remained until 1755, 
when they threw off the yoke of the Iroquois, and, in 
alliance with the Shawanoes, Mingoes, etc., were en- 
abled to place themselves at the head of the Western 
nations, and contest with the white man the soil east 
of the Mississippi. 

The Lenni-Lenape nation was composed of the 
Minnies, Monsetjs, or Muncys, the Wolf tribe, north of 
Stony Point, N. Y., with territorial jurisdiction ex- 
tending through the Minisink country of Pennsylva- 
nia and New Jersey ; the Uaulados, or Turkey tribe, 
south of Stony Point; and the Unamis, or Turtle tribe. 
■ "It is stated, in a publication bearing date 1648, 

'Koran exhaustive treatise on this sulject, see tlie recently pub- 
lislied work by Dr. Abbott, entitled "Primitive Industry : Illustrntions 
of the Handiwork in Stone, Bone, and Clay of the Native lUtces of llie 
Northern Atlantic Seaboard of America," p. 600. Suleni, Mass. : Geo. A. 


that the natives in this section of the continent were 
under the dominion of about twenty kings ; that there 
were twelve hundred under the two Raritan kings on 
the north side next to Hudson's River, and those 
came down to the ocean about Little Egg Bay and 
Sandy Barnegate; and about the South Cape two 
small kings of forty men apiece; and a third, reduced 
to fourteen men, at Reymont. So that there were 
probably not more than two thousand within the 
province while it was under the dominion of the 

It would be in vain to pretend to give a particu- 
lar account of all the different tribes or nations of 
Indians that inhabited these provinces before the 
Europeans came among them, there being probably 
a tribe in some parts for every ten or twenty miles, 
which were commonly distinguished by the name of 
creeks or other noted places where they resided. 
Thus there were the Assunpink (Stony Creek), the 
Rankokas, the Mingo, the Andastaka, the Neshamine, 
and the Shackamaxon Indians. Those about Bur- 
lington were called the Mautas (Frogs) ; but these 
and others were all of them distinguished from the 
Western Indians, who were a more warlike people, by 
the general name of Delawares. There is no doubt 
that tribes came from long distances to make au- 
tumnal visits to our sea-coast, probably to feast on 
oysters and clams. " The aboriginal inhabitants of 
New Jersey appear to have had an eye for the pic- 
turesque in landscape scenery, although facility in 
procuring food and safety from attack were the ob- 
jects mainly in view in settling at any point; still 
we find that wherever the scenery is commanding, as 
in the northern mountainous portion of the country, 
at such grand localities as the Delaware Water-Gap, 
we discover these remains in abundance; but as we 
go inland they are less numerous, as the hilh de- 
crease and the rivers dwindle into brooks. Yet so 
abundant were the Indian villages . . , that almost 
every brook that harbors a fish has now lying among 
the pebbles on its bed or in the turf upon its banks 
flinty arrow-points or delicate fish-spears."^ 

The Indians and whites lived peaceably together 
for many years, the Indians being very serviceable to 
the settlers from the game they caught, and the skins 
and furs they procured and sold to them. The first 
serious disturbance occurred in 1755, but as soon as 
a hostile feeling became apparent the Legislature ap- 
pointed commissioners to examine into the cause of 
dissatisfaction. A convention was held at Crosswicks 
for the purpose in January, 1756, and in March, 1757, 
a bill was passed calculated to remove the difficulties 
which had grown out of impositions upon the Indians 
when intoxicated, the destruction of deer by traps, 
and the occupation of lands by the whites which they 
had not sold (Neville's Laws, vol. ii. p. 125). During 

1 Collections of the New Jersey Historical Society, vol i. pp. 2-1, 25. 

2 Stone Age iu New Jersey. Charles C.Abbott. Washington: Got- 
ernmcnt Printing-office, 1877. 

this year and the early part of 175S the Delaware 
borders of the province were in much alarm from the 
hostile feeling prevalent among the Minisinks, and 
in thirteen months twenty-seven murders were com- 
mitted by the Indiaas in those regions. .. A constant 
guard was kept under arms, but it was not always 
able to check the predatory excursions of the sav- 

In June, 1758, Governor Barnard, of New Jersey, 
consulted Gen. Forbes and Governor Denny, of Penn- 
sylvania, as to measures best calculated to put a stop 
to this warfare, and through Teedyescung, king of the 
Delawares, he obtained a conference with the Mini- 
sink and Pompton Indians, protection being assured 
them. The conference took place at Burlington, Aug. 
7, 1758. The result was the holding another at 
Easton, October 8th of the same year. At this con- 
ference the Northern Indians, the "Munsies" or" Mini- 
sinks," and the "Opings" or " Pomptons," released 
all lands claimed by them within the limits of New, 
Jersey for the sum of one thousand Spanish pieces of 
eight. These Indians were permitted by the Mingoes 
or United Nations to settle on the branches of the 

A conference was held with the Indians south of 
the Raritan River at Crosswicks, Feb. 20 (O. S.), 1758, 
at which Teedyescung, king of the Delawares, was 
I summoned from the headquarters of the tribe on the 
Susquehanna River, and he with twenty-seven other 
Indians met the commissioners accordingly. The com- 
missioners appointed by Governor Francis Barnard 
were Andrew Johnston, Richard Saltar, Charles Read, 
John Stevins, and William Forsters. The result was 
that the Delawares agreed to release all their claims to 
lands in the colony of New Jersey ; and they appointed 
five Indians — Tom Stare, Moses Totamy, Stephen Cal- 
vin, Isaac Stelle, and John Pampshire — as their at- 

The' tract of three thousand and forty-four acres 
which the Delawares agreed to accept in lieu of their 
claim was in a place called Edge Pillock, in what 
was then Evesham township, Burlington County. It 
was bought from Benjamin Springer for the sum of 
seven hundred and forty pounds sterling, and was 
held by the State in trust for the Indians. A house 
of worship, several dwellings, and a mill were subse- 
quently erected, forming the-town of Brotherton ; and 
as the selling or leasing of any portion of the tract or 
the encroachment of the whites upon it was pro- 
hibited, the greatest harmony appears to have pre- 
vailed between the Indians and their neighbors. 

The Delawares lived on their reservation till long 
after the Revolutionary war. They were known as 
the Brotherton Indians. The minutes of the Assem- 
bly in 1796 show them petitioning for the appoint- 
ment of a new commissioner to take charge of their 
lands and mill, and lease them for their benefit. In 
1801 the Indians petitioned to have their lands sold, 
and the proceeds given to them to enable them to 


remove to New Stockbridge, Oneida Co., N. Y., where 
they had kinsmen. James Ewing, John Beatty, 
Abraham Stockton, William Stockton, and Charles 
Ellis were appointed commissioners for the purpose 
by Governor Joseph Bloomfield. They visited the 
Indians and obtained the written assent of a majority 
of the adults, only sixty-three of whom were living. 
The property was sold the next year. 

In 1822 a petition was received by the Legislature 
of New Jersey from the remnant of the Delawares in 
New York, announcing that the grandchildren who 
had adopted them in 1802 had been cheated into con- 
veying a pre-emption right in their lands to the State 
of New York, had sold a greater part of it at two 
dollars an acre, and removed to Green Bay, Mich, 
They did not wish to follow them, and having an op- 
portunity to purchase for two thousand dollars a tract 
of land thirty miles long and ten miles broad, owned 
by a tribe of Indians, about five hundred miles west 
of New Stockbridge, they asked that certain bank 
stock which had been purchased for their benefit by 
the New Jersey commissioners be deposited in the 
Utica Bank until they desired to use it. 

The petition further pointed out that they had re- 
ceived no compensation for their rights to hunting 
and fishing in New Jersey, which were expressly re- 
served in the deed by which they sold their rights in 
New Jersey lands in 1758, and they prayed that com- 
pensation be made to them therefor. 

The bank stock was transferred, but the negotiation 
for the land fell through, and the Delawares once 
more quartered upon their grandchildren, then at 
Green Bay. From Green Bay, in 1832, they sent 
their chief, Bartholomew S. Calvin, with a power of 
attorney, to settle their hunting and fishing claims. 
One of the attesting witnesses was the Rev. Cutting 
Marsh, who certified before a justice of the peace that 
he "saw the chiefs and principal men of the said 
party of the Delaware nation of Indians execute the 
same, they being duly sober and in condition to trans- 
act business." The result of Calvin's mission was 
that, although no legal claim could be substantiated, 
the Legislature in March, 1832, in kindness and 
through compassion fur the wanderers, directed the 
treasurer to pay to him two thousand dollars for the 
extinguishment of this last remnant of Indian claims. 
Chief Calvin, in a communication presented to the 
Legislature the same month, said, "Not a drop of 
our blood have you spilled in battle, not an acre of 
our land have you taken but by our consent. . . . 
Naught save benisons can fall upon her from the lips 
of a Lenni Lenape." 

The purchasers of the Indian lands at Brotherton 
resisted the tax-gatherer at the very beginning, and 
asserted their right to exemption under the act of 
1758. In 1803 the property-owners carried the tax 
question to the Supreme Court, which decided that 
the assessment was unlawful. Evesham township 
was unwilling to lose the tax on three thousand 

acres of land, especially when the owners had the 
benefit of taxation, school taxes,"road taxes, etc. The 
following year the Legislature enacted a law repeal- 
ing the provision by which this land was exempted 
from tax. The Supreme Court null the Court of 
Errors of New Jersey then both decided that the lands 
were subject to taxation. In 1812 the Supreme Court 
of the United States held that the act repealing the 
law exempting the land from tax was unconstitu- 
tional. It nevertheless appears that from 1814, two 
years after this decision, down to 1877 taxes were 
regularly levied and collected on these lands.^ In 
the latter year the land-owners brought the matter 
before the " Court of Errors and Appeals of New 
Jersey," which decided the lands were subject to 



Soon after the discovery of America the Spaniards 
and Portuguese explored the northern Atlantic coast 
as high as Labrador. Florida was occupied by the 
Spaniards in 1512, and its boundaries, as given by the 
charter of Philip II. to Menendez, extended from 
Newfoundland to the twenty-second degree of north 
latitude, which was the first grant by a European 
monarch of the soil of New Jersey. Verrazzani, an 
Italian and a worthy successor of Columbus and 
Americus Vespucius, in 1523, while in the service of 
Francis I., of France, coasted the American continent 
from the thirtieth to the fiftieth degree of north lati- 
tude, landing and communicating with the Indians in 
several places, and by virtue of discoveries made by 
him and some French navigators, Henry IV. gave to 
Des Monts the lands lying between the fortieth and 
forty-sixth degrees of north latitude, thus the soil of 
New Jersey nominally coming under the French flag. 
Passing by the voyages of Sebastian Cabot, under 
the patronage of Henry VII., of England, and of 
Martin Frobisher, and the unsuccessful attempts to 
establish settlements in America by Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh, we come to the times 
of James I., who, in 1606, granted letters patent to 
the London and Plymouth Colonies for that portion 
of the continent stretching from the thirty-fourth to 
the forty-sixth degrees of north latitude, divided into 
two nearly equal districts. Under this and another 
charter, given in 1620, the permanent settlement of 
Virginia and New England was commenced and 
prosecuted. Under the Plymouth title the territory 
of New Jersey was for the third time granted by a 

Under the hope of discovering a northwest passage 

1 Brief of John P. Stockton, attorney-general State Kew Jersey. 


to Asia, which until our own day no disappointment 
seemed to have power to extinguish, Henry Hudson, 
a distinguished English navigator, made several voy- 
ages to the shores of America. While in the service 
of the Dutch East India Company, in 1609, he en- 
tered the Delaware Bay in his ship " Half-Moon." 
Proceeding up it until he was satisfied it was not the 
«ought-for passage he returned, and following the 
coast of New Jersey, anchored within Sandy Hook 
on the 3d of September. 

Two days afterwards he sent a boat's crew ashore, 
who penetrated some distance into the woods within 
the present limits of Monmouth County. The next 
day upon the return of a boat manned by five men, 
who had been engaged all day in exploring New 
York Harbor, and which had passed the Kills and 
was between Bergen Neck and Staten Island, it was 
attacked by twenty-six Indians in two canoes. They 
were repulsed by the Dutch with fire-arms, with the 
loss of John Colman and two wounded. Colman was 
buried the next day on a point of land which was 
named by his countrymen after him, and which is 
now probably called Sandy Hook. This was un- 
doubtedly the first fight of the Europeans within the 
limits of New Jersey.' Diflerent Dutch mariners 
visited America, but it was not until 1621, when the 
great West India Company was formed in Holland, 
that they really undertook to plant colonies in North 
America. In 1623, Cornelius Jacobse May, in com- 
mand of one of their ships, with settlers, fully pro- 
vided with means of sjubsistence and with articles of 
trade, visited the coast from Cape Cod to the Delaware 
Eiver, then called the New Netherlands. Entering 
Delaware Bay he gave his name to its northern point, 
the southmost extremity of New Jersey, — Cape May. 
Exploring the bay and river, he landed and built 
Fort Nassau on Timber Creek, which empties into the 
Delaware a few miles below Camden. In 1631, when 
De Vries arrived, he found none of his countrymen 
who had preceded him, they having deserted the fort, 
which was in the quiet possession of the Indians. 
De Vries, whose object was to colonize, plant tobacco 
and grain, and establish a whale- and seal-fishery, 
erected a trading-house and fort on Lewis Creek, State 
of Delaware. Under extenuating circumstances the 
Indians the next year massacred the whole colony. 
De Vries returned in 1632, and soon after, finding the 
whale-fishery unsuccessful, departed with the colonists 
for Holland. Thus at the expiration of twenty-five 
years from the discovery of the Delaware not a Euro- 
pean remained upon its shores. 

In 1637 the Swedes appeared upon the Delaware. 
Their first expedition consisted of the "Key of Cal- 
mer," a ship of war, and the transport " Grifiin," with 

» Hudson re-entered the service of the LoDdon Company, and in 1610 
sought again a northwest passage through Davis' StrHits. His crew 
mutinied, abandoned liim, his only eon, and some haK-dozen of his men 
who continued faithful. Tliey perished amid the fields of ice in the 
viciuity of the bay whicli bears his name. 

a number of settlers, who mostly located on the 
western shore. Other ships soon followed, and in 
1642, John Printz, an officer of the Swedish army, 
arrived as Governor of the colony. He erected a fort, 
and built a church and several dwellings on Tinicum 
Island. New Castle, Del., was laid out by them, and 
named Stockholm, and a fort was built at Christiana, 
where Wilmington now stands. 

The Dutch, however, had not abandoned their 
claim to the South or Delaware River, but, after re- 
monstrating with the Swedes against their intrusion, 
for some years occupied the shores of the river in 
common with them. Judge John Clement, of Had- 
donfield, in "A Sketch of the Life and Character of 
John Fenwick," published by the Friends' Historical 
Association of Philadelphia, in 1875, on page forty -five, 
says, "About thirty-five years before this time" {i.e., 
1640) "a colony of English came from New Haven, 
and having purchased the land of the Indians made 
a settlement on Varken's Kill (Salem Creek). They 
soon found the territory was claimed by the Eng- 
lish earl. Sir Edmund Ployden, under a grant of 
King Charles I., of England, although in reality 
under the dominion of the Dutch and Swedes. They 
swore fealty to Sir Edmund as the 'Palatine of Al- 
bion,' and were the only people within the territory 
who recognized his authority. The Dutch and Swedes 
were annoyed by the English being settled so near, 
and a military force was sent from New Amsterdam 
(New York) to drive them away. Their houses were 
burnt, their cattle and goods confiscated, and them- 
selves made prisoners. They were, however, per- 
mitted to return to the place again, build themselves 
other houses, and some continued there until the ar- 
rival of John Fenwick and his company." 

The Dutch, who had re-established themselves at 
Fort Nassau, below Camden, and built a fort at the 
Hoarkills, in 1651, built and settled around Fort 
Casimir, at the Swedish town of Stockholm, now 
New Castle, Delaware. The peaceful relations be- 
tween them and the Swedes did not long continue. 
Printz, who had in vain remonstrated, in 1654 de- 
manded the surrender of the latter fort, which was 
refused. Risingh, the Swedish commander, by strat- 
agem soon after succeeded in capturing it, and the 
Dutch were driven from the western shore of the 
river. The Dutch, however, had powerful aid near 
by in the settlements of their countrymen at New 
Amsterdam, now New York City. The Swedes had 
evidently misunderstood the temperament and power 
of that brave old soldier, Peter Stiiyvesant, the 
Dutch Governor. Keeping remarkably quiet until 
he had everything prepared, early in September 
of the next year, with seven ships and between six 
and seven hundred men, a formidable army in those 
days on this continent, he fell upon the Swedish 
posts and settlements, carrying everything before him 
with the rough hand of war. Forts, houses, and 
plantations were laid waste, cattle killed, and inhab- 



itants plundered. The officers and principal men 
were carried prisoners to New Amsterdam, and thus 
terminated in 1655 the Swedish authority on the 

But Peter's time soon came. Ten years afterwards, 
16G5, Sir Robert Carr and Col. Nichols, with a fleet 
and troops appeared before New Amsterdam and took 
Stuyvesant as unexpectedly and unprepared as he 
caught the Swedes. Brave old Peter fretted and 
fumed, and then discreetly hauled down his flag. 
Sir Robert then sailed to the Delaware, and by a ju- 
dicious expenditure of a little gunpowder forced the 
submission of the Dutch, and this terminated forever 
their rule in that region. Many of the Dutch and 
Swedes, however, remained in the country, and both 
shores of the Delaware were studded with their plan- 
tations. Three Dutch families were settled at Leasy, 
or Lazy Point, near where Burlington City now is, 
and one Yegou in 1668 " settled a house of entertain- 
ment for travellers" at the same point. 

Prior to the conquests of the Dutch, Charles II., of 
England, made an extensive grant of territory in 
America, called Carolina (March 24, 1663), to his 
brother the Duke of York, and the expedition for 
said conquest was made to obtain possession. On 
June 24, 1664, the Duke of York conveyed to John 
Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret a certain tract 
of land in America, " hereafter to be called Nova 
Caesarea, or New Jersey," done no doubt by request of 
the king. 

Lord Berkeley was a soldier of distinction, and com- 
manded the army against the Scots in 1628. He was 
made Baron of Stratton in 1658, appointed lord lieu- 
tenant of Ireland in 1670, and ambassador to the 
court of Versailles in 1674. He was appointed by 
the king one of his Privy Council, but was detected in 
the basest corruptions and forced to resign. He was 
placed at the head of the Duke of York's establish- 
ment, but his intercourse with the duke was inter- 
rupted by similar transactions, and disgrace followed 
their exposure. Sir George had been a naval officer 
of high reputation, was appointed Governor of the 
island of Jersey, which he defended in the most gal- 
lant manner against the Parliamentarians, and surren- 
dered only at the command of King Charles II. He 
was created a baronet in 1645, and had offices of honor, 
trust, and profit bestowed upon him. He was expelled 
from the House of Commons as a participant in leg- 
islative bribery and other dishonest practices. He 
was appointed treasurer of Ireland, and continued in 
that position by the king while charged with the most 
disgraceful abuse of office. Both these men were no- 
torious for their peculations and breaches of faith 
wherever connected with the operations of the gov- 
ernment. But public opinion had no influence with 
His Majesty against them, no matter how palpable the 
proof. They had followed him into exile after the 
death of his father and during the Commonwealth. 
Thev had adhered to his fortunes and remained faith- 

ful during the dangers that surrounded him even when 
it was beyond his power to remunerate them for the 
services rendered. However commendable such sen- 
timents may be in private life, they should not be 
indulged in to the injury of the goverament. 

Lord Berkeley, becoming dissatisfied with the pecu- 
niary prospects of his colonization scheme, conveyed to 
John Fenwick, March 18, 1673, his undivided moiety 
of New Jersey, for the sum of one thousand pounds 
sterling and a royalty of forty beaver-skins annually. 
Edward Byllynge, it was soon discovered by his cred- 
itors, had furnished the purchase-money. This led 
to much bitter controversy, but all parties being 
Friends the contest was kept within control of the 
society, and settled according to their rules. William 
Penn was chosen arbitrator, and discharged the duty 
faithfully to all concerned. The decision was that 
Fenwick did not really own more than one-tenth, 
and that the balance should be used to pay Byllynge's 
debts. Fenwick located his tenth along the Dela- 
ware River between Oldman's and West Creeks. He 
had studied law at Gray's Inn, London ; was a major 
of cavalry under Cromwell, and was detailed as com- 
mander of cavalry to attend the execution of Charles 
I. Byllynge was a brewer of London and an officer 
in the army of the Commonwealth. 

William Penn, GawenLawrie (or Laurie), and Nich- 
olas Lucas became joint assignees of Byllynge's in- 
terest in New Jersey for the benefit of his creditors. 
One of their first movements was to make a partition 
of the province between them and Sir George Carteret, 
which was effected by a deed, qubitipartitc, dated 
July 1, 1676, directing a straight line to be drawn 
through the province, from north to south, from the 
most southerly point of the east side of Little Egg 
Harbor to the most northern point or boundary of 
the Delaware. To the divisions were given the names 
of East and West New Jersey respectively.' The as- 
signees, under the pressure of circumstances, sold a 
considerable number of shares of the undivided moiety 
to different purchasers, who thereby became proprie- 
tors in common with them. These proprietors agreed 
upon a form of government, comprising many of the 
provisions of the instrument formed by Berkeley and 
Carteret, together with others originating with them- 
selves. The Constitution or form of government thus 
made, and from which have sprung many of the ex- 
isting institutions of the State, was entitled "The 
Concessions and Agreements of the Proprietors, 
Freeholders, and Inhabitants of the Province of 
West New Jersey in America." The original, beau- 
tifully engrossed on vellum in a well-bound quarto, 
is preserved in the office of the surveyor-general of 
West Jersey at Burlington. 

This instrument was witnessed and signed by the 
following proprietors, freeholders, and inhabitants of 
West New Jersey, March 3, 1676: 

> Learning and Spicer's Collection. 


Gawen Lawrie. 
Wm. Penn. 
Win. Emley. 
Joshua Wright. 
Nicholas Lucas. 
William Haig. 
William Peachee. 
Richard Matthews. 
John Harris. 
Francis Collins. 
William Kent. 
Benjamin Scot. 
Thomas Lambert. 
Thomas Hooton. 
Henry Stacy. 
Edward Byllynge. 
Richard Smith. 
Edward Nelthrop. 
John Pen ford. 
Daniel Wills. 
Thomas Olive. 
Thomas Rudyard. 
William Biddle. 
Robert Stacy. 
John Farrington. 
William Raydon. 
Rich. Mew. 
Percival Towle. 
Mahlon Stacy. 
Tho. Budd. 
Samuel Jenings. 
John Lambert. 
Will. Heulings. 
George Deacon. 
John Thomson. 
Edw. Bradway. 
Rich. Guy. 
James Neville. 
William CantwelL 
Fospe Ontstout. 
Machgijel Baron. 
Casper Herman. 
Turrse Psese. 
Robert Kemble. 
John Corneliesse. 
Grerrat Van Jumne. 
Wm. Gill Johnson. 
Mich. Lackerouse. 
Markus Algus. 
Evert Aldricks. 
Hendrick Everson. 
Jilles Tomesen. 
Claas Jansen. 
Paul Docquet. 
Aert Jansen. 
John Surige. 
Thomas Smith. 
James Pearce. 
Edw. Webb. 

John Pledger. 
Rich. Wilkison. 
Christopher Sanders. 
Reuear Van Hurst. 
William Johnson. 
Charles Bagley. 
Samuel Wade. 
Tho. Woodrofe. 
John Smith, 
Thos. Pierce. 
Will. Warner. 
Joseph Ware. 
Isaac Smart. 
Andrew Thomson. 
Thomas Kent. 
Henry Jenings. 
Richard Wortsaw. 
Christopher White. 
John Maddocks. 
John Forrest. 
James Vickory. 
William Rumsey. 
Rich. Robinson. 
Mark Reeve. 
Thomas Watson. 
Samuel Nicholson. 
Dan. Smith. 
Richard Daniel. 
Will. Penton. 
Will. Daniel.' 
Robert Zane. 
Walter Peiterson. 
Anthony Page. 
Andrew Bartleson. 
Wooley Woollisou, 
Anthonj- Dixon. 
John Derme. 
Tho. Benson. 
John Pain. 
Rich. Buffington. 
Sam. Lovett. 
Henry Stubbens. 
George Haselwood. 
Roger Pedrick. 
William Hughes. 
Abra. Van Highest. 
Hipolitas Lefever. 
Will. Wilkinson. 
Andrew Shenneck. 
Lause Cornelious. 
Sam. Hedge. 
Will. Massler. 
John Grubb. 
John Worlidge. 
Edw. Meyer. 
Tho. Barton. 
Robt. Powel. 
Tho. Harding. 

Matthew Allen. 
Bernard Devenish. 
Thomas Stokes. 
Thomas French. 
Isaac Marriott. 
John Butcher. 
George Hutcheson. 
Tho. Gardner. 
Thomas Eves. 
John Borton. 
John Paine. 
Eleazer Fenton. 
Samuel Oldale. 
Will. Black. 
Anthony Woodhouse. 
Dan. Leeds. 
John Pancoast. 

Francis Belwicke. 
Will. Luswall. 
John Snowdou. • "'' 
Rich. Tenemore.," 
Gruma Jacobson! 
Tho. Scholey. 
Tho. Wright. 
Godfrey Hancock. 
John Petty. 
Abraham Hewliugs. 
John Newbould. 
John White. 
John Roberts. 
John Wood. 
John Gosling, 
Tho. Revell. 

Many of these names were signed long after the 
date affixed. 

In 1675, Fenwick sailed from London in the ship 
"Griffin," Robert Griffiths, master, with bis family 
and a company of Friends, and after a pleasant 
passage landed near the old fort " Elseborg," and 
named it Salem. This was the first English ship that 
entered the Delaware with emigrants, and no others 
followed for nearly two years. 

Among the purchasers of West Jersey lands were 
two companies, one of Friends in Yorkshire, the other 
of Friends in London. In 1677 commissioners were 
sent by the proprietors, with power to buy lands of 
the Indians, to inspect the rights of such Europeans 
as claimed property, and to order the lands laid out, 
and in general to administer the government. Of the 
commissioners, those for Yorkshire were Joseph 
Helmsley, William Emley, Robert Stacy, and Thomas 
Foulke ; those for London were Daniel Wills, Thomas 
OUive, John Penford, and Benjamin Scott. They 
came in the " Kent," Gregory Marlow, master, being 
the second English emigrant ship to enter the Dela- 
ware. They arrived at New Castle 16th 6th month 
(August, O. S.), 1677. Two hundred and thirty of 
their passengers lauded near Raccoon Creek, where 
the Swedes had a few houses, and in these and in 
tents and caves the new-comers took temporary lodg- 
ings. The commissioners at once proceeded to Chy- 
goes (Burlington) Island, to settle the terms of pur- 
chase with the Indians. They were accompanied by 
Israel Holmes, Peter Rambo, and Lacy Cock, Swedish 
interpreters, and by their help they bought three 
tracts from the Assunpink to the Rancocas, from Ran- 
cocas to Timber Creek, and from Timber Creek to 
Oldman's Creek. 

The Yorkshire purchasers chose from the Assun- 
pink to the Rancocas, which was called the first tenth ; 
and the London chose the second tenth, from Ranco- 
cas to Timber Creek.' For mutual protection and 

1 Smith's Hist. W. J., pp. 92 to 98. 



assistance they apreed to build a town in company, 
and the present site of Burlington City was chosen. 

Towards the last of October, 1677, some of the 
heads of families that came in a ship to Wickaco 
(near the Old Swedes' Church, Philadeli)hia) arrived 
at and settled in the neighborhood of Burlington. 
Their names were 

Thomas Olive. Morgan Drewet. 

Daniel Wills. William Penn 

AV'illiam Peachy. Henry Jenings. 

William Clayton. William Hibes. 

John Crips. Samuel Lovett. 

Thomas Eves. John Woolston. 

Thomas Harding. William Woodmancy. 

Thomas Nositer. Chris. Saunders. 

Thomas Fairnsworth. Robert Powell.* 

These passengers having arrived late in the fall but 
few were able to build themselves log houses before 
the winter was much spent. During the interim they 
lived in wigwams built after the manner of the In- 
dians. Indian corn and venison, traded for with the 
Indians, was their chief food. 

Of the passengers who arrived in the " Willing 
Mind" we have not the names of those who settled 
at or near Burlington. 

In the same year, 1677, probably in November, the 
flie-boat "Martha," of Burlington (Yorkshire), ar- 
rived with one hundred and fourteen passengers. 
Some of the heads of families that settled in the 
vicinity were 

Thomas Wright. William Wood. 

Edward Season. Thomas Hooten. 

George Miles. William Oxley. 

Richard Harrison. John Lynam. 

Nathaniel Luke. Kichard Dungworth, 

Marmaduke Horsman. Thomas Schooley. 

William Goforth. Samuel Taylor. 

William Black. William Ley. 

The families of Robert Stacy and Samuel Odas; 
also Thomas Ellis and John Batts. 

Twenty of the passengers, perhaps more, were living 
forty-five years afterwards.^ 

In December, 1678, the "Shield," from Hull, 
Daniel Towes, master, arrived at Burlington, being 
the first ship that ever came so far up the Delaware. 
She made fast to a tree, and the next morning landed 
her passengers on the ice, so hard had the river sud- 
denly frozen. In her came 

William Eniley, the second time, with his wife, two 
children (one born by the way), two men and two 
women servants. 

Mahlon Stacy, his wife, children, and several ser- 
vants, men and women. 

Thomas Lambert, his wife, children, and several 
men and women servants. 

John Lambert and servant. 

' Smith's Hist. New Jereoy, p. 99. * Ibid., p. 103. 

Thomas Revell, his wife, children, and servants. 

Godfrey Hancock, his wife, children, and servants. 

Thomas Potts, his wife and children. 

John Wood and four children. 

Thomas Wood, his wife and children. 

Robert Murfin, his wife and two children. 

Robert Schooley, his wife and children. 

James Pharo, bis wife and children. 

Susannah Fairnsworth, her children and two ser- 

Richard Tattersal, his wife and children. 

Godfrey Newbold. 

John Dewsbury. 

Richard Green. 

Peter Fretwell. 

John Fretwell. 

John Newbold. 

Barns, a merchant from Hull. 

Francis Barwick. 

George Parks. 

George Hill. 

John Heyres, and several more.' 

The same year, 1678, there also arrived a ship from 
London, in which came 
William Hewlings. Thomas Kirby. 

John Petty. Jonathan Eldridge, with 

Abram Hewlings. others. 

About this time, and a few years afterwards, arrived 
at Burlington the following settlers from England, 
viz. : 

John Butcher. John Warrel. 

William Brightwin. Charles Read. 

John Bourten. Chris. Wetherill. 

Thomas Ellis. Richard Basnett. 

John Woolman. Samuel Furnace. 

Benjamin DufTeld. Roger Huggins. 

William Cooper. William Butcher. 

John Skein. John Budd. 

Samuel Bunting. Walter Pumphrey. 

Thomas Mathews. Richard Arnold. 

John Day. Thomas Eves. 

William Biddle. Samuel Cleft. 

Thomas Raper. William Biles. 

Henry Grubb. Anthony Morris. 

Thomas Gardner. Francis Collins. 

Seth Smith. John Dewsbury. 

James Satterthwait. John Antrom. 

John Stacy. John Ladd. 

John Payne. Thomas Wood.* 

John Shinn. 

The following notice of the early settlement of 
Burlington by the English, communicated to the His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania by John F. Watson, 
was copied from the original autograph of Mrs. Mary 
Smith, a Friend, who arrived with the primitive col- 
onists when she was only four years of age : 

s Ibid., p. 109. 

I Ibid., pp. 109-110. 



"Robert Miirfin and Ann, his wiTe, living in Nottiiigtinmshirc, Eng- 
land, had one daugliter born them in tlie year 1674, tlie 4th of the 2d 
month, named Mary ' (the writer of (his account, vho married the first 
Daniel Smith, of Burlington). After that they had a son culled Robert. 

'• Some time after it came in their minds to move themselves and fam- 
ily into West Jersey in America; and in order thereto they went to 
IIull and provided provisions suitable for their necessary occasions, 
such as fine flour, butter, cheese, with other suitable commodities in good 
store; then took their passage in the good ship, the 'Shield,' of Stockton, 
with MahloD Stacy, Thomas Lambert, and many more families of good 
repute and worth ; and in the voyage there were two died and two born, 
so that tliey lauded as many as they took on l>o.ird. And after about 
sixteen weeks" sailing, or on board, they arrived at Burlington in the 
year 1GT8, this being the first ship that ever was known to come so high 
up the Delaware river. Then they landed and made some buch dwell- 
ings as they could for tlie present time, some in caves and others in 
jiulisade-houses secured. With that the Indians, very numerous but 
very civil, for the most part brought corn and venison and sold the Eng- 
lish for such things as they neaied, so that the said English had some 
new supply to help tlieir old stock, which may well be attributed to tlie 
good hand of Providence so to preserve and provide in sucli a wilderness, 

"I may not omit some English that came the year before, which 
landed lower down the river and were gotten to Burlington, who came 
in some small vessels up to Burlington before us, and was so consented 
to by the Indians. 

"The firjt comers, with the others that came near that time, made an 
agreement with the Indians for their land, being after this manner: 
Erom tlie river to such and .such creeks, and was to be paid in goods after 
this manner, say, so many match-coats, guns, hatchets, hoes, kettles — 
two full boxes — with other materials, all in number as agreed upon by 
k>oth Indians and English. When these goods were golten from Eng- 
land and the Indians paid, then the above-mentioned people surrendered 
some part of the laud to settle themselves near the river, for they did 
not dare to go far fiom it at first. 

"I must not forget that these valiant subjects, both to God and their 
king, did buy their land in old England before they entered (upon this 
engagement), and after all this did submit themselves to mean living, 
taking it with thankfulness, mean and coarse, as pounding Indian corn 
one daj- for the next day, for there was no mill, except some few steed- 
niillis, and (we) thought so welt of this kind of liard living that I never 
heard them say, ' I would I had never come !' wliich is worth observing, 
considering how plentifully they lived in England. It seems no other 
than the hand of Gi.d so to send them to prepare a place for the future 
generations. I wish they that come after may cotisider these ihingf:, and 
not be like the children of Israel after they were settled in the land of 
Canaan, forgetting tlie God of their fathei's and following their own 
vanities, and so bring disjdeasure instead of the blessings of God upou 
themselves, which fall and loss will be very great on all such. 

"It may be observed how God's providence made room for us in a 
Avonderful manner in taking away the Indians. Tliere came a distem- 
perS among them so mortal that they could not bury all the dead. Others 
went away, leaving their town. It was said that an old Indian king 
spoke prophetically before his death, and said, ' the English should I'n- 
crease and the Indians derrease.' " 

1 Mary Smith was found drowned with her horse in 1739, near the Long 
Bridge, in Northern Liberties, Pliiladelphia, — supposed to have occurred I 
while attempting to water her horse; that was then the direct and only 
"road to Burlington." 

2 This was the smallpox, which from the manner of tlieir treatment, [ 
by sweating and then plunging into cold water, was very fatal. Thomas 
Budd, who owned a share of propriety in West Jersey, and ancestor of 

a large family there, who arrived at Burlington in 1708, in a pamphlet 
describing the country about nine or ten years afterwards, says, in re- 
gard to a conference at Burlington with the Indians shortly after he 
came into the country, one of them, in behalf of the rest, in a speech, 
said, "And as to the smallpox, it was once in my grandfather's time, 
and it could not be the English that could send it to us then, there being 
no English in the country; and it was once in my father's time, they 
could not send it us then neither; and now it is in my time, I do not be- 
lieve that they have sent it us. now ; I do believe it is the man above that 
hath gent it us."* The disease was brought among them by the Dutch. 

* Mary Smith was as certainly a Christian as the Indian was a heathen. 
They both, however, agree as to the source from whence came the dread- 
ful pestilence. The heathen though arrives at his conclusion through a 
more Christian view llian the Christian does. Perliaps the Christian did 
nut recognize the fact that God made the Indians as well as the whitei. 

Mahlon Stacy, whose veracity we hardly think will 
be doubted, in a letter to his brother Revell, written 
in 1680, says, "... I have traveled through most 
of the places that are settled, tind in some that are 
not, and in every place I find the country very apt to 
answer the expectation of the diligent. I have seen 
orchards laden with fruit to admiration, their very 
limbs torn to pieces with the weight, and most de- 
licious to the taste, and lovely to behold. I have 
seen an apple-tree from a pippin kernel yield a bar- 
rel of curious cyder; and peaches in such plenty that 
some people took their carts a peach gathering. . . , 
They . . . hang almost like our onions that are tied 
on ropes." As this letter was written but two years 
after the first occupation of the country by the Eng- 
lish, these orchards must have been planted by the 
Indians, Dutch, or Swedes, and our forefathers must 
have found their new homes a pleasant land to live 
in. In the same letter Stacy speaks of cranberries, 
with which " an excelleut sauce is made for venison, 
turkeys, and other great fowls," and which makes 
"better tarts than either gooseberries' or cherries;" 
" of great shoals of herrings in the shallows," and 
"other fish, such as rocks, catfish, shad, sheep-heads, 
sturgeons;'" "and of fowls plenty, such as ducks, 
geese, turkies, pheasants, partridges," etc. 

Burlington at this period — 1680 — was the only town 
in West Jersey except New Salem, in Fen wick's col- 
ony. Let us glance at East Jersey : Bergen, the old- 
est European settlement in New Jersey, was a com- 
pact town which had been fortified against the Indians, 
and in 1680 contained seventy families. Newark was 
settled in 1666 by emigrants from Connecticut, and 
in 1682 contained one hundred families. Elizabeth, 
which received its name from Lady Elizabeth Car- 
teret, was the third settlement made in the State, and 
the first by the English. In 1682 it contained about 
five hundred inhabitants. Shrewsbury, which was 
first settled by emigrants from Connecticut in 1664, 
had in 1682 several thousand acres under cultivation, 
and a population of four hundred. About 1678, 
Thomas Olive built a grist-mill near the Rancocas, 
the first in West Jersey. In 1679, Mahlon Stacy 
built a similar mill where Trenton now stands. In 
1681 the first colonists to Penn.sylvania arrived in 
three ships at the present site of Philadelphia, and it 
was not until the next year, 1682, that the city was 
located. In 1682-83, William Penn built a stately 
pile of buildings that cost nearly thirty-five thousand 
dollars, on the west shore of the Delaware, a few 
miles above the town of Burlington, which was called 
" Penn's Palace." There he often entertained In- 
dians, and held treaty covenants, religious meetings,' 

The popular belief that the historic log cabin of 
the frontiersmen was introduced into America by our 
English forefathers is erroneous. The journal of 

> Watson's Annals of Philadelphia, vol. xi. p. 101. 



Jasper Dankers and Peter Sluyter, two Dutch Lab- 
adists, who visited the colonies in 1679-80, a transla- 
tion of which was recently published by the Long 
Island Historical Society, states, in speaking of Mah- 
lon Stacy's house at "the falls of the South River, 
Trenton:" "Most of the English and many others 
have their houses made of nothing but clapboards, 
as they call them there, in this manner: they first 
made a wooden frame, the same as they do in West- 
phalia and at Altona, but not so strong; they then 
split the boards of clapwood, so they are like coopers' 
pipe-staves, excepting they are not bent. These are 
made very thin with a large kmfe, so that the thickest 
end is about a pinck [little finger] thick, and the 
other is made sharp, like the edge of a knife. They 
are about five or six feet long, and are nailed on the 
outside of the frame, with the ends lapped over each 
other. They are not usually laid so close together as 
to prevent you from sticking a finger between them 
in consequence either of their not being well joined 
or the boards being crooked. AVhen it is cold and 
windy the best people plaster them with clay. Such 
are most all the English houses in this country, 
except those they have built by people of other 
nation:?." Near Burlington, Dankers slept at the 
house of Jacob Hendricks, which he describes as 
"being made according to the Swedish mode," of 

As has been shown, titles to land in New Jersey 
are derived from the English crown. Individuals 
■were forbidden to purchase land from the Indians 
without the consent of the proprietors. Deeds from 
Indian claimants are held by some of the present 
owners; but unless patents or surveys were also ob- 
tained, the legal title rests upon possession, and not 
upon the deeds. The proprietors were careful to pur- 
chase the land of the Indians, and in West Jersey no 
grants or surveys were allowed until the Indian title 
was extinguished. Every foot of soil claimed by the 
Indians has been obtained from them by fair aud vol- 
untary purchase. In West Jersey the "concessions and 
agreements" of 1676 regulated the government and 
the mode of acquiring title to land. "Head-lands" 
were to be granted to settlers, and commissioners 
were appointed to regulate the setting forth and 
dividing them. Afterwards commissioners were 
elected by the Legislature. The quantity of land 
appropriated in this way does not appear to have 
been large. It was originally intended to run out 
the province into tenths, fronting on the Delaware; 
but this was never fully carried out, counties having 
been established as soon as the convenience of the 
inhabitants demanded it. In 1678 the proprietors 
resolved to constitute a proprietary council of repre- 
sentatives, elected yearly from among themselves. 
At first the number was fixed at eleven, afterwards 
at nine, five of whom were chosen from Burlington. 
According to an ancient usage, the proprietor of a 
thirty-second part of a hundredth has the right of 

voting and being elected. The owner of any specific 
number of acres, having no interest in the undivided 
remainder, has no right to vote. Many of the origi- 
nal proprietors never came into the province ; and in 
consequence of their heirs failing to claim rights, 
only about twenty persons are now known to be pro- 
prietors. They meet annually at Burlington ; but as 
the unlocated property is of little value, and is be- 
coming less and less every year, it is probable that 
in time they will cease to act, and the State will by 
law provide for the preservation of their valuable 

A dividend of each proprietor's share was first 
fixed at five thousand two hundred acres, but it was 
soon enlarged to twenty-five thousand acres. Six ad- 
ditional dividends have been made, assigning, in all, 
thirty-five thousand acres to each. 

Titles in West Jersey are derived from some one of 
the original proprietors of the hundredths. Regular 
deeds of conveyance are made either of a fractional 
part or of a specified number of acres. A proprietor 
upon presenting his title to the Council obtains an 
order for a warrant, which authorizes the surveyor- 
general to survey a specified number of acres from 
any of the unappropriated lands. Upon the return 
of the survey, and its certification by the surveyor- 
general to the Council, it is by them inspected and 
approved, and ordered to be recorded. A rule was 
adopted at an early date that surveys should not ex- 
tend to both sides of a navigable stream. Prior to 
1700 surveyors were sent by several of the proprietors 
into the southern part of the State, who ran out (as 
tradition is, with a mariner's compass, and often on 
horseback) surveys of from five to twelve thousand 
acres each on the most accessible rivers and creeks. 
An allowance of five acres in the hundred was made 
for highways, which accounts for the fact that lands 
were so long taken in this State for roads without 
compensation to the owner. 

In 1719 an act of the Legislature was passed, di- 
recting that the surveyor-generals of East and West 
Jersey should hold a public oflice in Perth Aniboy 
and Burlington, where all surveys should be recorded. 
Formerly, when it became necessary to prove title, 
the regular chain of deeds, in some cases even from 
the king down, were produced in evidence as the only 
valid foundation for the survey. In process of time 
the courts took judicial notice of the original grants 
as matters of authentic history, and since the act of 
1787 (Title Limitation, 3, Nixon's Dig.) the record of 
a survey duly inspected and recorded is received as 
prhna facie evidence of a good title. Until the act of 
1838 surveys were proved by producing a witness who 
could swear that he had compared the copy with the 
original record.^ 

1 Extracted from Collections of New Jersey Historical Society, vol. vii. 
The Constitution and Government of the Province aud State of New 
Jersey, by Lucius Q. C. Elmer, LL.D. Newark, lS7:i. 





The government of New Jersey was first established 
by Berkeley and Carteret, who claimed to derive the 
right from the grant of the Duke of York. They 
framed in England a Constitution, which was signed 
by them Feb. 10, 1664, under the title of " The Con- 
cessions and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors of 
the Province of New Csesaria or New Jersey, to and 
with all and every the Adventurers, and all such as 
shall settle or plant there." ^ Under this instrument, 
which was republican in its character, a government 
was commenced, and with some interruption, occa- 
sioned by the Dutch conquest and other causes, con- 
tinued until the partition of the province into East 
and West Jersey by means of the quinti partite deed 
of 1676. After this the government of the two prov- 
inces was distinct until the surrender of Queen Anne 
in 1702. 

West Jersey was governed according to the pro- 
visions of " The concessions and agreements of the 
proprietors, freeliolders, and inhabitants of the Prov- 
ince of West New Jersey in America," dated March 
3, 1676, and signed by William Penn, Gawen Lawrie, 
Nicholas Lucas, and one hundred and forty-six others. 
Of this instrument Mr. Richard S. Field, in a dis- 
course^ read before the New Jersey Historical Society, 
says, "A more beautiful fabric of free -government 
was never reared. It should be forever embalmed in 
the memory of Jerseymen." 

"No man nor number of men upon earth," such is 
its language, " have power or authority to rule over 
men's conscience in religious matters; therefore it is 
agreed and ordained that no person or persons what- 
soever, within the said Province, shall at any time 
hereafter, in any way or upon any pretence whatever, 
be called in question, or in the least punished or hurt, 
either in person, privilege, or estate, for the sake of 
. his opinion, judgment, faith, or worship in matters 
of religion." Never was there a more comprehen- 
sive act of religious toleration, and never was it vio- 
lated, either in its letter or its spirit. Following Mr. 
Field, " No tax, custom, subsidy, assessment, or any 
other duty whatever was, upon any color or pretence, 
how specious soever, to be imposed upon the inhabit- 
ants of the Province without the consent and au- 
thority of the General Assembly. It would seem as if, 
with prophetic spirit, they had foreseen the very form 
in which tyranny would assail them. So dear to them 
was the right of trial by jury that their language in 
relation to it almost savors of refinement and borders 
upon excess. The justices were to sit with the twelve 
men of the neighborhood, to assist them in matters of 

1 Learning and Spicer's Grants an J Concessions, p. 12. W. Bradford, 
Philadelpbia, 1758. 

sCkjllections of New Jersey Historical Society, vol. ill. Richard ?. 
Field, 1840, Kew York. 

law, and to pronounce each judgment as they should re- 
ceive from the twelve men, in whom alone, it was de- 
clared, the judgment resided ; and in case of the neglect 
or refusal of the justices to pronounce such judgment, 
then one of the twelve, by consent of the rest, was to 
pronounce their own judgment as the justices should 
have done, — language prompted, no doubt, by the 
bitter recollection of the way in which the rights of 
juries had so often been trampled upon in England 
by overbearing judges. Members of the Assembly 
were to be chosen by ballot, to receive instructions 
at large from those who sent them, and to covenant 
and oblige themselves to be faithful to their constitu- 
ents by indentures under their hand and seal. They 
were to receive for their services a shilling a day, that 
thereby they might be known to be the servants of 
the people." 

These concessions were declared to be their com- 
mon law, their great charter ; they were to be read 
at the beginning and the dissolving of every General 
Free Assembly, and they were also directed to be 
writ on fair tables in every hall of justice in the prov- 
ince, and read by the magistrates in solemn manner 
four times every year in the presence of the people, 
"it being intended and resolved, by the help of the 
Lord and these our Concessions, that every person in- 
habiting the said Province shall, as far as in us lies, be 
free from oppression and slavery." "Precious words! 
And how should our hearts overflow with gratitude to 
God that now," over two centuries "since this pious 
purpose was first announced, we live to see it realized. 
There is not to be found in the whole history of our 
country, rich as it is in interesting scenes, an incident 
so beautiful as the first settlement of West Jersey by 
the Quakers." 

Nor were the settlers of West Jersey sati.sfied with 
the mere declaration of their rights and privileges. 
They were always ready to assert and vindicate them 
whenever they were questioned or assailed. Thus 
when the agent of the Duke of York at the Hoarkills 
persisted in exacting customs of all vessels ascending 
the Delaware to New Jersey, the Quaker settlers re- 
monstrated against it so earnestly that the duke, 
wearied by their importunity, referred the matter to 
commissioners. To the commissioners they then ad- 
dressed themselves, and in support of their claim to 
exemption delivered an argument couched in the 
language of intelligent freemen, and breathing the 
very spirit of Anglo-Saxon liberty. This argument 
was attended, as it deserved to be, with triumphant 
success, and West Jersey became a free and inde- 
pendent province. The concessions provided among 
other things that the management of the estate and 
affairs of the province be committed to commissioners 
appointed by the proprietaries, with power to divide 
and sell the lands, to lay out towns, and generally to 
govern the province according to the concessions 
until March, 1680, after which the one hundred pro- 
prietaries were to be divided into ten divisions or 



tribes of men, each division to elect one commissioner 

Some of the Governors were appointed by the pro- 
prietors and others by the Legislature, which latter 
body apijears to have appointed all the other officers 
necessary to carry on the government. Under the 
proprietary government the courts of West Jersey 
consisted, in the first place, of a court for small causes, 
held by a single justice of the peace, having jurisdic- 
tion only in actions of debt under forty shillings, 
with a right of appeal to the County Court.' County 
Courts, or Courts of Sessions, as they were called, 
were first established by act of Assembly for Burling- 
ton and Salem, in 1682. They were to be held four 
times a year by the justices of the peace in each 
county. They seem to have had unlimited jurisdic- 
tion in all cases, civil and criminal, with this single 
exception, that they could not try offenses of a capital 
nature. It is an interesting fact that up to 1693 
there was really no tribunal in West Jersey compe- 
tent to try offenses of a capital nature. The first set- 
tlers — the peaceful Quakers — appeared to be almost 
unwilling to suppose that such a horrible crime could 
be committed in their community. It was, however, 
provided that whenever a person should be found 
guilty of murder or treason, the sentence and way of 
execution were to be left to the General Assembly to 
determine as they in the wisdom of the Lord should 
judge meet and expedient.' These Courts of Sessions 
were the great courts of West Jersey, and for a long 
time there was no appeal from their decisions. In 
1693,^ however, a Supreme Court of Appeals was 
erected, consisting of one or more of the justices of 
each county and one or more of the Governor's 
Council for the time being, any three of whom, one 
being of the Council, were to constitute a quorum. 
This court, as originally organized, was strictly an ap- 
pellate tribunal, but in 1699, during the administra- 
tion of Governor Hamilton, its title and constitution 
underwent an essential change.* It was then called 
the Provincial Court, and was composed of three 
judges, to be chosen by the House of Representatives, 
and one or more of the justices of each county, of 
whom any three of the said justices, in conjunction 
with two of the said judges, were to be a quorum. It 
was to be held twice a year in each county, to have 
original as well as appellate jurisdiction, and when 
the matter in controversy amounted to twenty pounds 
there was to be an appeal from its judgment to the 
General Assembly. In 1693 a Court of Oyer and 
Terminer was established for the trial of capital 
crimes, to be composed of a judge appointed by the 
Governor and Council, assisted by two or more jus- 
tices of the county where the crime was committed. 
There are no traces of a Court of Chancery in West 
Jersey under the proprietary government. Law was 

1 Oranta and CoDcesBloiiF, p. 509. 
« lUd., p. 617, 

* Ibid,, p. 401. 

* Ibid., p. 603. 

probably administered in all their courts upon very 
equitable principles. It must be remembered that 
nearly all the disputes arising among the Quakers — 
and nearly all' the first settlers were Quakers — were 
kept within control of that society and settled accord- 
ing to the rules of the same, — equity. The laws enacted 
by the provincial government of West Jersey do not 
appear to have been printed until such of them as 
were extant were collected by Leaming and Spicer. 
They were sent in manuscript to the counties and read 
at public assemblies of the people. None of these 
laws are now in force. 

We now come to the period of the surrender. The 
claim of the proprietors to exercise the powers of 
government had been for some years questioned ; a 
quo warranto was actually depending in the Court of 
King's Bench, the object of which was to test its val- 
idity, and the increasing number and conflicting 
views of the proprietors rendered the possession of 
such powers of doubtful utility. Difficulties arose, 
and the proprietors joined those of East Jersey, and 
an absolute and unconditional surrender of them was 
made to the crown. 

Upon the assumption of the government by Queen 
Anne, in 1702, Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury, a 
grandson of the illustrious Clarendon and a cousin of 
the queen, was appointed the first royal Governor of 
the united provinces of East and We^t Jersey. He 
was a weak, corrupt, and tyrannical man, who dis- 
graced the sovereign whose representative he was, 
and dishonored the noble ancestry from which he 
sprung.^ He was appointed to hold office during the 
pleasure of the crown. 

The commission and instructions accompanying it, 
drawn with great care and ability, contained the Con- 
stitution under which the government of the prov- 
ince was administered, with but little variation, until 
the adoption of the Constitution of 1776. They con- 
tained the main features of the British Constitution, 
as improved by the revolution of 1688. The execu- 
tive power was confided to the Governor, with the 
advice of twelve counselors, appointed occasionally 
by the crown, but more commonly by the Governor, 
six of whom resided in each division of the colony. 
The legislative power was vested in the Governor, the 
Council, and a General Assembly. The Assembly 
was convened, adjourned, and dissolved at the pleas- 
ure of the Governor and Council, and elected by vir- 
tue of writs issued by their authority, two by the 
inhabitants and householders of the town of Burling- 
ton, and ten by the freeholders of West Jersey. No 
law could be passed without the Governor's assent. 
In 1709 they passed an act reciting that the present 
Constitution was found inconvenient, and to remedy 
the same enacted that after the dissolution of the pres- 

'Upon liis remoTol from office he was tlirown into jail by his exasper- 
ated creditors, from wliicli he was not released until the death of his 
father, the Earl of Clurendou. 



ent Assembly the representatives should be chosen by 
the majority of votes of the freeholders in each 
county having one hundred acres of land in his own 
right, or be worth fifty pounds, and that the person 
elected should have one thousand acres of land, or be 
worth five hundred pounds. Two were to be elected 
for each of the towns of Burlington and Salem, and 
two for each of the then four counties of "West Jersey. 
Perfect equality was preserved between the two divis- 
ions of the colony. 

Hunterdon County was established in 1714, but 
continued to choose representatives in conjunction 
with Burlington until 1727, when it was authorized 
to choose two, and the town of Salem was deprived 
of its separate representative. In 1725 an act was 
passed requiring the sheriff and other officer to whom 
a writ of election was directed to give public notice 
of the day and place of election, and on that day, 
between the hours of ten and twelve, to proceed to 
the election ; that he should not declare the choice 
upon the view, — i.e., from a vote by holding up of 
hands, — nor adjourn without the consent of the can- 
didates, but should, if a poll was required, proceed 
from day to day and time to time until all the electors 
then and there present be polled, and he was required 
to appoint a clerk, who should set down the names of 
the electors and the persons they voted for. This 
mode of election continued for some time after the 
Revolution. The polls generally closed the first day. 
In 1789, in consequence of the rivalry between East 
and West Jersey as to whether the seat of the United 
States government should be temporarily at New- 
York or Philadelphia, the polls were kept open in 
some of the western counties three or four weeks. 
Voting by ballot appears to have been introduced 
after the Revolution. It was practiced in some of 
the counties in 1779, but was soon discontinued. In 
1783 and 1790 the election by ballot was restored and 
required in some, and in 1797 in all the counties. 

From the surrender (1702) until 1776 there were 
but twenty-two Assemblies, some of which continued 
but one and others eight years. In 1768 an act was 
passed that a General Assembly should be held once 
in seven years at least. The Assembly first elected 
after this act was dissolved at the end of three years ; 
that convened in 1772 dissolved itself in 1776. The 
number and duration of the sittings of the several 
Assemblies were very diverse, there having been on 
some occasions five or six within one year, and on 
others there was an interval of two and once of five 
years without an Assembly being convened. All the 
provincial officers of the colony and counties, even 
the clerks of the Assembly, were appointed directly 
by the crown or by the Governor and Council. For 
several years the proprietors in England had much 
inffuence in the appointment of officers. Occasion- 
ally the officers appointed by the Governor and 
Council were superseded by direct appointments from 
the crown. 

The Governor and Council were empowered to 
erect such courts as they should think necessary, and 
to appoint judges and all other necessary officers 
and magistrates, and were instructed not to remove 
any of the judges or other officers without good cause, 
to be signified to the crown, and not to express any 
limitation of time in the commissions. By virtue of 
their power they granted patents establishing and alter- 
ing theboundariesof townships, constituted municipal 
and other corporations, and established and regulated 
ferries, and by ordinances established courts of jus- 
tice, defined their powers, appointed the times and 
places at which they should be held, and regulated 
the fees. 

Lord Cornbury, the first Governor, promulgated an 
ordinance in 1704, and of it Richard S. Field, in his 
interesting account of the provincial courts of New 
Jersey,' says, " He is entitled to the credit of having 
laid the foundation of our whole judicial system, and 
laid it well." Justices were to have cognizance of 
cases to the value of forty shillings. In each county 
there was established a Court of Common Pleas and 
a Court of General Sessions of the peace, each with 
quarterly terms; and for the province, a Supreme 
Court, to sit once in each year at Perth Amboy and at 
Burlington. In 1714 the Supreme Court was required 
to hold two terms yearly in each place, and courts for 
the trial of issues were appointed to be held yearly in 
each county. The constitution and powersof the courts 
remained the same, except that in 1724 the jurisdic- 
tion of the Common Pleas was restricted so as to ex- 
cept causes wherein the right or title of any lands were 
in any wise concerned. The jurisdiction of these 
several courts remains to this day as established by 
the ordinance of 1724. The only material changes 
since made in the system first established have been 
the establishment of an Orphans' Court in each 
county, and the giving to the Circuit Courts orig- 
inal jurisdiction in all cases at common law, includ- 
ing cases where the title to land is in question, and 
equity powers in mortgage cases. The original in- 
structions provided for appeals from the courts to 
the Governor and Council in cases where the sum 
exceeded one hundred pounds, with an unlimited ap- 
peal to the king's Privy Council where the sum ex- 
ceeded two hundred pounds. Lord Cornbury provided 
by ordinance that the Governor or Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor for the time being and any three of the Coun- 
cil should constitute a Court of Chancery. Governor 
Franklin in 1770 issued an ordinance by which it was 
ordained that His Excellency William Franklin be 
constituted chancellor, and empowered to appoint 
such masters, clerks, examiners, registers, and other 
necessary officers as should be needful in holding said 
court. The constitution and powers of this court re- 
main unaltered, except that the Governor is no longer 
chancellor. The office of register has been abolished, 

1 Collections of New Jeney Hiitorical Society, toI. iii., 18-19. 



and the appointment of a clerk conferred on the Gov- 
ernor and Senate. No appeal was provided for until 
1799, when the Legislature enacted that an appeal 
might be taken to the Court of Errors and Appeals. 

The ecclesiastical jurisdiction was reserved to the 
Bishop of London, excepting only " the collating to 
benefices, granting licenses for marriages, and the 
probate of wills," which were assigned to the Gov- 
ernor. By virtue of this grant he became ordinary 
of the province, having all the powers in regard 
to the estates of deceased persons which in Eng- 
land belonged to the courts of the bishop and arch- 
bishop. As judge, therefore, of the "Prerogative 
Court," he had sole and exclusive jurisdiction of mat- 
ters relating to wills, to administrations, and to guar- 
dianships, with no superior but the king and his Privy 

It being inconvenient and almost impossible for the 
people in all parts of the province to resort to the 
Governor, especially when he resided in New York, 
he appointed deputies, called surrogates, to act for 
him. Michael Kearney, in 1720, was commissioned 
surrogate of the province. He had full power to 
swear the witnesses to last wills and testaments, and 
to admit administrations on the estates of persons 
dying intestate, and administer the oaths to executors 
and administrators for the due execution of their 
oiBces, and take their bonds in his name, to call to 
account and reckoning with executors and adminis- 
trators, and their accounts to. examine, approve, allow, 
and discharge, and quietus thereupon to give and 
grant, and the balance of said account to receive, for 
which he was to be accountable to him. Afterwards 
one was appointed. for each division, and as occasion 
required one for two or three counties, and sometimes 
more than one in the same county. They were re- 
movable at the pleasure of the Governor. The pro- 
bate of wills and other official acts were generally in 
his name and under his hand and official seal. The 
acts of these surrogates were recognized as valid by 
the courts. When disputes arose they were settled in 
the Prerogative Court. 

In 1784, Orphans' Courts were established, and pro- 
vision was made for one surrogate in each county. 
The original jurisdiction of the ordinary remained as 
before; until 1820 it was restricted to the granting 
of probates of wills, letters of administration, letters 
of guardianship, and to the hearing and finally de- 
termining of disputes that may arise thereon. In 
these matters it is still concurrent with that of the 
Surrogates' and Orphans' Courts ; and from all orders 
and decrees of the Orphans' Court an appeal may be 
taken to the Prerogative Court. In 1822 the appoint- 
ment of the surrogate was given to the joint meeting, 
and 80 remained until the new Constitution provided 
for his election by a popular vote. 

The Supreme Court was invested with plenary 
jurisdiction in criminal as well as civil cases. Until 
about 1794 it was the practice of the sheriff, by virtue 

of a writ, to summons grand juries for the county in 
which the Supreme Court sat, who inquired and made 
presentments, and passed on indictments for offenses 
committed in that county. Other criminal cases were 
brought there by the attorney-general, or on special 
leave by the defendant. Trial by a jury of the county 
in which the offense was alleged to have been com- 
mitted or the cause of action arose were quite fre- 

Special commissions of Oyer and Terminer until 
1794 were issued for the trial of felonies in the differ- 
ent counties when considered necessary, and regularly 
at the times of the yearly Circuit Courts. The com- 
mission continued in force a certain specified time, — 
a few days or several months. Clerks of the courts 
were appointed by the Governor, to hold office during 
his pleasure. One or more clerks of the circuit at- 
tended the sittings in the counties, and kept their own 
minutes.' The Oyer and Terminer as well as the 
Circuit were regarded as branches of the Supreme 
Court, and the proceedings therein subject to its 

The sheriff, justices of the peace, the mayor and 
other officials of any corporation within the counties, 
and all officers of the courts were required to be at- 
tending on the chief justice and other justices going 
the circuit at his coming into and leaving the several 
counties, and during his abode within the same; and 
the practice, as it was in England until the introduc- 
tion of railways, was for the sheriff, with as many 
justices and other gentlemen on horseback as he could 
conveniently collect, to await the arrival of the judge 
at the county line, and escort him to his lodgings. At 
the opening and closing of the court from day to day 
the sheriff and constables, with their staves of office, 
escorted him from and to his place of lodging to the 
court-house. When sitting in court the justices of 
the Supreme Court wore a robe of office, and com- 
monly a wig. In 1765 the Supreme Court promul- 
gated a rule requiring counselors (excepting those of 
the people called Quakers) practicing in the Supreme 
Court or any of the courts on the circuit, when ap- 
pearing in court, to " be habited in the bar gown and 
band commonly worn by barristers at Westminster 
and on the circuits in England, under a penalty of a 
contempt of this rule." It continued to be observed 
until 1791, when upon a petition of the leading coun- 
selors the rule was rescinded. 

Justices of the Supreme Court appear at first to 
have been appointed without any express limitations, 
but were removable for cause, made known to the 
king. Chief Justice Morris, as early as 1738, was 
commissioned during good behavior, aud this appears 
to have been afterwards the usual tenure until 177G, 
when it was changed to the very questionable term 

1 A book containing such minuteB of the Oyer and Terminer and Circuit 
Courts held in most of tlie counties from 1749 to 1762 is preserved in 
the clerk's oflBce of Middlesex County. 



of seven years. Slieriffs were first appointed " during 
our pleasure," but in 1747 an act of the Legislature 
was passed limiting the term of office to three years, 
and rendering them incapable of holding the office 
again for three years. 

In 1714 an act was passed to raise money for build- 
ing and repairing jails and court-houses. It also au- 
thorized the election of two freeholders to serve for 
one year, who together with the justices of the peace 
of each county, or any three of them, one whereof 
constituting a quorum, should appoint assessors and 
collectors. The board thus constituted continued to 
liave the care of the county business until the act of 
1798 incorporated the freeholders alone. 

Some of the townships were established by patents 
which authorized the choice by the inhabitants of 
constables, overseers of the highways and poor, as- 
sessors and collectors. An act in 1717 required the 
inhabitants of all the townships to elect annually as- 
sessors and collectors of taxes. Constables, except in 
the patent townships, were appointed yearly by the 
Courts of General Sessions of the several counties.^ 



The story of Burlington's part in these wars, like 
that of the State, is almost lost to history. The gen- 
eral movements of the regiments, the names of a few 
of the officers, and perhaps men, a few letters, treas- 
ured among family papers for many generations, and 
an occasional item are all that time's destroying hand 
has left to remind us of the first wars of our fathers. 
It can readily be supposed, among the Quaker element 
that constituted the preponderating part of the popu- 
lation of this county, that the raising of troops v/as 
not looked upon with any favor, in fact they expelled 
from their society all those that openly favored it. 
Yet it must be remembered that the young men of 
the community, those capable of bearing arms, were 
the first generation of Americans, reared in a new and 
wild country, used to traversing the woods with the 
axe or gun in search of deer and other game, the 
very class of people, had it not been for the moral 
restraints in which they had been reared, that would 
with ardor have embarked upon an expedition prom- 
ising novel and exciting scenes. 

It must be remembered the first settlers witnessed 
in "Old England," as most of them affectionately 
termed their native land, long scenes of strife and war, 
and not a few had been soldiers in the civil wars that 
disturbed the kingdom. William Biddle, who settled 

1 Extracted from Collections of Kew Jarsey Historical Society, vol. vii. 
The Constitution and Government of the Province and State of New 
Jersey, etc., by Lucius Q. C. Elmer, LL.D. Newark, 1S72. 

on the banks of the Delaware near where Kinkora 
now is, the exemplary Christian and a leader of the 
Friends, had served with gallantry as a major in 
Cromwell's army, and Maj. John Fenwick, as equally 
sincere a Christian but somewhat belligerent Friend, 
commanded the cavalry at the execution of Charles I. 
Cromwell's iron government and successful wars, the 
battles of his generals upon his death, the restora- 
tion of the Stuarts in the person of Charles II., in 
1G60, the attempt of Charles to seize almost absolute 
power, which resulted in the national liberty gained 
in the famous Habeas Corpus Act in 1679, the acces- 
sion of the Catholic king. James II., to the throne of 
England, the descent in 1688 on England of the 
Prince of Orange (William III., husband of Mary, 
James II. 's daughter by Anne Hyde) with a Dutch 
fleet an'd army, the landing of James II. in Ireland, 
and the decisive battle of the Boyne in 1690, which 
overthrew Catholicism in the British Kingdom, the 
union of England and Holland under the same prince, 
William III., who was stadtholder, captain, and 
admiral-general of the republic, and the intrigues 
and designs that followed, — these were the stirring 
events that transpired during the lifetime of many of 
the first settlers, and hardly a ship arrived from Eng- 
land that brought not rumors of wars, of treaties, 
alliances, or leagues between the ambitious monarchs 
of E.iirope in which England was not interested. To 
obtain a proper insight into the feelings and thoughts 
of the earlj' settlers these events, in which they were 
naturally more or less interested, must not be over- 

As early as 1704, Governor Lord Cornbury, in his 
message to the Assembly, advises a bill for regulating 
the militia, and the year prior we find the names of 
Col.Tlichard Townley and Capt. John Harrison.- 

May 4, 1702, England, under Queen Anne, who 
succeeded William III. in 1702, declared war against 
France. The latter actively prosecuted the same 
against the northern provinces, penetrating as far as 
the Merrimac River, and burning the town of Hav- 
erhill. Upon the entreaty of New England the con- 
quest of Arcadia, Canada, and Newfoundland was 
contemplated in 1709. The quota from New Jersey 
was fixed at two hundred troops. The Assembly 
acted with spirit, appropriating three thousand pounds 
and encouraging the enlistment of volunteers. These 
men were divided into three companies without field- 
officers. Capt. John Harrison and First Lieut. John 
Ruydiard are the only officers whose names we can 
ascertain. Whether any New Jersey troops partici- 
pated in^he attack and capture of Port Royal, Nova 
Scotia, by Col. Nicholson, in the early part of Octo- 
ber, 1710, we know not. Animated by his success the 
colonel again urged upon the ministry the reduction 
of Canada, which had been strongly recommended 

2 Journal and Votes of the House of Representatives of Xi. 
ITOJ. J. H. Lyon, Jer8eyC;ty, 1872. State Doc, rp- -C-2S. 




by tlic Indian allies as the only efiectual means of 
securing the northern colonies. Governor Hunter, of 
Kew Jersey, summoned the Assembly in July, 1711, 
and, the cause being popular, they promptly appro- 
priated twelve thousand five hundred ounces of plate 
(dollars) in bills of credit, and resolved to raise three 
hundred and sixty men besides officers. The provin- 
cial troops, numbering three thousand men, with one 
thousand friendly Indians, under the command of Col. 
Francis Nicholson, marched from Albany towards 
Canada the latter part of August, and reached Fort 
George. Here learning that the expedition against 
Quebec of veteran regiments of jMarlhorough's army 
and provincials under Gen. Hill and a vast fleet of 
transports and men-of-war under Admiral Sir Hove- 
den Walker had met with disaster among the rocks 
and islands of the St. Lawrence, Nicholson was forced 
to return to Albany. On March 31, 1713, the treaty 
of Utrecht established peace between Great Britain 
and France, and terminated a merciless war upon the 
northern frontier. This long war was conducted on 
the part of England in America with magnificent 
designs, little energy, and less skill. 

George, Elector of Hanover, great-grandson of 
James I., succeeded Anne, Queen of England, in 
1714. He was the founder of the House of Hanover, 
and Avas succeeded by his son, George II., in 1727. 
A misunderstanding having existed for several years 
between England and Spain in the AVest Indies, war 
was declared by the former in 1739. Admiral Ver- 
non, with a fleet and a body of troops under Lord 
Cathcart, was dispatched against the Spanish islands, 
and aid was asked from the American colonies. New 
Jersey on this, as upon other occasions, showed the same 
alacrity in aiding the mother-country, and promptly 
passed a bill for raising, transporting, and supporting 
her quota of troops, but some of its details were un- 
satisfactory to Governor Morris. He delayed his as- 
sent to the bill, and it is doubtful if the troops of the 
province participated in the expedition. 

A masked war having been carried on between Eng- 
land and France, war was declared by those nations 
in March, 1744. This is known in American history 
as " King George's war." The next spring Governor 
Shirley, of Massachusetts, conceived the design of 
capturing Cape Breton and Louisburg, the stronghold 
of the French in America, and the rendezvous for 
their numerous privateers that infested the Atlantic 
coast of the provinces. Unaided by the English,' 

1 George II. was too much occupied at home to assist the col >nies. 
Clmrles KJward, son of the Pretender and prandson of James II,, as- 
sisted \>y the Court of France, hmdod in Scotland in August, 1745. 
Joined by a nnnibor of partisans, he caused his father to be proclaimed 
King of Enphuid at r<i tlj and Kdinliurgli, assuming to liimsc'lf the title 
of I*rinre of Wales and regent of the three kingdoms. A victory over 
the English troops rendered him master of all Scotland. He invaded 
England, and advanced as fur as Derby, epreading terror and consterna- 
tion in London. The king was obliged to recall the Duke of Cumber- 
land, with his troops, from the Netherlands. That prince drove back the 
rretender, retook Carlisle, and d(f<ated the rebels at Cullodeu. Charles 

with six thousand provincials under Mr. Pepperel, a 
trader of Piscataqua, after two months' siege, their 
courage and fortitude was crowned with success, and 
Pepperel was rewarded with a baronetcy of Great 
Britain. New Jersey voted two thousand pounds in 
provisions to aid the siege. 

And Burlington County actively participated in the 
war at this early period, at least we find in the 
" Records of Chesterfield Monthly Meeting," at Cross- 
wicks, the following item : " 10 mo. 5, 1745, Wiiereas 
it appears to this meeting that Thomas Cadwallader 
is concerned in Privateering Vessels contrary to our 
antient Testimony and the Discipline established 
among Friends, and it appears he hath been tenderly 
cautioned and dealt with from time to time in order 
to bring him to a sense of his undue liberty, but he 
refusing to give Friends such Satisfaction as the 
offense requires, therefore this meeting appoints Isaac 
Horner and Marmaduke Watson to draw a paper of 
Testification against the said Thomas Cadwallader & 
his practice and to declare him out of Unity with us 
as a Society until he shall give Satisfaction in this 
meeting Suitable to the offense, and bring the Same 
to next Monthly Meeting for ap]>robation." 

Tiiomas Cadwallader lives near Trenton, in the old 
county of Burlington. 

In June, 1746, Governor Hamilton convened the 
Assembly of New Jersey, and it resolved to raise, 
equip, and support five hundred men to aid in 
the conquest of Canada. A bounty of six pounds 
was offered, and so popular was the enterprise that 
in less than two months six hundred and sixty men 
were enlisted. Five companies were formed from 
these to make the New Jersey quota, and a sixth com- 
pany was transferred to the province of New York. 
That the "war fever" had spread to the young mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends is evident by their own 
testimony, and only goes to prove that the young men 
of Burlington in olden times were as ready to fight as 
the present generation proved when called upon by 
their country. In the records above referred to we 
find that in 1746, 1756, 1757, and 1758, Samuel Hor- 
ner, Joseph Thorn, Jr., Aaron Quicksall, Francis 
King, John Scholey, and Ralph Woodward were 
testified against and duly expelled from meeting for 
"going on an Expedition and taking up arms." 

The troops reached Albany September 3d, where, 
in consequence of the failure of arrival of the British 
regulars, the ])roposed invasion of the French prov- 
inces was abandoned. They were under the command 
of Col. Philip Schuyler, and remained until the next 
autumn, overawing the Indians and protecting the 
frontier. Troops in camp, if not in proximity to the 
enemy and are not kept un^er strict discipline, are 
always dissatisfied and sometimes restive. In April, 

Edward concealed himself in the mountains until lie could escape to 

Gen. Hugh Mercer, who was killed at Princeton during ou" Revolu- 
tion, was a surgeon at the battle of Cullodi-u. 



1747, the Jersey companies mutinied and determined 
to march off with their arms and baggage. The pay 
promised by the crown was slowly remitted, and the 
troops demanded their arrears. To keep them quiet 
Col. Schuyler dispatched an express to Governor 
Hamilton, who recommended to the Assembly to 
provide for their pay, but the House, not fearing the 
loss of their votes, as in our days, decided that, hav- 
ing expended more than twenty thousand pounds in 
equipping, transporting, and feeding them, tliey would 
appropriate no more money. Col. Schuyler, however, 
was more generous and patriotic, and advanced many 
thousand pounds from his private funds to supply the 
wants of his men. 

No further military movements of any moment took 
place in America during the war, which was termina- 
ted by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in October, 1748. 
The war, through the incapacity and misrule of the 
British government, was a perfect failure. The north- 
ern colonies, which entered into it with zeal, were 
sadly disappointed in the expectations from and 
promises of England. Their troops, raised, equipped, 
and transported at great expense, were kept inactive, 
waiting impatiently for generals, orders, or regular 
troops from England. The fruits of the only success 
of the war, the brilliant expedition of Shirley and 
Pepperel, which resulted in the conquest of the island 
of Cape Breton and its capital, Louisburg, were re- 
stored to the French, and the very object of the war, 
the right of the British to navigate the American seas 
free from search, was unnoticed in the treaty of 

The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was but a hollow 
truce, and was scarcely regarded by the French in 
America. Eager to extend their territories and to 
connect their possessions in Canada with those of 
Louisiana, they established a chain efforts along the 
Ohio and Mississippi. English traders were arrested 
and sent to France, and Governor Dinwiddle, of Vir- 
ginia, sent George Washington, a youth of twenty 
years, to the West to gain information. The English 
monarch, deceived and insulted by the Court of Ver- 
sailles, sent orders, in 1754, to the American Governors 
to repel the encroachments by force. The English, 
by coldness and apathy, had alienated the Indians, 
and prudence required that their affections towards 
the colonies should be restored, and to cope with the 
French successfully some confederacy of the colonies 
was necessary. A convention of the colonies assem- 
bled at Albany in 1754, for the purpose of forming a 
league with the Six Nations and concerting measures 
for united operations. Dr. Franklin there offered his 
celebrated plan of union, which is known in all our 
histories as " the Albany Plan of Union." It was 
adopted by the convention but rejected by the Col- 
onial Assemblies, but not many years afterwards was 
rendered instrumental to the achievement of our in- 
dependence. Franklin was not really its author, as 
it is little more than a transcript of the design 

sketched in the preface of "A Description of the 
English Province of Carolana, by the Spaniards 
called Florida, and by the French, La Louisiana," 
published in 1722, and written by Daniel Coxe, after- 
wards one of the judges of the Supreme Court of New 
Jersey. He was the son of Dr. Daniel Coxe, at one 
time a resident of Burlington City. 

Washington marched to the Great Meadows, the 
French erected Fort Du Quesno, hostilities actually 
commenced, and Great Britain prepared energetically 
for the war. In June, 1755, Gen. Winslow, of Massa- 
chusetts, with three thousand troops of that colony 
and three hundred British regulars, conquered Nova 
Scotia. In July of the same year, Braddock, through 
presumption, arrogance, and ignorance, met with an 
ignominious defeat on the Monoiigahela. 

New Jersey apprehended no danger from the 
French and Indians on the Ohio, but appropriated, 
early in 1755, five hundred pounds to assist the royal 
troops. She cordially approved of an expedition 
against Crown Point, and raised five hundred men to 
join it, appropriating fifteen hundred pounds for 
their support. Peter Schuyler, an officer of deserv- 
ingly great popularity with the embryo soldiers, was 
appointed colonel, and the battalion was soon filled, 
and flint-locks were secured from Virginia. The bat- 
talion moved to Albany, where it joined the army 
under Gen. William Johnson, who, late in August, 
1755, marched to the southern shores of Lake George 
on his way to Ticonderoga. Gen. Dieskau,' march- 
ing from Quebec to attack Fort Oswego, learning of 
this movement changed his plan and moved direct 
upon the American camp. Two detachments sent 
forward to annoy him were defeated, and he assaulted 
Johnson's fortified camp. Dieskau, who was unques- 
tionably a general of military skill, was defeated, 
wounded, and taken prisoner. Johnson had sent out 
a scouting-party that, gaining the enemy's rear, seized 
their baggage, and attacked so vigorously from be- 
hind trees the retreating army that they fled panic- 

The defeat of Braddock's (now Dunbar's) army was 
followed by the merciless savages, who ravaged the 
country even to within thirty miles of Philadelphia. 
They burned the houses and villages, and murdered 
men, women, and children. Many of the terror- 
stricken inhabitants fled into Jersey. Four hundred 
Jerseymen, raised, equipped, and supported by funds 
advanced by the wealthy inhabitants, were sent to 
the defense of Easton, Schuyler's battalion was re- 
called for the defense of the river frontier, and ten 
thousand pounds was voted to defray expenses. 
During the winter of 1755-56 forts and block-houses 
were erected at favorable points on the Delaware. 

Governor Shirley was appointed commander-in- 
chief, and it was decided to raise 10,250 men for the 

1 Daron Jolin Herm.ind Dieskau, lieutenant-general Frencli army. 
s The House cf Commons presentfd Joliiison witli five thousand pounJt 
and the kiig confciied upon U:ni llic title of baronet. 



campaign of 1756. The plan resolved upon was too 
extensive for the means possessed, and served only to 
dissipate the strength. In enlisting troops in New 
Jersey indented servants were received into the ranks, 
which gave such offense to the inhabitants that the 
Assembly threatened to di.sband the regiment, but the 
emergency of the occasion caused them to appropri- 
ate fifteen thousand pounds for their maintenance. 

Gen. Abercrombie, who had superseded Gen. Shir- 
ley, soon gave place to the Earl of Loudon. Mont- 
calm marched against Fort Oswego with the French, 
Canadians, and'Indians. His superior artillery soon 
forced the garrison, sixteen hundred in number, to 
surrender. One-half of the New Jersey regiment, 
which formed part of the garrison, were made pris- 
oners and sent to Canada, where they w«re released 
at the close of the campaign on parole not to serve 
for eighteen months. The regiment was, however, 
recruited to its original strength of five hundred men 
early in the ensuing spring, 1757, and placed under 
the command of Col. Parker, as Col. Schuyler was 
under parole. A company of rangers under Capt. 
Gardiner had been kept in service during the winter 
to protect the river frontier from the incursions of 
the savages. In September, 1757, the Assembly voted 
one hundred rangers for the same service during the 
ensuing winter. Each officer and soldier was fur- 
nished with a blanket, a half-thick under-jacket, a 
kersey-jacket lapeled, buckskin breeches, two check 
shirts, two pairs of shoes, two pairs of stockings, a 
leather cap, and a hatchet. 

A demand was made in January, 1757, for one 
thousand men from New Jersey, but the Assembly 
refused to vote more than five hundred. In answer 
to Governor Belcher' that they should authorize a 
draft, they peremptorily declared by a vote of twelve 
to seven "that they were determined not to oljlige or 
compel any of the inhabitants by force to serve as 

On the 4th of August, 1757, Montcalm, at the head 
of nine thousand men, invested Fort "William Henry, 
on the southern shore of Lake George. The place 
was garrisoned by three thousand men, including the 
unfortunate Jersey regiment under Col. Parker, was 
well fortified and supplied, but Lieut. -Col. Monroe 
was compelled to surrender it within six days after 
its investment. The Marquis de Montcalm, who sub- 
sequently with Wolfe died so gloriously at Quebec, 
stained the laurels of his triumph by permitting his 
Indian allies to fall upon and massacre nearly fifteen 
hundred of the unarmed prisoners. Maj.-Gen. Webb 
made strenuous eflbrts to relieve the fort by arousing 
the militia of New York and New Jersey. New 
Jersey promptly dispatched one thousand men, 
and three thousand more were put in readiness to 
march. Webb was thus enabled to hold Fort Ed- 
ward, and the progress of the enemy was checked. 

1 Junatlian Belcher, nged scTeDlysix j-enr8, dicJ .\ug. 31, 1757. 

The New Jersey regiment with other prisoners were 
released on parole not to serve again during eighteen 
months, and being thus rendered useless were at the 
instance of the Assembly disbanded. 

In 1758, Gen. Abercrombie, with six thousand 
three hundred and sixty-seven regulars and nine 
thousand and twenty-four colonial troops, among 
which were the troops from New Jersey, made an 
attack on Ticonderoga. It was garrisoned by five 
thousand men. The troops of New Jersey and Con- 
necticut formed the rear-guard in the attack. Aber- 
crombie was repulsed with the loss of two thousand 
men, chiefly killed. In 1759 each colony, instead of 
being required to furnish a specific quota of troops, 
were directed to raise as large a force as was in its 
power with the greatest possible dispatch. Arms, am- 
munition, tents, and provisions were to be furnished 
by the crown, and the expense of levying, clothing, 
and pay was to be borne by the provinces. Thus 
inspirited, the Assembly of New Jersey, instead of 
raising reluctantly five hundred men, doubled that 
number, and to fill the ranks in season offered a bounty 
of twelve pounds per man, increased the pay of the 
oflScers, and voted the sum of fifty thousand pounds for 
their maintenance. They at the same session ordered 
barracks to be built at Burlington, Trenton, New Bruns- 
wick, Amboy, and Elizabethtown, of capacity each 
for the accommodation of three hundred men. This 
complement of one thousand men New Jersey kept 
up during the years 1758, 1759, and 1760, and in the 
years 1761 and 1762 furnished six hundred men, be- 
sides in the latter year a company for garrison duty, 
for which she incurred an average expense of forty 
thousand pounds per annum 

In 1759, New Jersey, in which the fencible men in 
time of peace would have been about fifteen thousand 
men, had already lost one thousand men, and yet 
voted to raise one thousand more. Its yearly expendi- 
ture for the service of the war was equal to five dol- 
lars for each living being in the province. (Bancroft, 
vol. iv. p. 319.) 

In September, 1759, AVolfe's forces captured Quebec, 
and during the same year Amherst obtained possession 
of Crown Point and Ticonderoga. One year later 
Montreal caj)itulated,and the whole of the French pos- 
sessions surrendered to his Britannic Majesty George 

The Indians saw the French driven out of the coun- 
try, and themselves in danger of becoming wholly 
dependent upon a power which already commanded 
by its forts the great lakes and rivers, and they felt 
that an immediate and mighty effort was necessary to 
restrain the tide, which, if unimpeded, would spread 
itself over the continent, overwhelming their race in 
its course. A secret coalition was formed among the 
tribes covering tlie whole western frontier. Their plan 
was deliberately and skillfully projected, and the set- 
tlements of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia 
were simultaneouslv invaded during harvest. All the 



forts immediately fell into their bands, except Niagara, 
Detroit, and Pitt. This was in 1762, and hostilities 
continued until October, 1764. Governor William 
Franklin, on the approach of the savages to the Dela- 
ware, ordered out the militia, remanned the fortifica- 
tions, and built several new block-houses. Yet some 
of the Indians crossed the river, made their way 
through the lines, and massacred several families. 
The Assembly provided for raising two hundred men 
for the defense of the province, and appropriated ten 
thousand pounds for their support. They afterwards 
raised six hundred more men, who joined the Northern 
army. In July, 1764, an army of one thousand one 
hundred men, among which were the New Jersey 
troops, under Bradstreet, reached Niagara, where the 
Indians asked for peace, and a treaty was concluded 
with many of the tribes. 



The great pecuniary advances of the colonies during 
the late wars revealed to the British ministry the ex- 
istence of a wealth they had not suspected, and they 
were seized with an inexpressible desire to subject 
that wealth to the use of the mother-country. They 
hoped that those who had expended millions for de- 
fense might also be compelled to pay millions for 
tribute. Lord Grenville, tlie first commissioner of 
the treasury, conceived the idea of relieving England 
by the taxation of her colonies. The passage of the 
revenue act, which almost destroyed commercial in- 
tercourse with the French and Spanish colonies; of 
the Stamp Act in 1765, which deprived the colonists 
of their most essential rights as subjects of the crown 
and as men, and of other baneful and tyrannical acts 
aroused a spirit of resistance among the Americans 
that in years terminated in an appeal to arms. 

As early as 1765, Judge Joseph Borden, of Borden- 
town, was appointed by the Assembly of New Jersey 
a delegate to the Continental Congress that assembled 
in October of that year at New York, and in 1768 he 
was chairman of a committee of the Assembly to con- 
sider and answer the circular letter from Massachu- 
setts. From a sincere desire to obtain a redress of 
grievances, by petition to the king and Parliament, 
the colonists, through oppression, had passed to a 
determination to maintain their rights by force of 
arms, and when the government of England and the 
East India Company united to force the importation 
of teas into the colonies, it developed the most deter- 
mined spirit of resistance from New Hampshire to 

In no colony was this spirit more firmly displayed 
than in New Jersey. On the 8th of February, 1774, 
the Assembly, on the proposition of Virginia, ap- 

pointed from its members a standing Committee of 
Correspondence, with instructions to obtain the most 
early and authentic intelligence of all acts and reso- 
lutions of the British Parliament or the proceedings 
of the ministry which might affect the liberties of 
America, and returned "the thanks of the House to 
the Burgesses of Virginia for their early attention to 
the liberties of America.'" 

Early in July, 1774, the inhabitants of the several 
counties of New Jersey assembled at their respective 
county towns and adopted resolutions strongly disap- 
proving the course of the mother-country, and nomi- 
nated deputies to meet in convention to elect delegates 
to the Continental Congress about to convene at 
Philadelphia, The convention met at New Bruns- 
wick on the 2Ist of July, 1774, elected delegates to 
represent them in Congress, among whom was Richard 
Smith, of Burlington City, whose course was equivocal. 
The convention also appointed a standing Committee 
of Correspondence, consisting among others of Joseph 
Borden, Robert Field, Isaac Pearson, and Abraham 
Hunt,* of Burlington County. The first Continental 
Congress assembled at Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia, 
on the 5th of September, 1774. A body of greater 
men never adorned our annals. Lord Chatham, in a 
conversation with Franklin, said " they were the most 
honorable assembly of men ever known." The better 
to enforce their resolutions the Congress recom- 
mended the appointment of committees in the sev- 
eral counties and towns, who, soon after appointment, 
under the names of Committees of Superintendence 
and Correspondence, assumed no inconsiderable por- 
tion of the executive power and duties in the sev- 
eral colonies, and became efficient instruments in 
aiding the progress of the Revolution. The New 
Jersey delegates reported the proceedings of Congress 
to the Assembly of their colony Jan. 11, 1775, by 
whom they were unanimously approved, and the same 
gentlemen were requested to represent the colony in 
the next Congress. The Committee of Correspondence 
appointed by the convention met at New Brunswick 
May 2, 1775, when considering the extraordinary con- 
duct of the British ministry and the acts of hostility 
that had commenced in Massachusetts, directed their 
chairman immediately to call a second provincial 
convention or congress at Trenton on the 23d of 
May. A number of important measures were adopted 
by this body, among others the organization of a 
militia force, to consist of one or more companies of 
eighty men, in each township or corporation, and the 
imposing of a tax of ten thousand pounds. By an 
act passed August 15th, "minute-men" were organ- 
ized, the proportion of Burlington County being two 
regiments and one company of rangers. These 
"minute-men" were held in constant readiness on 

1 Minutes of the Provincial Congress ami Council of Safety of New 
Jcrfiey, 17T5-7G, pp. 1, 2. Naar, Day A Naar : Trenton, 1879. State 

* GorJoii''8 Hist. New Jersey, p. loG. 


the shortest notice to march to any place where as- 
sistance might he required for the defense of this or 
any neiglihoring colony.' Their uniform was a hunt- 
ing-frock as near as may be to the uniform of the 
Continental riflemen. 

The chief measure of this provincial convention or 
congress was the perpetuation of the authority they 
had assumed by providing that hereafter there shall 
be an election held in September of each year for 
new members. They also appointed a Committee of 
Safety, among whom were Isaac Pearson and Joseph 
Borden. The Provincial Congress elected in Sep- 
tember convened in October. They were chiefly em- 
ployed in war measures. Men capable of bearing 
arms, who were requested to enroll themselves by the 
lirst military ordinance, were now directed to do so. 
They were directed with all convenient speed to fur- 
nish themselves with a good musket or firelock and 
bayonet, sword, or tomahawk, a steel ramrod, worm, 
priming-wire and brush fitted thereto, a cartouch-box 
to contain twenty-three rounds of cartridges, twelve 
flints, and a knapsack. They were also directed to 
keep at their respective abodes one pound of powder 
and three pound of bullets. Fines if not paid were 
ordered to be collected by warrants of distress levied 
on the goods and chattels of the offender. 

In case of an alarm, the "minute-men" were' di- 
rected to repair immediately to their captain's resi- 
dence, and he was to march his company instantly to 
oppose the enemy. 

"At a General Mealing of tlie Freeliolilers and other Inlialiitants of 
tlie City and County of Uiuliiigton, in New Jersey, qualified to vote for 
•Repreeentativee in the Lcgielature, held at the Court llouBe on Tues- 
day, the 14th of February, ITTJ. 

" Peter Tallnian, Ksquire, in the Chair. 

"The Association euteretl into hy the General American Congress, 
convened at Philadcliihia on the Ctli of Seiiteniber last, was read and 

" Befolced, That in pursuance of the eleventh Article of the sjiiJ Asso- 
ciation, a Committee of Observation for the City and County be now ap- 
pointed, for the purposes in that Article mentioned; and the following 
persons were accordingly chosen, viz.: James Sterling, Colin Campbell, 
William Smith, and Jonathan Hough Ksqiiires, John Coatcs, Thomas 
Fenniniore, Thomas Keynolds, Esquire, Joseph Bndd, Jonathan Middle- 
ton, Jose])h Borden, Esq., John Wood, Willi;im Newbold, Isaac Pearson, 
Esq., Eandle Mitchell, William Lewis, I'eter Tallman, Esq., William 
Potts, John Black, Jo.sepli Head, Esq , Peter Shiras, Thomas Budd, Jun., 
Charles Tiead, Esq., John Evans, Josiah Foster, Joseph Stokes, Esquire, 
John Cox, Abnihani Ilewlings, Baldwin Wake, Esquire, Sauinel New- 
ton, Jacob Perkins, John Leek, Eli Matlhis, and William Pharo. 

" Hesohed, Tliat the said Committee shall bo and continue for one year 
from this time, unless the measures of the next General Congress shall 
make an alteration necessary. 

"Signed by order of the meeting. 

" Peter Tallmax, Chairman." 

June 24, 1775. The Burlington County Committee 
of Observation met at the house of John Imlay, in the 
township of Mansfield, Peter Tallman in the chair. 
The committee passed a series of i)atriotic resolu- 
tions, which among other things approved of the 
proposition of the Provincial Legislature to raise ten 
tiiousand pounds in the State for defensive purposes, 

1 St ryker's Officers and Men of Kew Jersey, p. 333. 

condemned the infamous acts of the British ministry, 
and rejoiced at the unanimity of Burlington citizens 
in opposing said acts, and requested and enjoined all 
persons not to injure or molest any one for political 
offenses but to have them insured a fair trial and then 
punished, etc. 

The first call of the Continental Congress on New 
Jersey for troops was on the 19th of October, 1775, 
when they asked for two battalions of eight companies 
each. The colony promptly furnished them. Israel 
Shreve was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and John 
Shreve ensign of the second battalion of the first es- 
tablishment, as it was designated. 

They were father and son, and resided in Mansfield 
township, near Georgetown. 

Part of this battalion, in three weeks from the call 
of Congress, was ordered to garrison a fort in the 
Highlands, on the Hudson River. On the 27lh of 
November the rest of the battalion were ordered into 
barracks at New York.^ On the 8th of January, 
1778, it was ordered to Albany, N. Y., to report to 
Gen. Schuyler, but want of sufficient arms and cloth- 
ing delayed its march. It was subsequently joined 
by the First and Third Battalions, and participated in 
the expedition against Canada, in which Gen. Mont- 
gomery had previously been killed^ and Arnold 

The following very interesting letter, addressed to 
the Hon. Francis Hopkinson, in Congress, by Lieut.- 
Col. Shreve, gives a very good idea of the services of 
the battalion. It is in the possession of Oliver Hop- 
kinson, Esq., and was never before published : 

"Mount I.vdepexde.nce, October 3d, 177G. 

"Sib, — I have not the honour to be Personally acquainted with you. 
But from my youth have been acquainted with your Hon'd father. Col. 
Borden, — I have Lately understood you are a member of the Grand 
Council of the United States, Beg lieve to Communicate to you the state 
of things here, especially the slate of the 2nd, N. Jersey Regt., Com- 
manded by Col. Wm. Maxwt-U, E-q in this Rpgt.I have the honor to be 
Lt. Colonel. I joined the northen army ye 3d day of May Last, before 
the walls of Quebec, with the Last Division of our Begt. the Col. and 
the other pait of the Regt. had been there some time; when I arrived 
I found the Army very weak, and in want of almost everything. In- 
cluding those I took down, the whole Army fit for duty was just 1025 — 
9i»0 Invalids, everything carried a Bad Prospect, until Generals Thomp- 
son and Sullivans Brigades arrived at Sorel in Thomsons Biigade came 
four fine Regis, from Cambridge, those Regis, as soon as they arrived 
almst, by Gen. Arnold's orders, were Inoculated for the Small Pox, as 
was Cul. Stark's Regt. a few Days after, all without the least occasion, 
as it was then an ea«y matter to keep it out of the Army, this Rendered 
those Regts. more of a Burden than service to their Country. About 
this time Gen. Thompson was ordered to Three Rivers, w ith ICOO, all from 
Middle Colonie.-i, 220 of our Regt. this Small army was unfortunalely 
Defeated. Col. Maxwell was second in command, and fir^t after the Gen. 
was missing. lie wisely conducted the retreat by Leading our people 
through the woods, Round the enemy that had marched a strong paily 
up the Road, ahead Laid in wait for our peo]ile, and consequently saved 
the Remains of our parly, and if there was any merit Due to any, it 
ought to be to him who conducted the Retreat, although we see the 
honor given to others, who do not Deserve it. 

" A short time before this provisions was so scarce that half a pound 
pork and pint of unbolted meal was served out for two days. I was sent 

* Adjt.-Gen. Siryker's Jerseymen. 

s Storming of Quebec, Dec. 31, 1775. 

* At the same place and time. 



to command a post at Beitliier, had the oversight of Grinding Wheat 
for tlie Army, and (charge) of a few licaves for my party and fared 
something better. Finally tlie Army left Canada, Biinging ont almost 
Every thing belonging to the Army. But made a shocking figure, by 
sickness, occasioned by Inoculation mostly, some other Disurders pre- 
vailed its true, the Army beie at present Consists of 17 Continental 
Rogts. Including one at Crown Point, and 12of Ihc five montlis Bounty 
IJegt. (as they are called) The llegts. some by hard service, others by 
sickness are reduced from 3(iO, down to Less than 100 fit for duty, our 
Lines are Extensive and strong, vith seveial Redouts. But still near 
the Point on Ticonderoga side, is as yet in my opinion too open. Three 
Large Kow Gallies mounting 12 guns each, just Gon down the Lake to 
join the fleet, this addition I think will make our fleet able to Cope 
with theirs, so Soon and water Craft EnoUf;h to transport an Army suf- 
ficient to Attempt our Lines. Some peiitlemeu have their fears, and 
seem to Expect them Every Day. this is Contrary to my opinion, and 
has lieen for some time. 

' Kow I will Endeavor to Give you a State of Kegt. It was raised for 
one year, w.-is full about the middle of November Last. Our Col. aud 
Eegt was esteemed by all the Generals that have commanded here this 
campaign (of which we have had a great variety) until the present old 
Gentleman Come, who has not used the Col. and Regt. so well as I could 
vish, and I Believe the Rejison, Col. Maxwell was older in Commission, 
and Consecjuently Commanded his favorites, for this Reason was sepa- 
rated from the other Southern Regt. aud placed among the Eastern 
troops, on this Woodey hill. However Col. Maxwell is more of a Gentle" 
man than to dispute with the Gen. So as to cause atf uneasiness in the 
Aimy . 

"Sir, we are astonished to think Major Wood is preferred to a Regt. 
over the head of Lt. Col. Ervan, Major Morris, and many others who 
merrit far more than he can. He has done Little or no Duty in the 
Army, had the Command of the Battoes at Three Rivers, and Saved 
them, this might be done through fear more than Good Conduct, how- 
ever he scratched his Leg, run Down to Congress, made a Good Story 
and Got a Regt. this is to often the case. 

"Sir, we understand 85 Regiments are to be Raised on a new Estab- 
li-hment. the officers of our Regt. are very anxious to know whether 
this Eegt. is to Continue in the new arrangement or not. If it is to Con- 
tinue would be very Desirous to know the Terms of lulistnient, so that 
we might have an opiiortunily to engage as many of our idd hands as 
we Could, before their term is out ; As we oxjiect to march them home as 
soon as we are not wanted here. I think one man that has weathered 
through tills Canij)aign is worth almost ten that havent. Most of them 
will Iclist again provided they can go home to See their friends while 
the regiment is filling up. 

" I Beg Leave just to remind you that I am the oldest Lieut. Col. in 
the service, from the Middle Colonies, and when a vacancy among the 
Kew Jersey troops presents, I Beg I may not be forgotten. 
" I am Your Humble Servant, 

"Israel Sureve." 

The regiment remained at this post until Nov. 5, 
1776, when it Avas ordered to New Jersey for dis- 

The Provincial Congress of New Jersey, on the 2d 
of July, 1776, adopted a constitution and instructed 
the delegates in Congress to join in declaring the 
united colonies independent of Great Britain, and on 
the 18th of July assumed the title of the convention 
of the State of New Jersey. William Franklin' was 

1 William Franklin, the only and natural son of Benjamin Franklin, 
was born in 1731. He was po>tmaster of Philadelphia at one time, and 
served as clerk in the House of Representatives of Pennsylvania. He 
was a captain in the French and Indian war, and fought bravely under 
Abercrombie at Ticonderoga. He vi.-ited England with his father, 
and was api)ointed Governor of New Jersey in 17C3 by Lord Fairfax. 
Until the period of the Revolution he was very poiailar with the people. 
His conduct caused an estrangement with his father, which lasted for 
ten years. After he was exchanged he became president of the hoard 
of directors of the Associated Loyali.sts. He went to England at the 
close of the war, where he resided until his death, in November, 1813, 
enjoying a pension of four thousand dollars per annum. He left a 
natural sou, William Teniple Franklin, who edited his giaud.''ather's 

the royal Governor of New Jersey at this time. To 
strengthen the Tory element and oppose the patriots 
he summoned the House of Assembly, in the name 
of the king, to meet in June. But the Provincial 
Congress declared him an enemy of the cause, and 
ordered his arrest. Col. Heard executed this order, 
and brought liim before the Provincial Council, who 
sent him under guard to Governor Trumbull, of Con- 
necticut, who confined him in jail. William Liv- 
ingston was elected the first Governor of the State.''' 

Upon the reorganization of the Continental army 
upon the basis of eighty-eight battalions. Congress 
called upon New Jersey, Sept. 16, 1776, for four bat- 
talions, termed the Second Edablishmenf. In this the 
command of the Second Battalion was given to Col. 
Israel Shreve, and in it we find Ensign John Shreve 
promoted to a second lieutenancy. 

The militia of New Jersey was organized in 1775. 
At various times during the war thi.s State, by reason 
of its situation on the coast, and its lying between 
cities in possession of the enemy, was continually 
open to the incursion of British troops and tlie rav- 
ages of refugees and Indians. It was also the theatre 
of many battles, skirmishes, and forage expeditions, 
greatly to the annoyance of the inhabitants, as well 
as dangerous to the established government. It was 
found necessary, therefore, to embody, as occasion 
required, a certain quota of volunteers from the 
militia of the different counties. These men were 
held liable to duty when needed, not only in this, 
but also in adjoining States. These organizations 
were called "New Jersey Levies," "Five Months' 
Levies," but generally designated as " State Troops."^ 

The first act to organize the infantry branch of the 
State troops was passed Nov. 27, 1776. We shall 
have occasion to speak of them hereafter. 

The year 1776 — glorious '76 ! — has been truly 
termed " the time that tried men's souls." The aus- 
picious opening of the struggle was followed by a 
series of defeats and disappointments in that year 
that nearly crushed out the life of the infant nation. 
Washington, anticipating the march of Gen. Howe 

works, aud died in Paris in 1823. A work published in 1802 B.iys, " Gov- 
ernor Franklin in point of person is above the common size, with tiie 
eye and figure of a veteran. Although subject to the gout, he appears 
to be stroug aud athletic, and was accounted one of the handsomest 
men in .\merica." Had he j. lined the patiiut cause he i>rulially would 
have attained an illustrious po>ition among the galaxy of the Revolu- 
tion. But he preferred a life of inglorious comfort to an eternity of 

* William Livingston, LL.D., was born in New York in 1723, and 
graduated in Yale College. In 1708 he edited the Ameri':an Wliig, iu 
New York. He afterwards became a distinguished lawyer, and signal- 
ized himself by his wiitiiigs agaiIl^t the encroaclimeuts of Great Britain. 
Soon after his removal lo N£w Jersey he was chosen a member of the Coiigres.s,in 1774. He was appointed a brigadier-general of militia, 
Oct. 28, 1775. In 177G he was elected Governor of New Jersey, and such 
were his acknowledged talents and republican virtue, and the love of 
the peojile for him, that he was annually elected to that office until bii 
death. He was a delegate to the convention which formed the Consti- 
tution of the United States, and an author of much ability. He died in 
Elizabethtown, July '25, 1790. 

s Adjt.-Geu. Striker. 



upon Philadelphia, crossed into New Jersey. Mov- 
ing slowly, breaking down the bridges, obstructing 
the roads with fallen trees, taking up positions, dis- 
playing lines of battle, he had the address to prolong 
a march of ninety miles for nineteen days. 

Arriving at Trenton with about three thousand 
" ragamuflBns," as the Tories with some propriety 
called them, with nothing that could be dignified 
witli the name of cavalry, and with a splendidly- 
equipped army of twenty thousand under Cornwallis 
following him, "Washington, as the last alternative, 
after destroying the bridges on the roads along the 
river, collected the boats on the Jersey shore, and on 
the 8th of December crossed the Delaware to the 
Pennsylvania side. As the last boat reached the 
shore at midnight, a division of the IBritish army with 
all the pomp of victors marched into Trenton. Corn- 
wallis immediately threw out detachments to recon- 
noitre the river above and below his position, and soon 
after advanced strong columns to Coryell's Ferry 
above, and Bordentown below, thus threatening to 
cross at two points and envelope the American army 
or march directly upon Philadelphia. All the boats 
upon the river for the distance of seventy miles having 
been secured upon the Pennsylvania side, Cornwallis 
awaited quietly the formation of a bridge of ice to 
cross his troops over and march ti-iumphantly into 

At this time the British had complete possession of 
New Jersey. Their troops were stretched from Bur- 
lington and Mount Holly to Trenton, and from thence 
to Princeton, New Brunswick, and Amboy. They 
marched up and down the Delaware and through the 
country without any molestation. Cornwallis looked 
with contempt upon the weak and scattered forces of 
Washington, and although he was bent upon the cap- 
ture of Philadelphia as a paramount measure, both 
he and Howe retired to New York. Cornwallis had 
even applied for leave of absence and made arrange- 
ments to sail for England, and when Col. Rail asked 
for reinforcements, said to the messenger, "Tell the 
colonel he is very safe; I will undertake to keep the 
peace in New Jersey with a corporal's guard." 

On the 10th of December a detachment of Continen- 
tal rifles passed through Bordentown, from the White 
Horse tavern, where they had been stationed, they re- 
moving the plank from the drawbridge over Crosswicks 
Creek. Moving down to Burlington, they crossed over 
the river to Bristol. The next day Count Donop, at the 
head of a Hessian battalion, numbering some four hun- 
dred men and two brass field-pieces, marched through 
Bordentown to Burlington. They stacked their arms 
in the streets and commenced cooking their dinner, 
but a number of Continental gondolas in the river 
opening fire upon them, they thought it better to with- 

1 History of the Church in Burliugton, Bev. George Morgan Hills, 
D.D , page 315. 

Dr. Odell, a noted Tory, in a letter speaking of 
their arrival, says, — 

"After giving tliis Parole I remain'd unmolested nt home till about 
the middle of Inst month (Decemher*, whcnabody of Hes-ians under the 
command of Count Bunop came to Burlinclon, iutciiding to fake Post 
with us for the Winter. Some of my neighbors thought it advisable to 
meet the commandant on his approach to the Town and to request him 
to spare the Inhabitants from Insult and their property from pilhige, they 
requested me to go with them and as-ist in tliis charitable Address as nn 
Interpreter. I did so, and had the pleasure to find that I had a pretty 
pood pnspect of being of real service to my peaceable neigliburs. But 
five Gondolas lying in the River began to cannonade the town in order 
to prevent the troops taking Quarter witli us. Many houses \v<Te dam- 
aged but nobody hurt. The Hessian Commandant however having with 
him no heavy Cannon, thought proper to retire that night to Bordentown 
intending to return with Artillery sufficient to make good his quarters. 
In tlie meantime tho' I believe every candid man will wonder why we 
should be punished for having been left defenceless and for having so- 
licited safety from the King's troops in our defenceless condition, even 
supposing us to have assented to those mpasnres which had brought the 
Troops into the country and even to our Doors; yet true it is, that as 
soon as it was known on board of the Gondolas that the troops had left 
us, the Town was cruelly insulted and from day to day kei't in alarm by 
these River Tyrants. Mr. Lawrence, young Mr. Haw lings & myself were 
in particular pursued by two C8i)tains i a number of armed men. We 
made our escape & were under the neccssit}' of taking refuge among the 
King's Troops, and as the design of taking Pcist at Burlington was soon 
after given up, I have been obliged to leave my w ife & 3 cliildren (the 
youngest not five weeks old) and to ramble as a Refugee — God kuows 
when to return." 

The Hessians remained near here until after the 
battle of Trenton, but the gondola-men, "those 
River Tyrants," kept them a respectable distance 
from the town, thus protecting the patriots from plun- 
der, and having an opportunity of levying contribu- 
tions on the Tories. 

About the same time a Hessian brigade, two thou- 
sand strong, entered and occupied Bordentown, Count 
Donop making it his headquarters. The American 
army at this time was stretched along the Pennsyl- 
vania shore, from Coryell's down to Kirkbride's Ferry, 
opposite Bordentown. Tentless, but half clothed and 
fed, they lay there on the hard frozen ground, the 
last hope of the young nation. Gen. Dickinson, with 
some New Jersey militia, was posted opposite the 
city. The Americans had full posse.ssion of the Del- 
aware, and their galleys, armed with ship guns, were 
continually moving upon the river watching for the 
enemy. Such respect had the foe been inspired with 
for their guns that they kept a continual watch upon 
them, and never approached the shore in force while 
they were uear at hand. Who can doubt but what 
the communication between the inhabitants of Borden- 
town and the patriotarmy opposite was quite frequent? 
Doubtless all the movements of the enemy were duly 
reported, and if the discipline in the army was not 
strict undoubtedly the boys stole over at night. The 
galley-men had pretty much possession of Burlington, 
and frequently landed to search for Tories, and no 
sooner did the Hessians appear in the town than they 
opened fire upon it and drove them out. On the 
night of the 19lh a snow-storm almost stopped the 
navigation, and drove the guard-boats down the river. 
They were up again on the 23d, and on the memora- 



ble 26th a large number of gondolas, galleys, and flat- 
bottomed boats came as high as Bordentown, some 
going beyond. 

Gen. Putnam, who had been placed in command of 
Philadelphia by Washington, and upon whom Con- 
'gress had conferred almost unlimited power for the 
defense of the city, being acquainted with the design 
upon Trenton, unknown to Washington, on the 22d 
sent Col. Griffin, with four hundred and fifty Penn- 
sylvania militia, across from Philadelphia into New 
Jersey to make a diversion in favor of the Trenton en- 
terprise. Griffin was ordered to proceed to Mount 
Holly, for the purpose of attracting the attention of 
Count Donop at Bordentown. His orders were not 
to fight, but to retreat when the enemy should appear. 
When Donop received intelligence of this movement 
he put his whole force of two thousand men in motion, 
and so successful was Grifiin, and so dilatory was the 
count in his marches after the retreat of the Americans, 
that it was two days before he returned to Borden- 
town. Donop arrived there late on the afternoon of 
Christmas-day. Early the next morning the news of 
the disaster of Rail came. His troops may not have 
been in good condition to meet an enemy, but an en- 
terprising oflScer, if he did not deem it prudent to 
fight, would have moved towards Trenton and ascer- 
tained the extent of the disaster. Donop, ^ however, 
who was in command of all the troops below Trenton, 
immediately commenced his retreat, moving out the 
Recklesstown road to the old York road, and by an 
indirect route joined Gen. Leslie at Princeton. 

After the defeat of the Hessians at Trenton, a troop 
of British light-horse and some infantry, in all about 
six hundred, escaped to Bordentown. The infantry 
probably brought the news of the disaster to Donop, 
and most of them eventually joined him. The light- 
horse after crossing the drawbridge moved into a 
field and were concealed in Double Gulch Hollow, in 
the Park, until near night. As the road was clear for 
the continuance of their retreat, and as their horses 
were fresh after the few miles they had moved that 
day, it seems quite probable the object of the officer 
in command was to ambush any party of Americans 
that might follow him. 

When Count Donop marched to oppose the ad- 
vancing column of Col. Griffin, Col. Charles Read, 
of the Second Battalion, Burlington militia, who had 
been detailed as colonel to command a battalion of 
State troops, was in the neighborhood of Black Horse, 
now Columbus. Desponding at the gloomy prospect 
of the cause and being deficient in political fortitude, 
he submitted to and received from the enemy a pro- 
tection. Count Donop, in his diary and his report to 

' Count Donop was mortally wounded while gallantly leading bis com- 
mand to the assault of Fort Mercer, New Jerse}', on the 2'2d of October, 
1777. He lived three days, during which the kindest attention was 
bestowed upon him. He was thirty-seven years old. "It is finishing a 
nolile career early, but 1 die the victim of my auibitiou, and of the 
avarice of my sovereign," were his lust words. 

Maj.-Gen. Grant, says Gen. Mifflin (referring to Col. 
Griffin) advanced his rebel corps to the bridge on the 
Moorestown road, three miles from Mount Holly, 
where he met Col. Read, called him a "damned ras- 
cal," and took him prisoner. Tt has long been sup- 
posed the Col. Read referred to by the count was Col. 
Joseph Reed, adjutant-general to Gen. Washington, 
who was known to have contemplated submission at 
that time to the enemy. This fact, liowe^^er, which 
disproves one of the charges made against Col. Jo- 
seph Reed, has been brought to light tlirough the 
researches of Adjt.-Gen. Stryker, of New Jersey. 

Washington, victorious at Trenton, again crossed 
the Delaware into Jersey on the 30th of December. 
At the same time the Pennsylvania militia moved 
over. Gen. Mifflin occupying Bordentown with fifteen 
hundred, and Cadwallader, Crosswicks, with two thou- 
sand one hundred. The whole of the enemy's line of 
cantonments along the Delaware was broken up and 
driven into the interior. Lord Cornwallis, who was 
ordered back into New Jersey, concentrated the main 
British army in the neighborhood of Princeton. Upon 
being apprised of Washington's movement, and know- 
ing the troops from New England were entitled to 
their discharge on the 2d of January, he advanced 
upon Trenton. The battle of Assunpink followed, 
victorious for the Americans. Cornwallis knew the 
surging Delaware was in Washington's rear, and be- 
lieved that on the morrow, with the veteran reinforce- 
ments that were hastening up, he could crush out and 
capture the raw militia. But the morrow's sun glis- 
tened on Washington's bayonets on Princeton's 
heights, and the thunder of the conflict bore tiie first 
tidings to Cornwallis that his rear had been turned. 
God blessed the patriots, and the battles of Trenton 
and Princeton conjointly now constitute in history 
one of the "seven great battles of the world." Thus 
Washington in ten days, by a succession of the most 
brilliant and daring manoeuvres on record, lifted the 
young nation out of the depths of despondency, and 
turned the tide of misfortune and despair to victory 
and glory. He who but a short time before led the 
last remnant of an almost lost cause struck with 
astonishment and surprise both friend and foe. He 
who was distrusted by friends and despised by the 
foe became the pride of America and the wonder of 

During the winter of 1776-77, Washington estab- 
lished his quarters at Morristown, and by vigilance 
and enterprise drove the enemy from New Jersey, ex- 
cept at New Brunswick and Amboy. Many strag- 
glers from the army, particularly immediately after 
Princeton, passed through Burlington County, some- 
times amounting to one hundred .a day. During the 
first half of the year 1777 a large Continental army 
was concentrated in New Jersey, Washington fearing 
the enemy would again attempt to march through the 
State to Philadelphia. Frequent mention is made of 
troops being at Bordentown. Mrs. Margaret Morris, 



a lady of Tory feelings and prejudices, residing at 
Burlington, in her journal says, — 

" February 4tli. To-dny ei{,'lit boats full of Boldiere sailed up the river 
to JMJn tlie forces. They apjieared to be merry." 

"Ajiril ITtli. A number of flat bottomed boats went up the river and 
landed troops at Bristol. ' 

•'June lath. Tiie soldiers at Bristol beat to march, aud sailed up the 

"June Ulh. Before dajliglit the alarm-guns at Princeton, Trenton, 
Bordentown.and Bri-tol were fired, and answered by those below. The 
gondolas, barges, and flat-bottomed boats pass up the liver." 

In July the British troops evacuated New Jersey, 
and sailing for the Chesapeake, marched overland 
by way of Brandy wine, and on the 26th of September 
Lord Cornwallis, at the head of the British and Hes- 
sian grenadiers, entered Philadelphia. 

On the 8th of May, 1778, an expedition commanded 
by Capt. Henry, of the British navy, with about seven 
hundred troops under Maj. Maitland, ascended the 
Del.aware. After destroying much shipping they 
landed at Bordentown, burned the houses of Judge 
Joseph Borden and of Col. Joseph Kirkbride, on the 
Pennsylvania shore opposite. (See history of Bor- 

Soon after this expedition. Sir Henry Clinton suc- 
ceeded Sir William Howe in command of the British 
army. The determination of France to succor the 
colonies with a fleet rendered it unsafe for the enemy 
to longer hold Philadelphia, lest their shipping might 
be blockaded in the river. To move by water to 
New York might give Washington an opportunity 
of reaching that city by forced marches ahead of 
them. Therefore it was decided to march through 
the Jerseys. Tliat Washington was aware of their 
intention is shown by the following notice, inserted 
over three weeks in advance of the movement in the 
Aew Jersey Gazette of May 27th : 

"The militia of this Slate are desired to be particularly attentive to 
signals, as a movcuieut of the enemy is soon expected." 

A little before dawn on the morning of the 18th of 
June, 1778,^ they evacuated the city, and before night 
the motley crew of British regulars, loyalists, and 
Hessians, and a vast crowd of camp followers had 
crossed the Delaware and were encamped in Jersey. 
Gen. Maxwell, with the Jersey Brigade of Continental 
troops, had been sent prior to this to take position at 
the difficult pass near Mount Holly. Gen. Dickinson 
was assembling tlif militia with great energy, and had 
already commenced the destruction of the bridges, 
the felling of trees acro.5s the roads, and other impedi- 
ments to delay their march. Gen. Clinton moved 
with great deliberation, passing through Haddonfield, 
Moorestown, Mount Holly, Slabtown. Columbus, 
Bordentown, Crossjwicks, Allentown, Walnford, and 
Imlaystown. Maxwell retired before him, and Dick- 
inson and Cadwallader hung upon his flanks and rear 
in small, light parties, capturing all stragglers and 
marauders, and annoying him from favorable points. 

I Loss:ng'« Fleld-Book, vol. II. p. 147. 

Before daylight on the morning of the 23d of June,^ 
a large party of light troops (foot) passed through 
Bordentown and out the AVhite Horse or Trenton 
! road to the drawbridge. At this time all the Conti- 
nental troops and the great body of,the militia were 
; north of the Crosswicks, though but few on the line 
1 of it. The First Burlington, Col. William Shreve, 
I and First Hunterdon, Col. Joseph Phillips, were sta- 
tioned to guard Watson's Ford, where the Camden and 
I Amboy Railroad bridge crosses tlie creek, and the regi- 
ments of Cols. Frederic Frelinghuysen, Henry Yan- 
dike, and John Webster remained to hold the bridge. 
I Gen. Dickinson had some redoubts thrown up north of 
the bridge, and the flooring had been removed aud the 
draw raised. Under cover of darkness the light troops 
approached, and, having ripped the planks and 
■weather-boards from a neighboring barn, proceeded 
with zeal to repair the bridge. The militia were got 
under arms and double-quicked to the bridge, but the 
picket who had been stationed there opened uj)onthe 
enemy with such spirit as to drive them back with the 
loss of four killed and several wounded. The militia 
remained under arms the balance of the night and most 
of the day, but no further attempt was made to seize 
the bridge. The position at the bridge is a most ex- 
cellent one, as is the line of Crosswicks Creek gener- 
ally, on either side, for defense. If Washington, then 
marching to intercept the movement of the British 
to New York, could have taken position on the north 
bank of this creek, he would have had a much more 
advantageous position than at Monmouth, and a pro- 
longed battle of manceuvriug and detached fighting 
would probably have taken place before the enemy 
could have forced a passage over one of the few fords, 
or turned the left of the position near the Pines. 

The British, finding it inadvisable to dislodge the 
militia, left a suSicient guard to hold the positions at 
the bridge and ford, to prevent the Americans from 
crossing in their rear and annoying their trains. 
Moving on an old road, they entered Crosswicks by a 
long abandoned road that wound through the meadow 
near Braislin's brick-yard, and entered the main road 
in the rear of the town. 

The main body of the British under Lieut. -Gen. 
Earl Cornwallis entered Bordentown early in the day. 
Plundering and burning Col. Lewis' grist-mill on 
Black's Creek, they followed the advance to Cross- 
wicks. The column halted in the road behind the 
village. A field or staff officer rode forward to re- 
connoitre, and halted his horse on the brow of the 
hill overlooking the bridge, on the field where the 
creamery now stands at the cross-roads. Col. Caleb 
Shreve, who was on that side of the bridge, imme- 
diately entered the old red house now standing on the 
corner diagonally from the creamery and opposite the 
Friends' grounds, and from the side next the bridge 
fired at and mortally wounded him. He was after- 

1 • Gen. Sir Heurj- Clinton's oflScial report. 



vards carried to a house at the east end of the village, 
the same now occupied by Mr. John Braislin. If the 
colonel had been discovered he would have been shot 
and the house burnt to the ground. The militia and 
farmers of the country had gathered in considerable 
force on the opposite side of the creek, in what was 
then known as Woodwardville, now North Cross- 
wicks. They had already torn up the flooring of the 
bridge and were cutting away the sleepers. The 
enemy at once advanced light troops to drive them 
from their Avork, when a bI■i^k skirmish ensued. The 
Americans having a small field-piece, it is not probable 
the enemy showed themselves in large bodies within 
its range. There was no occasion for their doing 
so, as if they wished to increase their fighting force 
the safest and most efl^ective way was by the strength- 
ening or extension of their skirmish line. Their light 
troops scattered along the brow of the hill kept up a 
sprinkling fire, but tbe brave fellows continued at 
their work, and soon all but the last sleeper was gone. 
A young man named Clevenger determined to com- 
plete the work of destruction, and, with axe in band, 
stood bravely to his task. He soon became the target 
of the Britisli skirmishers, but the whizzing of the 
balls only strengthened his arm and quickened his 
blows. He needed not the cheers of the Americans 
to urge him on, for he faltered not in his task. The 
last sleeper was cut and fell splashing into the water 
amidst the cheers of his comrades. His victory 
was won, and turning to seek shelter a rausket-ball 
entered his brain, and he fell back into the creek, 
yielding his life for his country's independence. His 
name is not borne on the muster-roll of any regiment 
in the service of his State. He was a volunteer fight- 
ing for his country without hope of pay or reward. 

Another column of British troops lay in camp near 
the old York road and the Recklesstown pike. Upon 
hearing the sound of artillery they moved towards 
whence it came. These troops and Cornwallis' col- 
umn were very likely massed behind the village, 
under shelter of the houses. The Americans' field- 
piece very probably was posted on the brow of the 
hill, some distance above the bridge, in position to 
rake the road extending along the westerly side of 
the Friends' ground. It is probable in the attempt 
to fire up this road or over the meeting-house at the 
troops in rear of it the ball struck the wall that so 
long remained in it, and the scar of which can now be 
seen. It is probable the firing soon ceased on both 
sides, as nothing could be gained by its continuance 
after the bridge was down, without the British in- 
tended to force a passage, which they showed no in- 
clination that d.ay to do. During the skirmish two 
or three of the enemy besides the officer were shot. 
Col. Elias Dayton, of the militia, had a horse shot 
under him at the forks of the road, near the crest of 
the hill.^ During the day the whole British army 

1 Lossing'e FicIJ-Book, toI. i. p. 323. 

was concentrated here. The column of His Excel- 
lency Lieut. -Gen. Knyphausen, with the provisions 
and bnggage-trains, bat-horses, and reserve artillery, 
extending in a line nearly twelve miles long, moved 
out on the Ellisdale road and bivouacked somewhere 
between Crosswicks and the Iron Bridge road. The best 
position for a bivouac in that neighborhood is Sat- 
terthwait's Level, which possesses all the requisites of 
defense, with space, wood, and water. That night their 
videttes extended as far as Wain ford, their officers 
and men moving continually on the road. Two of 
them came to the farm-house of Alexander Howard 
to inquire as to the residence of some noted Whig. 
Mr. Howard received them on his porch, in his flut- 
tering .robes, was exceedingly polite, but very ignor- 
ant as to the whereabouts of the individual sought. 
They informed him it was quite refreshing to meet with 
a gentleman, for they had just been over to the house 
on the other side of the road, where they received 
from an old ladj' the greatest scolding they ever had 
in their lives. The lady referred to was Mrs. Steward. 
She was a stanch patriot, who believed the times tried 
the women's as well as the men's souls. Early the 
next morning the column moved forward, passing 
through Ellisdale, then called Gibbstown, to Wain- 
ford, on the Crosswicks. Here the bridge had been 
broken down, and the sappers and miners worked 
hard for two hours to throw another across. Heavy 
trees were felled for sleepers, and smaller ones with 
branches were placed over them, with a good coating 
of dirt for a roadsvay. The division was all day 
passing this point, and was accompanied by a large 
crowd of camp followers. A number of officers dined 
at the house of Richard Wain, near the Mills. Gen. 
Knyphausen arrived rather late, and finding the table 
full, ate in the shed. Pigs' feet was the principal 
dish served, and when he fini.shed he for a moment 
contemplated in silent admiration the vast pile of 
bones he had left. Then with his knife sweeping 
them ofi' the table, he remarked, " I am done." It 
was the general impression of the Wain family that 
he was. Watson, in his Annals, says, " He used to 
spread his butter on his bread with his thumb." But 
we must not judge the general by his Hessian eccen- 
tricities.'' We can well understand why an army of 
eleven thousand men should have a train of nearly 
twelve miles long. During the passage of this column 
through the Jerseys they visited nearly all the houses 
on the road, and took therefrom one-half of all the 
blankets, sheets, and provisions, and many of the 

* He was n native of AlBace, then and now one of the Ithciiish prov- 
inces. Ilis fiitlier was colonel of o Geinmn regiment. The general waa 
bred a soldier, and served under Frederick I., father of the (jreat Fred- 
erick, lie coniniauded all the nierceuiiry troops in Aineiica, and was 
considered an excellent ofticer. At this time he was abont sixty jeai-s 
of age, medium height, slender and straight, and was remarkably amia- 
ble and simple-minded. Polite in manneis, gentle in deportment, ho 
was much esteemed by the British oflficers. He died on the frontiers of 
Germany about 179C. — Losfimfs Fiehl-Dook, vol. i. p. I;i2, and vol. ii. p. 



cattle and horses. A Mr. Lawrence, who lived near 
Walnford, was thus treated, but it is said the Hessians 
divided fairly with him. Perhaps they could afford 
to do so. At the house of John Thorn, near the toll- 
gate of the Crosswicks and Recklesstown turnpike, 
after cleaning out his cellar, they attempted to force 
their way to the upper rooms, where the women had 
fled in terror. But old John Thorn manfully defended 
the stairway and saved them, carrying to his grave 
the scars of their sabres. 

This march of Knyphausen appears to have com- 
pletely deceived the militia, who were somewhat dis- 
posed to take suppositions for facts. Having but an 
imperfect knowledge of the composition of the long 
line on the Ellisdale road, the rear of which probably 
did not reach the bivouac until midnight, they sup- 
posed Clinton, baffled in his attempt to cross at two 
points, was moving up the creek with his whole army. 
He, however, that night lay near Crosswicks, con- 
cealed from view so completely thac his fires could 
not be seen. The next morning, the 24th, the Amer- 
icans were found to have abandoned their position. 
Naturally strong, even with the advantage of number 
and discipline, Clinton could not have forced the pas- 
sage without considerable loss if properly resisted. 
The Americans' gun would have to have been silenced 
and themselves driven bej'ond ran^e before the bridge 
could have been rebuilt. Full of fight and spirit the 
day before, they would have given him trouble if they 
had not been withdrawn. Deceived tiiough the prob- 
abilities are they moved up the creek to a point near 
where the iron bridge now stands, where the enemy 
had cut a road down to the creek and made show of 
crossing, doubtlessly to deceive the militia. 

From "A Tale of the Revolution," founded on tra- 
ditions in the Bunting family, and preserved by Mrs. 
Henry Hance, the manuscript of which the author 
ha-s been kindly placed in possession of, we gather the 
following interesting facts: The house of Bunting 
stood where Samuel Vandegrift's house now is. Some 
time during the day of the fighting the main army 
under Gen. Clinton arrived, they in moving across 
the fields destroying and trampling under the coru 
and other grain. A portion of them lay during the 
day and night on the lawn leading down to the little 
creek, on the westerly side of the village, stretching 
from the present road at that point around nearly to 
the Recklesstown road. Sir Henry Clinton made his 
headquarters at Bunting's house, and in the evening 
got gloriously drunk. 'We will now quote the writer's 
account of the affair, which, we have been informed, 
is strictly true: "But she (the mother) was not al- 
lowed to indulge in her sad reflections for many 
moments before she was summoned to the room be- 
low to supply bucket and clothes and all things neces- 
sary to remove the mud from the august person of the 
British general. He, it seemed, had an attack of 
nightmare, caused by the carouse of the evening, and 
probably imagining that the Yankees were upon him, 

started from his bed, and rushing through the door, 
which was open on account of the heat, dashed down 
the hill, and before the astonished sentinel could de- 
cide whether he had seen a ghost or not, his noble 
commander was floundering knee-deep among the 
mud and mallows of the little creek. The plunge 
awakened him, and his loud outcries brought officers 
and soldiers rushing from the tents, in the full ex- 
pectation of finding themselves attacked by the rebel 
army. The shouts and curses, the confusion, the 
rushing here and there of half-dressed men formed a 
scene at once alarming and ridiculous. But the 
cause being at length discovered, the discomfited gen- 
eral was borne back to his quarters, and with Mrs. 
Bunting's aid was cleansed, and, stupefied as he still 
was, placed again in the clean, comfortable bed 
which he had occupied ; order was restored in the 
camp, and silence reigned unbroken till reveille 
aroused the slumbering host." Young Samuel Bun- 
ting, who was serving under Washington, came home 
that day a little while before the arrival of the Brit- 
ish at his mother's house, and burnt his uniform up 
in the kitchen fireplace. During the day, in his old 
farm-clothes, he fraternized with the soldiers, counted 
the guns and regiments, listened to the drunken con- 
versation of Sir Henry, and during the uproar es- 
caped from the house, and under cover of the dark- 
ness passed through their lines, swam the creek, and 
carried what information he had gathered to the 
American army." 

During the night it rained, and the reserve of the 
British guard stationed at the bridge crossing occu- 
pied the Friends' meeting-house. The old flint-lock 
musket was not well adapted for use in rainy weather, 
and drawing their loads to cleanse and put them into 
serviceable order, they struck the muzzles on the 
benches, the marks of which are plainly visible to 
this day. Soon after daylight the enemy commenced 
reconstructing the bridge, and passing over a sufficient 
force to hold the position, completed it, when the 
whole army, unencumbered by trains, crossed and 
moved out beyond Allentown,' covering the position 
of Knyphausen, who lay at Imlaystown with the 
trains. A portion of Cornwallis' army bivouacked 
on the farm of Robert Montgomery, a man of peace; 
three of whose family though were ofiicers in the army. 
Before they left they. fired several rounds at his house, 
one of the balls of which is still imbedded in the wall. 
The house and farm is now occupied by Bennington 
Gill, Esq. 

The glorious battle of Monmouth was fought on the 
28th of June, 1778.^ It being harvest-time, as soon 

1 This nnnie is derived from Nathan Allen, who in 170.'> purchased five 
hvmdred and twenty acres of land of Robert Burnet. The tract com- 
menced where Abel Chafferty's mill now stands. lie was a stanch 
Quaker. — Hut. DU. Presbyterian Church, Allentown, hi/ Hie llec. George 
Swain. 1877, p. 11. 

2 The author is indebted to J. O'lleir, ordnance sergeant U. S. A., in 
charge of post Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, for the following inter- 
esting item : Molly Pitcher, the daughter of John Ilauna, of AUeutowu, 



as the service of the militia could be dispensed with 
they were permitted to return to their homes to gather 
the crops. With willing hands and gladdened hearts 
could they work irf the fields they had so materially 
assisted in driving the ])lundering foe from. In the 
general orders issued the day after the battle, Wash- 
ington says, "Gen. Dickinson and the militia of this 
State are also thanked for their nobleness in opposing 
the enemy in their march from Philadelphia, and for 
the aid which they have given in harassing and im- 
peding their advance." 

That the county suffered from straggling soldiers 
and camp followers of the British army is evident 
from the following advertisements, taken from issues 
of the New Jersey Gazette after the battle : 

"The public are requested to be cautious about purchasing or re- 
ceiving Bank notes or Tickets from strangers, disuffecttd or straggling 
persons, numbers having fell into the hands of the enemy in their pass- 
ing through this Slate. The managers of the United States Lotteries 
are requested not to pay any prizes ic." July 22, 1778. 

" Slohn. Kine silver Tea spoons from Captain Joseph CIudd house." 

Nothing can more plainly show the disturbed state 
of the community than the following item, taken from 
Hill's ''History of the Church in Burlington," page 
318 : " In 1779 it is stated that there has been a total 
cessation of public worship in the provinces of New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania, and almost every mission- 
ary driven out." 

When the British marchetJ to Monmouth, Col. Israel 
Shreve was stationed with his regiment, the Second 
New Jersey, Continental army, near Mount Holly. 
Moving on to the battle-field he skirmished with and 
harassed from cover the British to such an extent 
that, upon their passing near his residence in the 
neighborhood of Georgetown, they burned it with all 
the outbuildings and ripening grain. 

The following incident illustrates the insecurity of 
property and danger to life, even at a distance from 
the enemy's lines : A party of armed Tories, or "Pine 
Robbers," on the 15th of August, 1780, says the New 
Jersey Gazette, "came to the house of John Black, Jr., 
in Springfield, Burlington County, and robbed him of 
a considerable sum of hard money, also sundry wear- 
ing apparel. From Mr. Black's they proceeded to the 
house of Caleb Shreve, Esq., taking with them a cer- 
tain Mr. Lloyd as a guide, or to prevent his giving 
information to the neighborhood. They robbed Mr. 
Shreve of a small sum of hard and Continental 

and the wife of a cannoneer named John Maban, who obtained her 
sobriquet from her carrying water to the soldiers of her husband's bat- 
tery during battle, lies buried in the old cemetery at Carlisle. The fol- 
lowing is the inscription upon the tablet erected over Ler grave: 

" MoUie M'Cawley, 

Benovvned in History as 

Mollie Pitcher, 

The Heroine of 3Ionmonth, 

Died Jannary, 1833, 

Aged 79 years. 

Erected by the citizens of Cumberlanl County, 

July 4th, 1876. 

money, but did not take anything else. From Mr. 
Shreve's they went to the house of Mr. Cleayton 
Newbold, whom they robbed of a small quantity of 
plate, a gold watch, and money. From Mr. Cleayton 
Newbold's they passed to the house of Mr. William 
Newbold, when observing a number of people about 
the house, they feigned themselves to be Whigs and 
in quest of horse-thieves, and did not attempt to rob." 
Col. William Shreve, of the First Regiment, Burling- 
ton State Troops, who resided near Recklesstown, 
aroused the inhabitants and pursued them to the 
Pines, where, at Borden's Run, they were brought to 
skirmish, wounding two and capturing one, besides 
several firelocks and most of the plunder. 

An account of a skirmish with the noted outlaw, 
" Captain" John Bacon, at Cedar Creek bridge, Dec. 
27, 1782, was published in the New Jersey Gazette of 
Jan. 8, 1783, and being considered authentic has been 
copied extensively into historical works. We prefer, 
however, giving the official account, never before 
published. In reporting this action to Governor 
Livingston, Col. Israel Shreve, dating his letter at 
"Mansfield, Dec. 28, 1782," says, "This evening a 
party of horse and foot returned from the Sea Shore 
after several days search after Bacon and his party. 
Our party consisted of 6 horsemen and 20 foot. Not 
falling in with him where they expected, the party 
returned by way of Cedar Creek Bridge in Monmouth 
County. While refreshing at a tavern near that 
place, Bacon and his party appeared at the Bridge. 
Our people attempted to force the Bridge. None but 
Lieut. Benj. Shreve got over, the second horse being 
killed on the bridge." In a postscript Benjamin 
Shreve is referred to as " Capt. Shreve," and Capt. 
Thomas is also mentioned, but Capt. Richard Shreve's 
name does not occur. In a letter to the author, S. 
H. Shreve, Esq., who furnished the above says, " I 
think that Benj. Shreve and not Richard Shreve com- 
manded at Cedar Bridge. Richard Shreve was I 
know at first captain of the Troop, but I do not 
think he was at Cedar Bridge. I remember hearing 
my grandfather Benjamin speak of the fight. When 
the charge was made, he did not notice that he was 
not supported by his men until he was in the midst 
of the Refugees, when he saw his only chance of es- 
cape was by boldly pushing through their line, which 
he did, and though pursued and frequently fired at, 
he evaded them, owing to the fleetness of the spirited 
horse which he rode. His horse was slightly wounded 
by buckshot, and he was obliged to make a long de- 
tour through the Pines to rejoin his company." 

Young William Cook, Jr., of Cook's Mill, now 
Cookstown, was killed in the attack, and Robert 
Reckless, of Recklesstown, a youth of nineteen, fell 
mortally wounded. Ichabod Johnson (for whom a 
reward of twenty-five pounds had been ofl^ered) was 
killed. Bacon, for whom a reward of fifty pounds 
had been offered, was surprised and killed on the 
evening of April 3, 1783, near West Creek, Burling- 



ton Countv, by a party commanded by Capt. Jobn 
Stewart, of Arneytowu. 

In April, 1777, Lewis Bastedo, an active Whig, 
was riding along the Ellisdale road close to where 
that village now stands. When near the lane of 
Alexander Howard he discovered two armed men 
lurking in some laurel-bushes. Recognizing them as 
enemies who intended to ambush him, he fired and 
instantly killed Nicholas Williams, a noted Tory, and 
jumping from his horse rushed upon Thomas Fowler 
and disarmed and captured him. 

Li August, 1782, Maj. Thomas Fennimore, collector i 
of Burlington Countv, was attacked and robbed of 
considerable public money by refugees from Egg \ 
Harbor. Capt. Douglass went in pursuit of the rob- 
bers, and attacking killed fourteen of them before 
they could get to their boats. 

From the records of the Chesterfield Monthly Meet- 
ing, Crosswicks, we extract the following: 

"1 mo. 4tli, 1770. John Dpcow produced a pnper condeming his 
being guilty uf bearing of arm-s in a military manner which was read 1 
and received. 

" The Preparative Meeting at Bordentown informs that Jas. Lawrie i 
son of Thos. L iwiie liae entered into Mllitiiry services by taking a Cap- 
tains Coniniis^ion and enlisting of men for the purpose of bearing arms. 
Joshua Furman and .'^taoy Potts are appointed to visit him and inform | 
liim thereof as they find their minds engaged and report to next meet- 

" 3 mo. 7th, 177G. Stacy Potts reports he visited Jai. Lawrie, Junr. 
agreeable to appointment and he justified his c^mduct in acting in Mili- 
tary services, therefore for tlie clearing of Trutli and friends we disown 
liim from being ii member of our religions Society untill he comes to a 
sense of his errors manifesting the same in Life & conversation and 
condemns it as our Discipline directs and further the friend reports tliat 
lie informed him it was likely he would be removed out of the parts, 
and wc should not have an opportunity to inform him of the further 
procecilings of the meeting therefore he now notised him of his right 
of apjieal and he reply'd he should not appeal. 

"The Preparative Meeting of Mansfield informs that Joseph Pan- 
const, Jnnr. is guilty of acting in Military services and justifies himself 

"u mo. 2 177G. Chesterfield Preparative Meeting informs William 
Lewis and William Montgomery have been concerned iu l>earing arms 
in a Military way &c. 

" Anlh. S.\kes informs this meeting that William Shreve and Barzilla 
Kewbold have been concerned in Military services, &c. 

"C mo. Cth 177G. Upper Freehold preparative meeting, informs that 
Saml. Wright llartshorne halh been active in Military services and re- 
fuses to make satisfaction, &c. 

" Bordentown preparative nie<'ting informs thatWni. Dean and Sliad- 
loke Butler hath entered into military services and doth not condemn 
their conduct. 

"8 mo. 1st, 1770. The meeting Ilouse in Trenton belonging to 
friends having been used by the Coiiviiitiun or of this Prov- 
ince to meet in and also the Soldiers in passing through from Pennsyl- 
vania to Amboy and Woodbridge have been Quartered therein therefore 
this meeting ajipoints Isaiah Kobins, Amos Middleton, .lohn Bullock, 
Benj. Clark, and Benj. Linton to inspect into the case and see how far 
our ancient Testimony against wars hitU been maintained and b\i[>- 
ported and report to next Meeting. 

"9roo. 5thl77C. The Committee appointed to enquire into the use 
lately made of friends Meeting House at Trenton and how fur the Tes- 
timony of friends against war ha-s been supported now reported that 
they find the said Meeting House has been used by the Provincial Con- 
vention to sit in and also liy the Soldiers stationed or passing through 
Trenton as a Barrack, that in the first instance the key was delivered 
to those who desired it, in the second that friends submitted to its being 
taken to prevent the breaking of the Doors which was threatened, and 
the friends there remonstrated against such an use of their Meeting 
House as inconsistent with our Itcligious Principles against wars and 

Fightings this committee is of the judgment that the key should have 
been denied and not delivered altlio the consequonces might have been 
the Violation of the House as the Testimony of fiieiids would in the 
Judgment of this committee have been thereby more fully maintained 
which is submitted to the meeting by (the chmmittee nforfsnid) which 
being considered the Meeting recommends it tofriend-i in fiitnie to be 
very careful in the support of our Keligious right- and Priviliges ami 
to arrest and maintain them on all occa-ions with a decent firmness 
without fear of diinger therefiom remembering that sufferings is when 
they are permitted to come upon us in the discharge of a good con- 
science towards him whom we w Ish to serve preferable to fjivour and in- 
dulgence at the expence of our stabilitj- and growth in the Truth. 

"Chesterfield Pre Mee, informs that Gabriel Allen has been concerned 
in Military Services Ac. 

"3 mo. Gth, 1777: The Pre Mee of Upper Springfield reports that 
Caleb Shreve, John Wood, J.>hn Black, Josliua Shreve, Williiini Xew- 
bold, Jos. Ncwbold, John Middleton <t Wm. Wood, Junr. had been vis- 
ited on account of l)eing conceru"d in Military services, and that they 
seemed to justify their conduct therefore Josh in Gibbs, Alex Howard, 
Wm.Coppeithwait & Garvas Pharo are appointed to endeavour by fur- 
ther Christian Labour if possible to bring them to a just sense of their 
Transgression and report to next Meeting. 

"4 mo. 3 1779. A Testification was produced to this meeting against 
Joel Middleton for bearing of Arms in a Military way. 

"The Preparative Meeting of Siony Brook informs that Jos. Oldden 
hath administered the oath in thecouise of his office a^ Coroner uncUr 
the former Government and a!so been so far concerned in promoting 
Militarj- Measures as to be a Committee man in the present time of Com- 
motions, &c. 

" Ebor Decow Produced an acknowledgment condeming his hiring a 
person to bear Jtc. 

"The Pre Mee of Chesterfield that Henry Lippincott hath been con- 
cerned with the Military and Signed their Association for defence. 

"1 mo. 1st, 1778. .\ntl)ony Wcpodward, son of William produced an 
Acknowledgemeut of liis being so fur iu the spirit of War as to carry 
Arms &c. 

"C mo. 4th 1778. The said nipeting likewise informs that Jam's 
Combs has paid fines iu lieu of persumil service in the war and has hired 
a man to go to war in his room und neglects attending our leligious 
meetings Ac. 

"The said meeting also reports that Daniel Thorn has been concerned 
in bearing of Arms in a Warlike manner pressing of waggons and hiring 
a man in lieu of personal service, &c. 

"Benj. Wliite pioduced nn acknowledgement condrmning his devi- 
ating from the rules of Friends by being a waggon master iu currying 
ou war, &c. 

"8 mo. 12, 1777. The Committee who were appointed to enquire how 
far Friends have throngli fear or friini lucrative motives Baulked our 
Keligious Testimony against war report, John Thorn has taken the Test, 
paid fines and hired a man to go out in the Militia, Isaac Fi( Id has paid 
a fine for his servant in lieu of pei'sonal service, holds an office in the 
present unsettled state of publick affairs and is supiHJsed to liave taken 
the test, Isaac KowgiU (Cowgill) has taken the Test and Iiolds offices of 
Trust in the present unsettled state of publick affairs, Edward Brooks 
Junr. has taken the Test, Marniaduke Watson has taken the Test, Jas. 
Taylor has taken tlie Test, John Wetherill has paid a fine for his boy in 
lieu of peiBonal service in the Militia and after his Goods were sold he 
paid the money and took them again, Fretwell Wright, Caleb Ogljorn, 
John Ellis and Barzillar Furman are appointed to Treat with them Ac." 

" A number of the inhabitants of the township of Chesterfield having 
convened (upon slioit notice) at Colonel Hoaglaud's, in Bordentown, on 
the 3d instant, and taking into their serious consideration the great evils 
arising from a most pernicious trade and intercourse that has been, and 
now is, carrying on with the enemies of the United States, by the disaf- 
fected and unfriendly inhabitants of this slate, which, if not speedily 
prevented, must prove very injurious to the peace, happiness, aud inde- 
pendence of the union, 

" Whereupon, Peter Tallman, Esquire, being chosen chairman, the 
following resolutions were unanimously entered into: 

" 1. We will to our utmost detect and bring to justice all who may be 
anywise concerned in the pernicious traffic, and use every law ful means 
to prevent and suppress it, to which end we will, to the utmost of our 
power and influence, strengthen the hands of all officers, civil and mili- 
tarj', iu the discharge of their duty, and support the full aud vigorous 
execution of the laws. 

"2. We will give every assistance to those who are vested with au- 
thority to restrain and punish all suspicious persons traveling without 



proper passports or certificates, or carrying British goods or otlier prop- 
erty maile Reizalile by IftW. 

"3. We will avoid, as far as possible, all intercourse, communications, 
and dealings with such as may be concerned in trading with the enemy. 

" 4. We will give every support and HS'^istance in our power to those 
who shall exert themselves in bringing to justice all persons concerned, 
directly or indirectly in trading with the enemy, and treat as mean and 
designing every insinuation that such endeavors are in tlie least degree 
inconsistent with honor and good citizenship, or that they aie not 
liiglily becoming and praiseworthy. 

"5. We will, from and after this time, publish in the Nerr Jersey Ga- 
zette the names of every person that shall be convicted within this town- 
ship, violating the law for preventing an illicit trade and intercourse 
villi the enemy in order that they may be publicly known, and treat 
with such a degree of contempt as their crimes deserve. 

"0. In prosecuting these objects we will discountenance all acts of 
opiiressitMi and violence and whatever may be incons-istcnt with the 
I>eiicc and good order of the community, and not resort to force except 
wliere the same shall become indispensably necessary. 

"I'ETER Tallman, Chairman. owx, Aug. 3rd, 1782." 

Charges of the above kind were very numerous 
during the Revolutionary war. 

"5tli mo. 4th, 1780. The following friends are appointed to collect 
the suffering of fi lends for our Religious Testimony against war and 
produce them to the Monthly Meeting when collected." This, if now 
in e.\i«tence, must be a mine of information. 

"4 mo. 5th 1781. Said Meeting informs that John Wilson hath been 
active in Military service. Struck a man tn anger, has bought Distrained 
goods, taken strong liquor to excess, and hath been gaming. Amos 
Wiight and Isaiah Robins are appointed to treat with him, etc. 

"9 mo. Gth 1781. Said Meeting informs Robert Woodward bears Arms 
in a Military manner, being so situated he can't be spoken with, there- 
fore this Meeting disowns him the said Robert Woodward from being a 
member of our Religious society until he comes to a sense of his mis- 
conduct and condemns the same as Discipline directs. 

"17t)2. A Teslification wiis produced to this Meeting against Saml. 
Parker, for not jiroducing a certificate he had from Little Egg Ilarbour 
Monthly Meeting, bearing Arms as a Guard to a place of Execution 
Gaming, and taking Si)iritous liquor more than was necessary &.c. 

" Said Meeting informs Anthony Reckless and Anthony King had en- 
gaged themselves in tlie Military service &c. 

"2 mo. Gth, 1782. Extracts from the Minutes of the last Quarterly 
Meeting was produced to this Meeting in respect to collectiugand mak- 
ing out accot's of the suffering of Friends for our religious Testimony 
against war. Arising tlie appointing of a Friends or two to enter such 
parts of the Extracts of the Yearly Meeting that may be needful in the 
Book of Discipline & Concerning the remedying the disorders which 
have npiieared in our Meetings of Business which was read and Friends 
desired to pay due attention thereto, Jas Lawrie & the clerk areajv 
pointed tu enter such parts of the extracts that may be thought needful 
in the book of Disciplin. 

"The Friends appointed report they visited Bcnj. Shreve in respect to 
his bearing of Arms in a Military way, he informed them he expected to 
continue therein, therefore this Meeting disowns him, &c. 

"7 mo. 8, 1783. Benj. Clark on behalf of the Comt in suffering cases 
report that in the case of Saml. Worth, Jr they had represented the cir- 
cumstances of his case to the Governor and Counsel who had taken into 
consideration and released him by remitting his fines, etc." 

We will close the incidents of the Revolution with 
the subjoined letter, the original of which with other 
valuable papers was placed in our hands by the Hon. 
George Sykes shortly before his death. It is not 
only interesting and amusing, but valuable as show- 
ing the state of affairs at that period : 

" Dr. CoLi, : 

'Tou doubtless have heard of the dissentions that have subsisted 
this sometime past between the AVhigs & Tories about collecting the 
Militia Fines. They have occasioned such a Battle on Saturday last as 
perhaps never was recorded in history. As I expect an account of any 
Military engagements will be acceptable to you, I propose giving you a 
detaM of thi", as I have it from several who were in the Battle. 

" Capt. Jones had given orders to liis Sergeants to collect fines from 
sundry delinquents in his company. Among the rest they levied on two 
cows belonging to Anthony Taylor, Commander in Chief of the Tory 
Parly. The Whigs hearing that be had hired and was collecting a num- 
ber of persons to oppose the Aendue, collected to about the number of 
thirty about 10 O'clock on Saturday Morning. When after selling from 
place to place without opposition (except at Edward Rockhills where 
14 or 15 attempted to oppose, but finding they were too weak retreated 
to their main body at Taylors) a detatchraent of eight was Bent to de- 
mand the cows, which they found, one locked up in his WMBhousc, and 
the other in a pail'd garden, the Gate of which was lock'd. On demand- 
ing the cattle they were answered by Taj lor that they were there, & 
take them i) they dare. — He had got a sheet fix'd to a long Pole, hoisted 
on the Top of his House, his forces consisted of about Ai) men & 10 or 12 
Women, the Women had two Kettles of Boiling water & each one a 
pail or Piggin, the Men had each one Club, loaded Guns and al«iut 
four Waggon Loads of Stones <fc Brickbats. The detachment i^bserving 
them so well piepaired blew a Horn for the remainder of their forces, 
when a most furious and bloody Battle ensued. The onset was begun 
by General Ta}lor who with a Club broke the Jaw bone of a Whig & 
lay him for dead. The Women play'd their jiart to a miracle, scalding 
several bo that their cloaths were obliged to be cut off — Stones, Brick 
bats. Axes, Hoes, Waggon Tires, hinges, stalk Knives, Hot Water, ic 
&C. Flew to and frow for about half an Hour iucesshutly. The be- 
haviour of the Generals Daughter in this engagement cannot be too 
much Admired, at Some times she was seen with a Club in one hand 
and a Urinary in the other, at other times beating upon a brass Kettle 
which she had for a drum, whilst a Serjeant of the Wlii^ party was sing- 
ing the double Wag. 

" But the Tories' ammunition being nearly expended, and many pf 
them much bruised, they were obligeil to retreat into the house, from 
the first story they were obliged to retreat in a glioit time up to the sec- 
ond, where the engagement continued until there were scarce a whole 
pane of glass in the windows, when the Whigs observing tliat the noise 
of the engagement had frightened the cattle so that they had bioke out 
of their confinements, they drove them off and left there adversaries to 
dress their wounded. Happily there was no lives lost, but where it will 
end Gcd only knows, as the Toiies and London traders are bent upou 
ruling the country, and the Whigs are determined to oj'pose it. 
"lam, D'. C-olI. 

" Your aff. Servt., 

" MakmadI" CrETis. 

"Black Hoese, August 10, 1784. 
"Coll. Isuael Shreve, 

" Brunswick." 




Shreve, Israel, lieut.-col. Second Battalion, First Establishment, Nov. 8, 
1775; Second Battalion, Second Establishment, Nov. 28, 1770; Sec- 
ond Regiment; discharged at the close of the war. 

Lawrie, James, cajit. Second Battalion, First Establishment, Nov. 27, 
1775; cupt. Second Battalion, Second Establishment, Nov. 29, 177G; 
taken prisoner; died while prisoner of war. 

1 Taken from the "Official Register of the Officers and Men of New 
Jersey in the Revolutionary War," compiled under oiders of His Excel- 
lency Theodore F.Randolph, Governor, by Gen. William S. Strjker, 
adjutant-general of New Jersey, quarto, 878 pages, printed by authority 
of the Legislature. 

The data for this volume wjis obtained from the pension lists of the 
government, the minutes of the Congress of the United States, and of 
the Legislature and Council of Safety of New Jersey, the records of the 
War Department, original manuscripts, rolls of companies of Conti- 
ncntil troops, diaries of officers, paymasters' memoranda, quartermas- 
ters' reports, treasurers' receipts, "returns" to thn commander-in-chief, 
lists of soldiers pai J at sundry times in Continental nvnoy, other lists of 



Brown, Jdlm, iirivale " Furmaii's Regiment," Continental Army; eergt. 
" Spencer's Kegimrnt," Continentnl Army, July 1, 1777 ; lieut. Capt. 
Edgar's troop, " Slit-ldon's Itegiment Light Dragoons," Continental 

BeckleES, Anthony, lleut. regiment " Sappers and Miners," Continental 
Ainiy ; dii-ih.irged at the close of the war. 

SLreve, John, ensign tapt. Brearley's company. Second Battalion. First 
Eslablisliincnt, July 2i, 1776; ensign Capt. Lawrie's company, Sec- 
ond B.ittalion, Second Establishment, Nov. 29, 177G ; ensign Capt. 
Hollinsheads company, Second Battalion, Second Establishment, 
Nov. 1,1777; ensign Second Kegiment; lieut. Second Regiment, to 
date Feb. 3, 1779; lesigned.l 

Tallman, Peter, lieut. "Spencer's Regiment," Continental Army. 

Curtis, JIaruiailnke, let lieut. Capt. Rosecrantz's company, Tliird Bat- 
talion, Second Establishment, Nov. 29,1776; retired Sept. 2C, 1780; 
al>o capt. militia. 

Ilarrison, Isaac, 1st lieut. Capt. Gifford's company, Third Battalion, Sec- 
ond Establishment. 

McMichael, 'Williain, 1st lieut. Capt. Ross' company. Third Battalion, 
Fir.-t Establishment, Feb. 7, 1776 ; deserted Aug. 14, 1770, from Fort 
Schuyler, New York; killed by the Indians, September, 1776. 

Norcross, WiDiani, eut^igu Capt. Bluonifield's company, Third Battalion, 
First Eslablislinient ; Capt. Bloomfield's company. Third Bat- 
talion, Fii-st Establishment, Feb. 10, 1776 ; 2d lieut. Capt. Mott's com- 
piuiy, Tliird Battalion, Second Establishment, Nov. 29, 177C ; Ist lieut. 
t'apl. Mott's conipanj', Third BatUilion, Second Establisbmeut ; re- 
tired Sept. 2U, 1780. 


Bockliill, William, private Capt. Holmes' company, Fourth Battalion, 
Second Establishment; sergt Capt. Ilolmes' company, Fourth Bat- 
talion, Second Establishment; also private in militia. 

■Willson, Jolin, seigt. Capt. Brearley's company, Second Battalion, First 

AVright, George, sergt. " Lee's Legion," Continental Army. 

■NVright, Jclin, private " Lee's Legion," Continental Army ; corp. "Lee's 
Legion," Continental Army, Dec. 1, 1778; sergt. "Lee's Legion,'' 
July 10, 1780. 

Deacon, Aaron, corp. Capt. Dayton's company, Third Regiment. 

Kockhill, William, private Capt. Holmes' company. Fourth Battalion, 
Second Establishment ; trans. May 22, 1778, to " Nicholas" Regiment, 
Invalid Corjis," Continental Army ; corp. " Nicholas' Regiment, In- 
valid Corps," Continental Army, April 1, 1780; disch. June 11, 1783, 


Allen, Richard, Third Battalion, Second Establishment, " Lee's Legion," 
Continental Army. 

Amey, David, Fiist Regiment. 

Biddle, Jacob, First Regiment. 

Biddle, Moses, Capt. Forman's company, First Regiment. 

Brown, James, " Lee's Legion," Continental Army. 

Brown, John Matruss, " Lamb's Artillei'j" (Second Regiment Artillery), 
Continental Army. 

Budd, Conklin, Third Battalion, First Establishment ; Capt. Patterson's 
company. Third Battalion, Second Establishment. 

men who received notes for depreciation of said currency, rarious kinds 
of vouchers, etc. 

The concciition of this work originated with Gen. Stryker in the 
course of the discliarge of the duties of his office. The magnitude of 
the labor and care recpiired is apparent at a glance to those familiar with 
Buch researches, and that it should have been undertaken after the lapse 
of nearly a century, w ith all its names, its dates, and records, shows an 
unbounded zeal and energy found only in the lover of such work. It is 
a noble monument to those patriots who achieved the liberties of the 
people and the independence of the country. 

The general in a letter to Governor Randolph reporting the comple- 
tion of hie labors, and which forms an introductory to his work, says, 
"Not asserting that it is complete or without an error, I do nflirm that 
no record ha< been made hastily or without what seemed to me to be 
well verified." 

1 Lient. John Shreve, son of Col. Israel Shreve, was born near George- 
town, Burlington Co., April 8, 1762, He accompanied his father in the 
cxjiedltion to Canada in 1775, having entered the army when not four- 
teen years of ag'-. lie wiis presented by the ladies of Philadelphia with 
a pair of silver shoe buckles, sash, and e«ord. 

Bunting, Ramoth, Capt. Phillips' company. Second Battalion, Second Es- 
tablishment; also militia. 

Burns, Daniel, Capt. Anderson's company. Fourth Battalion, Second Es- 

Carman, Nathan, First Battalion, Second Establishment; First Regi- 

Carman, Thomas, First Regiment. _ 

Cook, Stephen, Capt. McMire's company, Firet Battalion, First Establish- 

Davis, John, First Regiment. 

Deacon, Aaron, First Battalion, Second Establishment, First Regiment. 

De Camp, Abraham, Capt. Sliither's troop, Sheldon's Regiment, "Light 
Dragoons," Continental Army. 

Douglass, Moses, Capt. Morrison's company, First Battalion, Second Es- 
tablishment ; died March 1, 1777. 

Earl, John, First Battalion, Second Establishment. 

Ford, Jonathan, First Regiment. 

French, Daniel, Capt. Anderson's company. Fourth Battalion. 

Gibbs, John, First Battalion, Second EslalJisliment. 

Gibbs, William, Capt. Mead's comjiany, Fii-st Regiment. 

Haines, Daniel, Second Battalion, Second Establisliment ; Capt. Hendry's 
company. Second Regiment. 

Haines, John, Capt. Mitchell's company, Fii-st Regiment. 

Haines, Joseph, First Battalion, Second Establisbnient ; Capt. Cox's com- 
pany, Tliird Regiment; First Regiment. 

Harrison, Isaac, First Battalion, Second Establishment. 

Hunt, Jacob, Capt. Boss' company, Third Battalion, First Establishment. 

Lee, Timothy, First Regiment. 

Martin, David, Capt. Bloomfield's company, Third Battalion, First Estab- 
lishment; Capt. Gifford's company. Third Baltal. on, Second Estab- 
lishment; Third Regiment. 

McDauiel, John, Tliird Battalion, First Establishment; Capt. Gifford's 
company, Third Battalion, Second Establishment. 

Middleton, Joseph, First Battalion, Second Establishment; Capt. Cox's 
company. Third Regiment; First Kegimeut. 

Nixon, Richard, dragoon, Continental Army. 

Narcross, Benjamin, Cajit.Ross' compaTiy, Tliird Bat tal 'on, Second Estab- 
lishment; Capt. Cox's company. Third Regiment; First Regiment. 

Oliver, David, First Battalion, Second Establishment. 

Opdyke, AVilliam (Continental Army). 

Peareon, Wiliiam (Continental Army). 

Pierson, Thomas, First Regiment. 

Reed, Isaac, First Regiment. 

Sexton, Timotliy (Coniinental Army). 

Southard, Abraham, Third Battalion, First Establishment; Capt. Mott's 
company, Third Battalion, Second Establisliment. 

Soulhwick, Samuel, "Lee's Legion," Continental Aimy. 

Southwick, William, " Lee's Legion," Continental Aimy. 

Stratton, Sherwood (Continental Army). 

Updyke, William, Third Battalion, First Establishment; Capt. Patter- 
sou's company. Third Battalion, Second Establishment. 

Warner, Charles, "Hagen's Regiment" (Second Canadian), Continental 

White, Joseph, First Regiment. 

Wilson, Moses, First Regiment. 

Wood, Isaac, Capt. Forman's company. First Regiment. 

Wood. John, Capt. Flanagan's company. Third Battalion, Second Estab- 

Wood, Joseph, "Sheldon's Regiment, Light Dragoons," Continental 

Woodward, A. (Continental Army). 

Wright, David, First Battalion, Second Establishment; Cnpt. W. Piatt's 
company, First Regiment. 

These are all the soldiers among tbe Continental 
troops that we can identify with any certainty as be- 
longing to Burlington County. The names of many 
other Continentals will be found among the State 
troops and militia. 

Borden, Joseph, col. First Regiment ; resigned Sept. 28, 1776. 
Read, Chailes, col. Second Regiment; col. battalion " detached militia," 

July l!<, 1776; col. battalion State troops, Nov. 27,1770. 
Eeed, Bowes, lleut, -col. Col. Newcouib's battalion, June 14,1776; col. 

First Regiment, Sept. 28, 1770; resigned March 31, 1778. 



Reynolds, Thomas, lieut.-col. Second Regiment ; col. Second Regiment, 

June 6, 1777 ; prisoner of war and paroled ; resigned Doc. 18, 1782. 
Shreve, William, let maj. First Regiment, Sept. 28, 1776; lieut.-col. 

First Regiment, March 15, 1777; col. First Regiment, April 18, 


Haight, Joseph, Ist mnj. Second Regiment; lieut.-col. Second Regiment, 

June 6, 1777 ; dismissed Dec. 25, 1779. 
Hoagland, Oakey, capt. First Regiment ; 2d maJ. First Regiment, Feb. 

1,1777: 1st maj. First Regiment, March 15,1777; lieut.-col. First 

Regiment, April 18, 1778; lieut.-col. State troops. 
Lewis, William, lieut.-col. First Regiment, Sept. 28, 1776; resigned. 
Ross, John, lieul.-col. Second Regiment, Dec. 18, 1872; also maj. Conti- 
nental Ai-my. 

Budd, Joseph, 2d maj. Second Regiment, June 6, 1777 ; resigned Nov. 30, 

Fenimore, Thomas, 1st maj. Second Regiment, June 6, 1777; resigned 

May 28, 1779. 
Newbold, Barzillai. 
Perkins, Jacob, 2d maj. First Regiment, April 18, 1778; roaj. Taylor's 

Regiment State troops, Oct. 9, 1779. 
Sterling, James, 2d maj. First Regiment, Sept. 28, 1776. 
Van Emburgh, John, 2d mnj. Second Regiment, Middlesex, Nov. 28, 

177C; 1st maj. Second Regiment, June C, 1777 ; taken prisoner at 

Tom's River, N. J., May 14, 1780; escaped. 

Douglass, Alexander, private, adjt.; quartermaster. 



Davis, Josiah. 

Black, John. 


Anderson, David, capt. Second Regiment; capt. State troops. 

Anderson, George. 

Anderson, James. 

Biddlc, Aaron, militia. 

Borden,' Jofeph, Jr., capt troop light-horse, Oct. 6, 1777. 

Brown, Joseph, capt. First Regiment. 

Browning, Jacob. 

Carlisle, Laiigston, capt. First Regiment. 

Clevcnger, Zuchariah, capt. First Regiment. 

Clunn, John, capt. ; also wagon-master. 

Cooper, Jacob, capt. ; Capt. Hayes' Battalion State troops. 

Cowpertliwaite, Joseph, capt. First Regiment, Monmouth ; capt. Bur- 

Curtis, Marmaduke, capt. ; also 1st lieut. Continental Army; also issu- 
ing forage-master. 

Dobbins, Seth, capt. Second Regiment. 

Fennimore, Samuel, capt. First Regiment; capt. troop light-horse. 

Gilbert, . Green, . 

Leak, John. 

Myers, John, capt. Second Regiment. 

Oliphant, James, capt. Second Regiment; resigned April 9,1777; disa- 

Pancoast, Joseph, capt. First Regiment, July 3, 1776. 

Quigiey, Joseph, capt. First Regiment. 

Quigley, Robert, lieut. First Regiment; capt. First Regiment. 

Quigiey, Thomas, capt. First Regiment. 

Read, . 

Shepherd, Job, capt. Read's Battalion, "detached militia," July 18, 

Shepherd, Joseph, capt. First Regiment. 

Shreve, BenJHmin, lieut. Capt. Richard Shreve's troop light-horse, Aug. 
7, 1782; capt. Capt. Richard Shreve's troop light-horse. 

Shreve, Richard, capt. troop light-horse, Aug. 7, 1782. 

Stewart, John. 

Thomas, Edward, lieut. First Regiment; capt. First Regiment; capt. 
troop light dragoons. 

Vandyke, Joseph, capt. First Regiment. 

Weaver, Joseph, capt. Second Regiment, April 15, 1777. 

Wilkinson, John, adjt. First Regiment; capt. First Regiment. 

> Died of wound received at the battle of Germantown, Philadelphio. 

Wood, John, "Gloucester," Burlington. 
Woolston, Joseph, capt. Second Regiment. 


Ashton, James, militia. 

Brown, Benjamin, lieut. company artillery. 

Giiskill, Samuel. Hair, George. 

Hammill, John. * 

Hendiickson, David, lieut. First Regiment. 

Matthews, John, lieut., Burlington; Lieut. Harrison's company, Hun- 

Montgomery, Alexander, lieut. Capt. Borden's troop light-horse, Oct. 6, 

Morris, George. 

First Lieutenants. 

Delalush, Henry, Capt. Pancoast's company, First Regiment, July 3, 

Dobbins, William, Capt. Weaver's company. Second Regiment, April 5, 

Seconb Lieutenant. 

Howell, Henry, Capt. Weaver's company. Second Regiment, April 15, 


Parker, Abraham, Capt. Weaver's company, April 15, 1777. 

Weyman, Abel, ens., Burlington; ens. "Heard's Brigade," June 14,1776; 
also capt. Contiueotal Army. 

Brown, John, Jr., cornet Capt. Richard Shreve's troop light-horse, 
Aug. 7, 1782. 

Cook, , Capt. Shreve's troop light-horse. 

Lawrence, Jacob, cornet Capt. Borden's troop light-horse. Oct. 6, 1777. 

Quartehmaster's Sergeant. 
Douglass, John, sergeant; quartermaster's sergeant Capt. Cooper's com- 
pany. State troops. 

Turner, William, private Capt. Clevenger's company, First Regiment; 
sergeant Capt. Clevenger's company, First Regiment; sergeant 
State troops; also private Continental Army. 

Adams, Asa. 
Adams, Jeremiah. 
Adams, Joseph. 
Allen, Edward. 
Allen, John. 
Allen, Joseph. 
Allen, Peter. 


Anderson, Eli. 
Anderson, Enoch. 
Anderson, Samuel. 
Apiilegate, Andrew. 
Applegate, William. 
Arey, Abner. 
Atkinson, John. 

Atkinson, William, also Continental Army. 

Atley, John. 

Bailey, Samuel, First Regiment; also State troops; also Continental 

Barnes, John, also State troops. 
Barter, Robert. 

Bailing, James, also Continental Army, 
Bell, James, also State troops. 

Bennett, William. Blair, Robert. 

Blaucy, Robert, also Continental Army. 
Bodine, John. Bound, Philip, 

Boger, Samuel. Bowing, Edward. 

Bonia, William. 
Bowman, Coleman, First Regiment; also State troops; also Continental 

Browman, Joseph. 

Brown, Henry, also Continental Army. 
Brown, John. 

Brown, William, also State troops. 
Brown, Zebulon, also Continental Army. 
Bryant, John. Budd, William. 

Bunting, Abel, also Continental Army. 
Bush, John, also State troops. 
Buskhart, John. 
Carroll, Jeremiah, First Regiment; also State troopp; also Continental 

Carson, Robert. 
Casey, Adam, also State troops. 



Cavaleer, DaviJ. Chamliers, Zebulon. 

Caveleer, John. CbildB, John. 

Clark, Micliad, also Coctinental Armj'. 

Clutch, Juhu. Coleman, William. 

Colling, John, also Continental Army. 

Cook, Ezra. Cook, Thomas. 

Cook, Joel. Cook, William. 

Cook, William, Jr., Capt. Thomas' troop light dragoons; killed by 
refugees near Cedar Creek bridge. Pec. 27, 1782; resided at Cook's 
Mills, now Cookstown, Bnrlingtou County. 

Cooper, Jacob. 

Caiey, Peter, Second Kegt.; also State troops; also Continental Army. 

Cowgill. John, also Stale troops. 

Cox, Jonathan. Cox, Joseph. 

Craft, Bobert, also State troops. 

Crammer, David. Crammer, Seymour. 

Craninif r, Isaac. 

Crealy, Hugh, also Continental Army. 

Cuniberford, JiiDies. Curtis, Thomas. 

('ummiiigs, Iticliarxl. 

Daston, James, also Continental Army. 

Davis, Andrew. Dayton, Ive. 

Deacon, George, Second Begiment; also Slate troops. 

De Con, Jolin. Doran, Stacy 

De Hart, Henry. Drake, Nicholas. 

Ebcihart, Adolph, also Continental Army. 

Edwards, Je«se, also corp. Army. 

EUi", Thomas. Evans, Benjamin. 

Everingliam, AVilliam, also Continental Army. 

Evett, William. 

>'arroer, George, also Continental Army. 

Fenimore, James. Foid, Stephen. 

I'enlou, Sariiuel. Ford, William. 

Flock, John. Fort, John. 

Foster, John, also Continental Army. 

Foster, Jonathan, also Continental Aimy. 

Foster, Samuel, First Begiment; also State troops; also Continental 

Fo.x. I'atrick, also Continental Army. 

Fox, Daniel, First Begiment; also State troops ; also Continental Army. 
Frederick, John. Gale, Abel. 

Gaines, Elislia. Gale, Joseph. 

Gallalier, John, also Continental Army. 
Gamble, Samuel. Gaskill, Caleb. 

Garon, I'riah. 

Gaskill, William, also Continental Army. 
Gibbs, Martin. Gilbert, Thomas. 

Gibbs, Tlumias. 

Grant, John, abo Continental Army. 
Grant, TlioBons, abo Stale troops. 
Grant, A\ illiam. Greeres, Bobert. 

Guy, John, Second Regiment; also State troops. 
Hailey, William, also State troops. 
Haines, Aarun L. 

Haines, Thomas, also Continental Army. 
Hannah, Robert, Second Regiment; a so State troops. 
Harder, William, also Slate troops. 
Hays, John. Hays, William. 

Head, Francis. 

Uei:!ling, Milliam, also Continental Army. 
Henry, John, aleo Continental Army. 
He« lings, Jo8ei)h. 

Hines, Dennis, also Continental Army. 
Hudson, William. 

Hum))hrie8, Joseiih, also Continental Army. 
Huston, Bol>ert. Hutchinson, Thomas. 

Hutchinson, John. 
Jobs, William, also State troojis. 
Johnson, John, also sergeant Continental Army. 
Johnson, Thomas, also Continentul Army. 
Johnston, Jonathan. Johnston, William. 

Johnston, Joseph. 
Jones, Richard, First Begiment; wounded in both legs, near Bordeu- 

town, May 8, 1777. 
Keen, Edward, First Begiment; also State troops; also Continental 

Kelly, David. Land, John. 

Kirley, Jacob. Lanning, James. 

Lamb, Jacob. 

Lawyer, James, First Regiment; also State troops; also Continental 

Longstreet, John. 

Lovelace, Lott, also CoDtiuenlal Army. 
Loveland, Charles. Matthews, Ely. 

Loveland, Samuel. 
Mattifon, Aaron, First Begiment; also State troops; also Continental 

McCann, John, First Jlegiment ; also State troops; ako Continental 

McCormick, Dennis, also Continental Army. 
McDaniel, Cornelius, Second Begiment ; also State troops. 
Merritt, Abram. Merritt, Caleb. 

Merritt, Levi, also State troops; also Continental Army. 
Middlelon, Joel. Middleton, John. 

Middleton, Thomas, Second Regiment; also State troops. 
Miles, George, also Continental Armj'. 
Miller, George. Mott, John. 

Morgan, Cornelius. Murdock, James. 

Murdry, James, Second Begiment; also State troojis. 
Nelson, Alexander. Newell, Theodore. 

Newton, Silas, also Continental Army. 
Norcross, John. 

Nugent, Bichard, also Continental Army. 
O'Flaherty, John, First Begiment; also State troops ; also Continental 

Page, Thomas. Pearson, Joseph. 

Parker, Josejih. Phagous, James. 

Patrick, John. Phares, Bobert. 

Patterson, Jonathan. Pliares, Bobert. 

Pearson, John. Porter, Joseph. 

Potter, Thomas, also Continental Army. 
Price, Edward, also Continental Army. 
Piice, Ralph, Burlington. 
Prymon, Samuel. 

Psandler, Jo?hua, also Continental Army. 
Quigley, David, also Continental Army. 
Quigley, John. Quigley, William. 

Quigley, Moses. 

Baberger, John, also Continental Army. 
Randolph, Daniel. 

Raverty, John, also Continental Army. 
Reckless, Bobert, mortally wounded at Cedar Creek bridge, Dec. 27, 

17»2; of Becklesstowu, Burlington Co. 
Beed, Peter. 

Reeves, John, also Continental officer. 
Richardson, Jacob. 

Richardson, John. Roads, William. 

Richardson, William. Bossell, Andrew. 

Salter, John, Sr., Capt. Shreve's troop light-horse; wounded at Cedar 

Creek bridge Dec. 27, 1782. 
Salter, John, Jr. 
Sawlex, Caleb, also State troops. 
Schooley, Asa. 

Schooley, John, 1st Regt. ; also State troops; also Continental Army. 
Seeley, John, 2d Regt.; also State troops; also Continental Army. 
Showers, Jo»eph, also Continental Army. 
Shreve, Culeb.» 

Slneve, John. Shroud, Stephen. 

Shreve, Joshua. Simmons, Stejihen. 

Shreve, William. Skinner, Richard. 

Smick, John, also Continental Army. 
Smith, Benjaniip, also State troops. 
Smith, Charles. 

Smith, John, also Continental Army. 
Smith, Samuel. 

Smith, Thomas. Smith, William. 

St. Clair, George, Ist Regt.; also State troops; also Continental Army, 
Steward, John. 

Stoddard, William. Sutton, Joseph. 

Sutton, Bobert,2 capt. Carlisle's company, Ist Regt.; killed May 8, 1770. 

1 Shot a British officer at the skirmish at Crosswicks. 
' At Bordcntown. 



Sweeney, Timotliy, Ist Regt. ; also State troops ; also CoutiDental Army. 

Taylor, Jacob. Taylor, John. 

Taylor, John A., also CoDtinenta] Army. 

Taylor, Thomas. Tharp, Oliver. 

Thomas, Jolm, also Corp. Continental Army. 

Thomas, Martin. Thomas, Thomas. 

Thompson, Amos, Ist Kegt. ; also State troops; also Clontiuental Army. 

Thompson, Hambleton. 

Tice, William. Tilton, Abram. 

Trout, Jacob, Ist Regt.; also State troops ; also Continental Army. 

Trout, William. 

Tustin, Jonathan, 1st Regt.; also State troops ; also Continental Army. 

Tyler, James. Van S'jvor, Daniel. 

Van Sciver, Abram. Van Stiver, John. 

Van Sciver, Barnabas. Van Sciver, Walter. 

Voorheese, Henry, also Continental Army. 

Watkins, Thomas, also Continental Army. 

Watson, John. Watson, William. 

Weatherby, William. 

Weblinger, Jacob, also Continental Army. 

Woeden, James. Wilgus, William. 

Weeks, Richard. 

AVilliams, John, also Continental Army. 

Wilson, John, also Continental Army. 

Wooley, Samuel. Wright, Edward. 

Wright, James, also Continental Army. 

Wright, Thomas, also Continental Army. 

Yeates, Robert, Burlington. 


Borden, Joseph. Hoagland, Oaky. 

Borden, Joseph, Jr. Oliver, John. 


Fenimore, Benjamin, commissary of issue. 
Lowrey, Stephen, commissary of issue. 
Gamble, James, assistant commissary of issue. 
Curtis, Marmaduke, issuing forage master. 

The War of 1812-14.— The successes of this war 
were mainly achieved by the navy on the ocean and 
the lakes. On land but two triumphs occurred of any 
considerable importance, — Plattsburgh and New Or- 
leans. Our nation was weak, our resources were 
limited. England, powerful and insolent, had never 
fully recognized our independence. Every feeling of 
honor and manhood demanded our resentment of 
continued insults and wrongs, and although Ave had 
many humiliations inflicted upon us, not the least of 
which was the capture of our capital by the British 
and the burning of our national records, no more 
gallant spirits ever breathed than the heroes of our 
victories, and no more heroic acts were ever per- 
formed on water or laud than occurred during that 

During the war the militia were not without ser- 
vice in the field, while in the volunteers and in the 
navy the county was honorably represented. The 
drawing from the State whatever records it possessed 
to sujjply in part the place of those destroyed by the 
British at Washington has rendered an accurate ac- 
count of the movements of the militia impossible to 

Maj. Read's battalion was stationed at Billingsport, 
on the Delaware, and was ki service from September 
19th to Dec. 22, 1814. It ajjpears to have had two 
majors, but was called after Read. The field and 
staff were Maj. Samuel J. Read, Maj. John Larzelere, 
Lieut, and Adjutant William Goldy, Lieut, and 

Quartermaster William Hancock, Surgeon's Mate 
Charles F. Lott. 

The company officers were : 

Capt. Samuel Jones, Lieut. William Goldy, Ensign 
Joseph Foster. 

Capt. Joseph Townsend,' Lieut. John Miles, En- 
sign Benjamin Yard, Orderly Sergt. Langhorn Thorn. 

Capt. Joseph Hartshorne, Lieut. William Gamble, 
Ensign Stephen Cramer. 

Capt. John Selah, Lieut. Isaac Jones, Ensign John 
P. Garwood. 

Capt. Isaac Kelly, Lieut. Jonathan Schooley, En- 
sign William S. Carter. 

W^e were unable to obtain a copy of the muster- 
rolls of this battalion, as the War Department, for 
obvious reasons, has requested the adjutant-general 
State of New Jersey not to furnish complete rolls to 
any one while applications fpr pension for that ser- 
vice are pending before the United States Pension 
Office. This bar will probably not be removed for 
several years. 

War with Mexico. — During the war with Mexico 
a New Jersey battalion entered the service of the 
United States, in which there were a number of vol- 
unteers from Burlington County, but there was no 
company raised in the county. This battalion, com- 
manded by Col. W^oodruff, performed good service, 
and participated with honor in Scott's victories from 
Vera Cruz to the capture of the capital of our sister 


In the war for the Union, 1861-65, the people of 
Burlington County responded to the call of tlieir 
country with patriotism and ardor. Upon the fall of 
Sumter they realized that war was upon them, and 
the republic endangered, and with one spirit they 
prepared for the struggle. 

In New Jersey there was no regiment raised ex- 
clusively in any one county,' but there were regiments 

1 This company was from Bordentown. Lieut. Miles was subse- 
quently elected major of the battalion. 

* William S. Sirykcr, adjutant-general of Kew Jersey, in a recent let- 
ter to the author, says, "It is impossible to give you a list of the rej;!- 
ments and companies in the civil war raised exclusively in Bmliiigtou 
County. I could name certain companies of the nine months' regi- 
ments iTwenty-first to Thirty-first) raised principally in that county, but 
if you were to take their names and records as they stand in my book,* 
you are just as likely to insert men of Essex or Bergen. I have seen 
that thing tried in other county historlo.s, and to me it is a burlesque. 
If you titke up any company of the First or Second Brigade (First to 
Eleventh Regiment), although the company may have been organized in 
a certain county, it started out with rccniils from other ronuties, and 
before the three years' service was over more tliau one-half came from 

* Record of Officers and Men of New Jersey in the Civil War, 1SG1 to 
18G5. Offici*!. William 8. Strykcr, Adjutant-General. Two Vols. 
Qua;to, pp. 1034. Trenton, N. J., Juhu V. Murphy. 



that contained a large number of Burlington County 
men, and of these we shall give a brief sketch, as also 
of some of the officers from the county. We do not 
claim that the list of officers is perfect, but as nearly 
80 as diligent search and inquiry could make it. 

The First Regiment of Infantry contained not 
more than a dozen men from Burlington County. Its 
colonel, William it. Montgomery, and quartermaster, 
Samuel Read, were of the county. 

In the Second Regiment of Infantry there were 
few if any men of this county, and Assistant Surgeon 
Eugen Schumo was the only officer from Burlington 
County we know of. 

The Third Infantry contained many officers and 
men from the county. It was organized under the call 
of May 4, 1861, was fully equipped and officered by 
the 18th, and mustered into the United States service 
for three years at Camp Olden, Trenton, by Capt. 
Torbert, U.S.A., June 4th, — exactly one month from 
the date of the call. It numbered one thousand and 
fifty-one officers and men, was commanded by Col. 
George W. Taylor, and with the First, Second, and 
subsequently Fourth Regiments constituted the First 
Brigade New Jersey Volunteers, which was first at- 
tached to Gen. Runyon's division of militia. This 
brigade was afterwards Kearney's First Brigade, 
Franklin's division ; afterwards the First Brigade, 
First Division, First Army Corps; then First Brigade, 
First Division, Sixth Army Corps, and at the close 
of the war was assigned to the " Provisional Corps," 
and always served with the Army of the Potomac. 

The Third, with the First and Second, were uni- 
formed, clothed, equipped, and furnished with camp 
and garrison equipage by the State, and were supplied 
with arms by the general government. The brigade 
left Trenton on the 28th of June, and reported to Gen. 
Scott, at Washington, on the following day. 

Preparation at this time was being made for the 
advance of our army to Manassas Junction, and the 
Third entered almost immediately upon the active 
duties of the field. It formed part of the reserve at 
the battle of Bull Run, and aided materially in ar- 
resting the retreat of our forces on that disastrous 
day. Immediately after it went into camp near Alex- 
andria, where it lay until March 7, 1862, when with 
the brigade it moved under Kearney to Burk's Station, 
on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, where Kear- 
ney received information from some negroes that the 
enemy was leaving Manassas. Apprising Franklin, 
but without awaiting orders, he pushed on with his 
troops, and on the morning of the 10th entered the 
works at Manassas Junction, eight companies of the 
Third being the first to take possession and plant the 
regimental flag. On the 7th of April they advanced 
to Bristoe Station, thence to Catlett's Station, to attract 
the attention of the enemy while the army embarked 

other sections of the State. What are you then to do? To be really 
nccunite you must examine eighty thousand ciedits, and you know 
what u taak that will be." . . . 

for the Peninsula. On the 11th it returned to Alex- 
andria, and on the 17th sailed for York River, Land- 
ing at West Point, May 6, 1862, the next day the 
rebels were defeated. On the 15th it joined McClel- 
lan's army near White House, whence it advanced to 
theChickahominy. The fighting about Richmond had 
commenced, and on the 26th of June the Seven Days' 
battle opened. The next day the battle of Gaines' 
Mill was fought. Col. Taylor having been promoted 
brigadier-general of volunteers May 9th, and being 
in command of the First Brigade, the command of 
the Third devolved upon Lieut.-Col. Henry W. 
Brown, who led it into the woods, where it maintained 
its position until the close of the action, many of the 
men having fired their last cartridge. The loss of the 
Third was thirty-four killed, one hundred and thirty- 
six wounded, and forty-five missing. That night our 
forces crossed the Chickahominy, and McClellan in- 
stead of resolutely marching upon Richmond, com- 
menced his " flank movement" for the James River, 
the Third pausing to share in the battle of Malvern 
Hill, where the enemy were utterly defeated and de- 
moralized. The grand Army of the Potomac, led by 
a general deficient in moral courage, as resolute and 
brave as any army that ever trod this planet, victo- 
rious but baulked, its dead abandoned, stores burned, 
camp equipage destroyed, and wounded left to die, 
sullen and exasperated, found refuge at Harrison's 
Landing. The army having been withdrawn from the 
Landing, the brigade debarked at Alexandria August 
24th, and on the 27th moved by rail to beyond Bull 
Run bridge, where a severe engagement took place, 
and Gen. Taylor was killed. Returning to Alexan- 
dria, the brigade again advanced. Col. Torbert in com- 
mand, towards Bull Run (second) battle-field, where 
Pope had fought on the 28th, 29th, and 30th. Tiie 
Third participated in the conflict at Chantilly, where 
the gallant Kearney fell. Passing into Maryland, it 
routed Cobb's brigade at Crampton's Pass, and par- 
ticipated in the battle of Antietam. The Third sub- 
sequently distinguished itself at Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, Salem Heights, Gettysburg, Fair- 
field, Williamsport, Rappahannock Station, Mine 
Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North and South 
Anna River, Hanover Court-House, Tolopotomy 
Creek, Cold Harbor, and before Petersburg. 

Gen. Hunter having left the Shenandoah Valley 
open, Lee pushed a column into Maryland that 
threatened Washington and Baltimore. Early in 
July, 1864, the Third, with the' Sixth Corps, to 
which its brigade was attached, by water proceeded 
to Washington. In this campaign it took part in 
the battles of Snicker's Gap, Strasburg, Winchester, 
Charlestown, Opequan, Fisher's Hill, Newmarket, 
Mount Jackson, Cedar Creek, and Middletown. On 
the 1st of December, 1865, it rejoined the Army 
of the Potomac, and settled down in front of I'eters- 
burg. But there was not much rest under Grant, and 
the Third valiantly fought in the battles of Hatcher's 



Run, Fort Steedman, capture of Petersburg, Sailors' 
Creek, Farraville, and Appomattox.^ 

On June 3, 186-4, the tliree years' term of service 
having expired, what. men who did not re-enlist re- 
turned home, reaching Trenton on the 7th, where 
they were mustered out June 23d. 

The total strength of the Third was 1275, of whom 
10 officers and 203 men were killed or died ; 7 officers 
and 376 men were discharged on account of disa- 
bility ; 3 men were not accounted for; and 46 officers 
and 38 men were promoted. 

The following officers of this regiment belonged to 
Burlington County : 

Maj. William E. Bryan, capt. Co. H. 

Capt. Franklin L. Knight, 2d lieut. ; 1st lieut. ; 
capt. Co. B; subsequently lieut.-col. Twenty-fourth 

Capt. Joseph F. Rowand, Co. C; resigned Jan. 20, 

Capt. Ridgway S. Poinsett, 1st lieut. Co. A ; capt, 
Co. H. 

First Lieut. Griffith W. Carr, 2d lieut. Co. I; 1st 
lieut. Co. B; discharged, July 27, 1863, on account of 
wounds received in action ; commissioned capt. Co. 
K, Twenty-third Regiment ; not mustered. 

First Lieut. E. Burd Grubb, 2d lieut. Co. C; 1st 
lieut. Co. D ; maj. Twenty-third Regiment, Nov. 24, 
18G2; subsequently col. Twenty-third and col. Thirty- 
seventh Regiments; and brvt. brig. -gen. U. S.V. 

First Lieut. Thomas K. Ekings, 2d lieut. Co. A; 
1st lieut. Co. H; killed Nov. 25, 1864, while attempt- 
ing to escape from the rebel prison at Columbus, 
S. C. 

First Lieut. William W. Miller, sergt.-maj. ; 2d 
lieut. ; 1st lieut. Co. I. 

The Fourth Regiment Infantry had quite a num- 
ber of officers and men from Burlington County in it. 
It was organized under the second call of the Presi- 
dent, dated July 24, 1861, was equipped and officered 
by the 19th of August, on which day it was mustered 
into the United States service at Camp Olden, Tren- 
ton, by Capts. Torbert and McKibben, U.S.A. It 
numbered nine hundred and nine officers and men, 
and was commanded by Col. James H. Simpson. It 
left Trenton August 20th, and arrived in Washington 
the next day. It was assigned to the First Brigade, 
Gen. Kearney. The Fourth marched with, and par- 
ticipated in, the battles of the Third, and their his- 
tory is almost identical up to the battle of Gaines' 
Mill. In this battle Porter and McCall, whose troops 
numbered but twenty-seven thousand men, were in 
death's grip with the main rebel army under Lee, 
while McClellan, on the Richmond side of the Chick- 
ahominy, was deceived by the vigorous fusilade of 
Magruder's small force. The belt of timber in which 
the battle was fought was about a mile in length and 

1 The history of the regiments is taken mostly from " New Jersey and 
the Eebellion," by John Y. Foster, and Adjt.-Gen. Stryker's " IlecorU of 
the Civil War." 

two hundred yards wide, with open ground in front 
and rear. The First Brigade was sent in, the Third 
and Fourth regiments forming the first line. The 
enemy rushed in line after line of troops, who, deliv- 
ering their fire, ]aj down, that those behind them 
could have range, the sound of musketry resembling 
one long loud explosion of artillery, — so strikingly 
unusual that it attracted the attention of many of 
the combatants. When the Fourth entered the wood 
it was immediately involved in fighting of the most 
desperate character. By its side stood the Eleventh 
Pennsylvania Reserve. After incessant firing of 
three hours, with their muskets heated and ammu- 
nition nearly gone, these noble regiments found that 
the right and left flanks of our army had been driven 
off the field and that they were entirely surrounded. 
A small remnant of them were the last Union troops 
to leave the field, but over five hundred of the Fourth, 
with its dead and wounded, fell into the hands of the 
enemy. This was a hard but a glorious blow for the 
Fourth. At Bull Run (second) it could parade but 
seventy-five muskets. 

The prisoners were taken to Richmond and placed 
in Libby and Belle Island loatlisome prisons, were ex- 
changed, and returned to the regiment at Harrison's 
Landing, Va., in the latter part of July, 1862. The 
Fourth continued with the brigade in all its battles, 
and to write its history would be but a repetition of 
that of the Third Regiment. In August, 1862, Col. 
Simpson, a major of topographical engineers, was re- 
called to the regular army, and was succeeded by 
Lieut.-Col. William B. Hatch, a gallant officer, who 
was killed at the battle of Fredericksburg. 

The total strength of the regiment was 2036, of whom 
257 were killed or died in the service, 319 were dis- 
charged on account of disability, 109 were not ac- 
counted for, and 47 enlisted men were promoted. 

The officers from Burlington County were: 

Adjt. Leander Brewin, corp. Co. I; com.-sergt. ; 1st 
lieut. Co. A ; adjutant. 

Capt. Josiah Shaw, sergt. Co. H; 2d lieut.; 1st 
lieut. ; capt. Co. A, 

Capt. John M. Crammer, corp.; sergt.; re-enl.; 1st 
lieut. Co. A ; capt. Co. A. 

Capt. Barzilla Ridgeway, 1st lieut. Co. D; capt. Co. 
D; lieut.-col. 

Capt. Howard King, 2d lieut. Co. I ; 1st lieut. Co. 
H ; capt. Co. C. 

Capt. Caleb M. Wright, com.-sergt. ; 2d lieut. Co. 
G ; capt. Co. C ; must, out Sept, 3, 1864, 

Capt. John L. Letchworth, corp. ; sergt. Co. I. ; re- 
enl. ; 1st lieut. 

Capt. Charles Hall, Co. E; disch. Sept. 9, 18G2, 

Capt. William Nippins, Co, I; res. Jan. 4, 1863; 
capt. Co. D, 34th Inf. N. J. Vols.; died at Mount 
Holly, Nov. 25, 1865. 

Capt. John L. Ridgway, 1st lieut.; capt. ; died at 
Mount Holly, Nov. 7, 1864. 



1st Lieut. George O. Brooks, 1st sergt. Co. E; 2d 
lieut. ; 1st lieut. Co. C. 

1st Lieut. Alonzo D. Nichols, corp. ; re-enl. ; sergt. 
Co. G; 1st lieut. Co. B. 

2(1 Lieut. James H. Berwin, 1st sergt. ; re-enl. ; Co. 
I ; 2d lieut. Co. B. 

2d Lieut. Benjamin F. Stidfole, sergt. -maj. ; 2d lieut. 
Co. D. 

2d Lieut. Samuel E. Taylor, 1st sergt. Co. G; 2d 
lieut. Co. E. 

2d Lieut. Samuel D. Cross, corp. ; sergt. ; Co. I ; 2d 
lieut. Co. K ; died May 14, 1864, of wounds received 
in action at Spottsylvania Court-House, Va., May 12, 

2d Lieut. Clayton S. Hollingshead; re-enl. ; sergt. ; 
1st sergt. Co. E; 2d lieut. Co. K. 

In the Fifth Regiment Infantry there was a sprink- 
ling of Burlington County men, who were mostly in 
Company I. The regiment was raised underthe second 
call of the President, July 24, 1861 ; was organized, 
equipped, and officered August 22d, at which time it 
was mustered into the service for three years at Camp 
Olden, by Capt. Tdrbert, U.S.A. It numbered eight 
hundred and sixty-one officers and men, and was com- 
manded by Col. Samuel H. Starr, captain Second 
United States Cavalry, who was of the county. It 
left Trenton August 29th, and upon arrival at Wash- 
ington went into camp at Meridian Hill, D. C, and 
there remained until the early part of December, 
1861, at which time, in connection with the Sixth, 
Seventh, and Eighth Regiments, it was ordered to 
report, under command of Col. Starr, the senior of- 
ficer, to Gen. Joseph Hooker, U.S.V., near Budd's 
Ferry, Md.. where they were brigaded and known as 
the Third Brigade, Hooker's division; afterwards to 
the Third Brigade, Second Division, Third Corps; 
then to the First Brigade, Fourth Division, Second 
Corps ; then to the Third Brigade, Third Division, 
Second Corps. It, however, was generally known 
as the Second Brigade New Jersey Volunteers. In 
April the Fifth moved to the Peninsula, the brigade 
under the command of Brig.-Gen. F. E. Patterson. 
It participated in the following battles on the Penin- 
sula, viz. : Siege of Yorktown, Williamsport, Fair 
Oaks, Seven Pines, Savage Station, Glendale, and 
Malvern Hill. At Fair Oaks Col. Starr was wounded. 
May 7, 1862, Lieut.-Col. Mott was promoted colonel 
of the Sixth Regiment. Upon the withdrawal of our 
army from Harrison's Landing, the Fifth marched 
down the Peninsula to Yorktcjwn, and embarked for 
Alexandria, from whence it proceeded by rail to War- 
rentou Junction, July 25th, and joined the army un- 
der Gen. Pope. During this campaign it fought with 
determined bravery in the battles of Bristoe Station, 
Bull Run (second), and Chantilly. Going into camp at 
Alexandria, the brigade remained undisturbed until 
November 1st. Lee having been driven out of Mary- 
land, on that day it proceeded to Bristoe Station, 
where it arrived on the 4th. In a few davs it moved 

to Manassas Junction, marching in a snow-storm, and 
suffering severely. Soon after it marched to Freder- 
icksburg under Burnside, and Gen. Patterson, the 
brigade commander, a brave and esteemed officer, 
while laboring under a sudden fit of Jnsanity fell by 
his own hands. He was succeeded by Brig.-Gen. 
Mott. Under Hooker it fought at Cliancellorsville, 
where it particularly distinguished itself. On Oct. 
13, 1862, Col. Starr, a gallant officer, was recalled 
to the regular army, and Lieut.-Col. William J. Sew- 
ell' was promoted colonel on the 21st of that month. 
The invasion of Pennsylvania by the enemy followed 
soon after Chancellorsville, and at Gettysburg on the 
2d and 3d of July, 1863, the Fifth passed through 
the storm of battle with undaunted bravery. Follow- 
ing Lee, under Meade, it fought at Wapping Heights, 
McLean's Ford, Mine Run, and under Grant at 
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna River, 
Tolopotomy Creek, Cold Harbor, before Petersburg, 
Deep Bottom, Mine Explosion, Fort Sedgwick, Pop- 
lar Church, Boydtowu Plank-Road, and Fort Mor- 

In August, 1862, Company A was disbanded, and 
the officers and men were assigned by transfer to 
different companies in the regiment, and a new Com- 
pany A was raised and sent to the regiment about Oct. 
1, 1862. In June, 1863, a number of the men re-en- 
listed in the field for three years. Those who did not 
re-enlist upon the expiration of their term of service 
were sent to Trenton, and were mustered out Sept. 7, 
1864. During the months of August and Sei)tember, 
1864, a large number of substitutes were forwarded to 
and joined the regiment. These men, with those who 
had re-enlisted and with those whose term of service 
had not expired, were assigned to what was known as 
Companies A, B, C, and D, Fifth Battalion, and con- 
tinued their organization until Nov. 6, 1864, at which 
time they were transferred to and consolidated with 
the Seventh Regiment. 

The total strength of the regiment was 1772, of 
which 214 were killed or died, 396 were discharged for 
disability, 77 were not accounted for, and 40 enlisted 
men were promoted. 

The following officers were from Burlington County : 

Col. Samued H. Starr, capt. 2d U. S. Cav. ; recalled 
to regular army Oct. 13, 1862. 

Lieut.-Col. Gershom Mott, pro. col. 6th Regt. N. J. 
Vols. May 7, 1862; to brig.-gen. U. S. V. Sept. 7, 
1862; brevet maj. -gen. Aug. 1, 1864; maj. -gen. May 
26, 1865; resigned Feb. 20, 1866. Commands, 3d 
Brigade (2d N. J. Brigade), 2d Division, 3d Corps; 
2d Division, 3d Corps, Army of the Potomac. 

Surg. James C. Fisher, pro. surg. U. S. Vols. April 
4, 1862 ; appointed surg. 2d Brigade N.J. Vols., April 
21, 1862. 

Chaplain Thomas Sovereign. 

Capt. Guy Bryan, capt. Co. I ; trans, to Co. K. 

' Now a Senator of the United States from New Jersey. 


QyU^cr.^^ Cy^t.<rC€r— 



Capt. Thomas W. Eayre, 1st lieut. Aug. 28, 1861 ; 
capt. Co. I. 

Second Lieut. Guy Bryan, Jr., 1st sergt. Co. I ; 2d 
lieut. Co. D ; resigned May 13, 1863, to accept com- 
mission as adjt. 18th Regt. Penn. Cav. 

Second Lieut. Joseph E. Simmons, sergt. Co. I ; 2d 
lieut. Co. E. 

In the Sixth Regiment of Infantry, Company F 
was mostly from Burlington County, as was also the 
band. At the commencement of the war each regi- 
ment bad a full brass band attached to it, but on 
account of the great expense they were discharged 
by general order of the War Department in July, 
1862. Brigade bands were substituted. In battle all 
musicians were employed as stretcher-bearers. The 
Sixth being brigaded with the Fifth, the histories of 
the two regiments are almost identical. Col. James 
T. Hatfield, its commander, resigned on account of 
disability, April 27, 1862, and was succeeded by 
Lieut.-Col. Mott, of the Fifth, who was promoted 
colonel. Mott, who was appointed a brigadier-gen- 
eral, was succeeded by Lieut.-Col. George C. Burling, 
Sept. 7, 1862. At Williamsport, where the regiment 
was in the thickest of the fight, Lieut.-Col. Johu P. 
Van Leer, its commander, was killed while cheering 
on the men. The casualties on that day were: killed, 
one lieutenant, thirty-seven non-commissioned offi- 
cers and privates; wounded, four captains, three lieu- 
tenants, seventy-one non-commissioned officers and 
privates; missing, twenty-six non-commissioned offi- 
cers and ptivates. At Bristoe Station, Aug. 27, 
1862, it suffered severely, its colonel (Mott) being 
wounded. In this action and at Bull Run (second) 
and Chantilly the loss of the regiment in killed and 
wounded was one hundred and four men. At Chan- 
cellorsville, Col. Burling was wounded and the regi- 
ment suffered severely. Asst. Adjt. -Gen. Thomas W. 
Eayre, while acting in the most gallant manner, was 
also wounded. At Gettysburg the regiment was com- 
manded by Lieut.-Col. Gilkyson, and the brigade by 
Col. Burling, Gen. Mott not having recovered from 
his wound. That winter the Sixth went into winter- 
quarters at Brandj' Station. 

While they lay here Col. Burling was obliged to 
resign his commission on account of failing health. 
He entered the service as captain of a three months' 
company, and upon the expiration of its term joined 
the Sixth as captain, serving in that capacity until 
March, 1862, when he was promoted major. About 
June 1st he was made lieutenant-colonel, and subse- 
quently colonel of the regiment. He was wounded 
three times ; was warmly esteemed by officers and 
men, and was the recipient, after leaving the service, 
of a handsome testimonial of their regards. 

On May 12, 1864, near Spottsylvania Court- House, 
Lieut. S. T. Note, with a squad of men of the Sixth, 
captured and manned a steel gun, which they used 
effectually. Many other gallant deeds were performed 
by officers and men during the three years' service. 

of which no mention is made. Participating in all 
the battles of its sister regiments, the Sixth left a 
bright record behind of which the men can be justly 
proud. Those of tbe regiment who did not re-enlist 
returned to Trentou, and Sept. 7, 1864, were mustered 
out of service by Capt. Long, U.S.A. During the 
months of August and September of that year a large 
number of substitutes were forwarded to the regiment. 
These men, with those who had re-enlisted and those 
whose term of service had not expired, were assigned 
to what was known as Companies A, B, and C, Sixth 
Battalion, and continued their organization until 
October, 1864, at which time they were transferred to 
and consolidated with the Eighth Regiment, at which 
time the Sixth as an organization ceased to exist. 

The total strength of the regiment was fourteen 
hundred and eighty-five, of which one hundred and 
eighty were killed or died, three hundred and sixty- 
four were discharged for disability, one hundred and 
fifty-seven were not accounted for, and twenty-seven 
enlisted men were promoted. 

The following officers were from Burlington County : 

Col. Gershom Mott. 

Col. George C. Burling, capt. Co. F; maj. ; lieut. - 
col.; col. 

Capt. Joseph Hayes, 2d lieut. ; 1st lieut. ; capt. Co. 

1st Lieut. Joseph W. Pippett, 2d lieut. Co. B; 1st 
lieut. Co. A. 

2d Lieut. Jesse W. Coggswell, 1st sergt. ; 2d lieut. 
Co. F ; capt. 34th Regt. N. J. Vols. 

Maj.-Gex. Gershom Mott. — Among the prom- 
inent military men of New Jersey none presents a 
more conspicuous figure than Maj. -Gen. Gershom 
Mott. Descended from one of the old families of 
Holland that settled in New York State at an early 
day, his branch removed to Bergen, East Jersey, about 
the close of the seventeenth century. In the Cross- 
wicks records it is stated that William Mott in 1706 
contracted to furnish forty thousand bricks to build 
the Friends' meeting-house at that place. Gershom 
Mott, his great-grandfather, was a member of the Pro- 
vincial Assembly in 1707, 1708, 1710, and 1713. Capt, 
John Mott, his grandfather, entered the Continental 
arm}' as first lieutenant Third Battalion, Jersey Line, 
Feb. 9, 1776, served against the Indians in Northern 
New York under Gen. Sullivan, and was promoted 
to captain November 29th of the same year. He 
subsequently participated in the battles of Brandy- 
wine, Germantown, Monmouth, etc., and in the ex- 
pedition from Wyoming up the Susquehanna against 
the Seneca Indians, under Gen. Sullivan. He also 
served as a guide to Gen. Washington at the battle of 
Trenton. His home residence was on a part of the 
present tract of the New Jersey State Lunatic Asy- 
lum, and his general familiarity with the locality 
made his services in this regard of great value. 

Capt. Mott passed the memorable winter of 1776- 
77 with the suffering army at Valley Forge. His wife 



was Eleanor Johnson. His son, Gersbom Mott, father 
of Gen. Mott, was a merchant at Lamberton (now 
the Sixtli Ward of Trenton) for many years. He was 
an active, energetic, and useful citizen, one of the 
controlling members of the First Baptist Church of 
Trenton, collector of the port of Lamberton for a 
long time, and on Oct. 31, 1833, was appointed a 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Burlington 
County. He died in 1848, aged sixty-four years. He 
married Phebe, daughter of John Scudder, of Ewing 
township, Mercer County, N. J., who also performed 
active service in the Revolutionary war. Mrs. Scud- 
der was Miss Mary Keen, daughter of Jacob Keen, 
of Trenton, a gallant soldier in the Revolutionary 
war, and was among the thirteen maidens who strewed 
flowers at the reception of Gen. Washington at Tren- 
ton, April 21, 1789. 

Maj.-Gen. Gershom Mott was born at Lamberton, 
N. J., on April 7, 1822. He received a substantial 
English education at the Trenton Academy, and at 
the age of fourteen went to New York City, where he 
became a clerk in a dry-goods store. Owing to the 
failure of the firm with which he was connected, he 
returned to his native town in 1846. Soon after the 
Jlexican war broke out, and President Polk having 
called for fifty thousand men, and for the raising of 
ten regiments to be attached to the eight regular 
existing regiments throughout the war, Mr. Mott 
was appointed second lieutenant of the Tenth United 
States Infantry, under Capt. Samuel Dickinson, of 
Trenton. Having accepted the appointment Lieut. 
Mott repaired to the Rio Grande with his regiment, 
and remained in the active service of the government 
during the war, under the immediate command of 
Gen. Zachary Taylor. His conduct during the strug- 
gle was marked by a careful and painstaking atten- 
tion to military duty and discipline, and during this 
early military experience he acquired many of those 
traits of character that have marked liim since as a 
successful, efficient, and popular commander. 

After the close of the war Lieut. Mott returned to 
the duties of a civilian, and accepted and filled in a 
competent manner the office of collector of the port 
of Lamberton, succeeding his father who had but re- 
cently died. In 1850, having been appointed a clerk 
in the office of the Delaware and Raritan Canal 
Company at Bordentown, he removed to that place, 
and has since made it his residence. In 1855 he was 
appointed teller in the Bordentown Bank, and re- 
tained that position until 1861, when, inspired by pa- 
triotic motives, and feeling a warm interest in the of national unity and in the supremacy of con- 
stitutional principles, he offered his services to the 
government, and was appointed by Governor Olden 
lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Regiment of Infantry, 
New Jersey Volunteers, on Aug. 24, 1861. 

Col. Starr, of the Fifth Regiment, being ranking 
officer of the Second Jersey Brigade, to which the 
regiment was attached, the command of the regiment 

devolved upon Lieut.-Col. Mott, who, from his train- 
ing and services in Mexico, was well fitted to bring 
the regiment up to the highest standard of military 
efficiency. Three months' active drilling at Meridian 
Hill, near Washington, rendered the, regiment fit for 
the field, and marching with their brigade to Budd's 
Ferry, Md., they joined the division of Gen. Hooker, 
and participated in the campaigns of the Army of the 
Potomac. At Williamsburgh, which commanded all 
the road leading up the Peninsula, on May 5, 1862, 
the enemy made a desperate stand, and here the Fifth 
New Jersey achieved its first victory, after being ex- 
posed to a stubborn fire for more than nine hours. For 
the gallant manner in which Col. Mott held the regi- 
ment to its work, he was on May 7, 1862, promoted 
to the colonelcy of the Sixth New Jersey Volunteers. 
On June 1st he led his new regiment at Fair Oaks, 
and his conduct elicited mention in the official re- 
port of Gen. Hooker, of his "distinguished services 
in the field," and from Col. Starr, commanding the 
brigade, praise for his " intrepidity and coolness whilst 
under fire." 

Throughout the whole campaign his record is dis- 
tinguished and honorable. In the movements pre- 
liminary to the second battle of Bull Run, he acted 
with distinction at the affairs of Bristoe Station on 
August 27th, near Centrevilleon the 28th, and on the 
afternoon of the 29th, at Bull Run, he was severely 
wounded in the arm while endeavoring to drive the 
enemy from behind a railroad embankment. 

Compelled to relinquish his command, while absent 
from the field his superior officers unanimously recom- 
mended him for promotion, and on Sept. 7, 1862, the 
rank of brigadier-general was conferred upon him by 
President Lincoln. 

On his return to duty, Dec. 4, 1862, he was assigned 
by Gen. Burnside to the command of Gen. Hooker 
(then commanding the centre grand division of the 
Army of the Potomac), who had made a special re- 
quest for his services. He was placed by Gen Hooker 
in command of the Second Brigade, New Jersey Vol- 
unteers (then composing the Third Brigade, Second 
Division, Third Army Corps), encamped near Fal- 
mouth, Va. On May 1, 1863, Gen. Hooker having 
succeeded to the command of the Army of the Poto- 
mac, Gen. Mott crossed the Rappahannock with bis 
brigade. Arriving at the field of Chancellorsville at 
two o'clock on the morning of the 3d, at half-past 
four he formed his line of battle, and was soon hotly 
engaged with the enemy. History has recorded how 
bravely the brigade held their position in the face of 
the desperate and determined assaults of the enemy. 
Early in the day Gen. Mott had a narrow escape, a 
rifle-ball passing between his bridle-arm and body, 
and at a later period of the engagement his left hand 
was struck and shattered. Notwithstanding the 
severity of the wound he remained for a considerable 
time upon the field, and refused to go to the rear until 
compelled by loss of blood. His wound, though not 



dangerous, was an ugly one, sind it was not until the 
end of August that the surgeons would permit him to 
rejoin his brigade. 

Having recovered from his wound, Gen. Mott re- 
joined his brigade on the 29th of August, at Bealton, 
and on October 15th successfully repulsed a large 
force of the enemy at McLean's Ford, on Bull Run, 
liaving entire command at that spirited engagement. 
At the grand advance in the spring of 18G4, Gen. 
Grant, on May 3, 18(34, conferred the command of the 
Fourth Division, Second Army Corps, upon Gen. 
Mott, and on May 13th following, owing to the losses 
in action and the expiration of the term of service of 
many regiments of that division, it had become so 
reduced in numbers that an order was issued con- 
solidating it into a brigade and attaching it to Birney's 
Third Division. On July 25, 1864, Gen, Mott was 
given the command of this division, and held it until 
the troops were mustered out at the close of the war. 

To follow our subject through all the marches, 
struggles, hardships, and victories that he experi- 
enced amid the changes of his active military career 
is beyond the scope of this paper. He was ever fear- 
less in the performance of duty, active, efficient, vigi- 
lant, and especially noted for his strict regard for 
military rules and the maintenance of discipline. 
During the contests in front of Spottsylvania, May 
19, 1804, he was wounded for the third time, and on 
September 10th of that year was deservedly breveted 
a major-general, to rank from Aug. 1, 18G4. Just at 
the close of the war, in a skirmish at Amelia Springs, 
he was severely wounded in the right' leg and forced 
to relinquish his command. Three days later, April 
9, 1865, Gen. Lee surrendered his army, and the Army 
of the Potomac and the Army of Virginia passed into 
history. At the disbandment of the army Gen. Mott 
was placed in temporarj' command of one of the di- 
visions of the Provisional Corps, the whole being un- 
der tlie command of Gen. Wright. In August, 1865, 
he was detailed to serve on the Wirz commission, and 
on November 22d on the commission to investigate 
the difficulties between the State of Massachusetts 
and the Austrian government. While engaged in 
this work he received his last promotion, Dec. 1, 
1865, to date from May 26, 1865, to the rank of a full 
major-general of volunteers, being the first New Jer- 
sey officer to receive the brevet major-generalship, 
and, with a single exception, the only one who at- 
tained the full rank. Gen. Mott resigned his com- 
mission and retired to private life on Feb. 20, 1866. 

Upon his return to Bordentown he accepted the 
position of paymaster of the Camden and Amboy 
Railroad Company. In 1867 he was tendered the ap- 
pointment of lieutenant-colonel of the Thirty-third 
'United States Infantry, but disliking military service 
in time of peace, declined the position. On March 
1, 1872, when the Camden and Amboy Railroad Com- 
pany was leased by the Pennsylvania Railroad, Gen. 
Mott's services as paymaster ceased. On Sept. 1, 1875, 

he was appointed by Governor Bedle to the position 
of treasurer of New Jersey, to succeed Sooy, and dis- 
charged the duties of the office with fidelity and suc- 
cess. On Feb. 15, 1876, he was succeeded by a Re- 
publican appointee, and on March 28, 1876, was 
appointed to the position of keeper of the New Jer- 
sey State prison, holding that place until March 28, 
1881, when he declined a reappointment. On March 
21, 1882, he was appointed by Governor Ludlow a 
member of the Riparian Commission of New Jersey, 
vice Judge Francis S. Lathrop, deceased. Besides 
these civil positions Gen. Mott was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Parker, in February, 1873, major-general com- 
manding the National Guard of New Jersey, and holds 
that office at the present writing (1882), 

At his home residence, where his character as a 
soldier and a man is best known, Gen. Mott is held 
in high esteem, and his services have received fre- 
quent recognition and indorsement Upon starting 
for the war his Bordentown friends presented him 
with a handsome horse and equipments, and in 1862 
he was made the recipient, by the same parties, of a 
silver pitclier and two goblets bearing the inscription, 
"Honor to the Brave. Presented to Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Gershom Mott, L^. S. Volunteers, by his friends 
in Bordentown, N. J., For his soldierly qualities, liis 
gallantry and bravery, displayed at Yorktown, Wil- 
liamsburg, Fair Oaks, Gleudale, Malvern Hill, Bris- 
tow. Bull Run & Manassas." 

Gen. Mott takes great interest in the affairs of his 
town, and is identified with several local enterprises 
and institutions. From 1872 until 1876 he was a 
member of the foundry firm of Thompson & Mott, 
at White Hill. He is president of the Merchants' 
Transportation Company of Trenton, a director of 
the Bordentown Banking Company, secretary, treas- 
urer, and director of the Cream Ridge Marl Company, 
of Cream Ridge, N. J., and a director of the West 
Jersey and Atlantic Railroad Company. On July 4, 
1867, he was honored by the election as an honorary 
member of the New Jersey Society of the Cincinnati. 
He also belongs to a large number of military organ- 
izations. He married, Aug. 8, 1849, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of John E. Smith, Esq., of Trenton. 

In the Seventh Regiment Infantry Surgeon Alvin 
Satterthwait was the only officer we know of who 
belonged to Burlington County. He was promoted, 
July 19, 1862, .surgeon Twelfth Regiment New Jersey 

In the Ninth Regiment Infantry, part of Com- 
pany C and a number of scattering men were from 
Burlington County. It was raised under an author- 
ization from the War Department to recruit a regi- 
ment of riflemen of twelve companies. The first 
company was mustered in at Camp Olden, September 
13th, and the last Oct. 15, 1861. On December 4th 
it left Trenton and proceeded to AVashington, where 
it was assigned to the First Brigade, Gen. Jesse L. 
Reno, of Burnside's expedition. Jan. 4, 1862, it 



moved to Annapolis, Md., from whence, on the 9th, 
it embarked for the coast of North Carolina. Arriv- 
ing off Hatteras Inlet, a violent storm arose. On 
the 15th, the sea having somewhat calmed. Col. Joseph 
W. Allen, its commander, Lieut.-Col. Heckman, Sur- 
geon Weller, Adjt. Zabriskie, and Qr.-mr. Keys pro- 
ceeded in a boat to the shore to report to Gen. Burnside. 
The boat was well manned, and was in charge of the 
captain of the ship "Ann E. Thompson." Having 
concluded their interview with Gen. Burnside, the 
party proceeded to return, but when they reached the 
breakers outside the inlet, a heavy sea burst over the 
bow and unshipped the oars. Before the 'oars could 
be righted a wave struck the boat from beneath, hurl- 
ing it some distance in the air, and precipitating its 
occupants into the sea. With great difficulty the boat 
was reached by several of the party, and efforts made 
to right it; but this was soon found to be impossible, 
owing to heavy swells, Avhich caused it to roll over 
and over, and defy any attempt to render it manage- 
able. Lieut.-Col. Heckman and Adjutant Zabriskie, 
being expert swimmers, finding that Col. Allen and 
Surgeon Weller were in greater danger than others, 
made desperate attempts to save their lives, but all 
Avere unsuccessful, these officers, bravely struggling to 
the last, going down into the watery depths. The cap- 
sized boat drifted seaward, but the lieutenant-colonel 
and adjutant finally succeeded in raising an oar with a 
shirt on it, which signal being shortly afterwards dis- 
covered, the steamer " Patuxent" hastened to give as- 
sistance. So overcome were the survivors that upon 
reaching the decks of the steamer some of them sank 
into insensibility. The bodies of Col. Allen and Dr. 
Weller and the second mate were recovered during 
the day and buried on Hatteras Banks, where the wild 
winds of the ocean chanted their solemn requiems. 

The next day the brigantine " Dragon," with five 
companies of the Ninth, attempted to enter the inlet 
but struck upon the bar, and was in danger of being lost. 
The steamer " Patuxent," attracted by the fire of the 
rifles, came to their assistance and towed them safely 
into the harbor. On the 21st the seven other com- 
panies entered the inlet on the "Ann E. Thompson." 
On the 6th of February the fleet steamed up Pamlico 
Sound, the gunboats under Goldsborough leading the 
van. The vessels were gayly decked in bunting, and 
the spectacle was most imposing. At sunset the fleet 
anchored within twelve miles of Roanoke Island, and at 
nine o'clock the next morning the gunboats opened on 
the picket-boats of the enemy. The combat with the 
enemy's fleet and land batterieslasted until 3 p.m., when 
the boats were lowered and the troops pushed ashore. 
Meeting little opposition the men toiled through a 
swamp, skirmished with the rebels upon reaching 
solid ground, and bivouacked in a corn-field during a 
heavy storm. The next day the brilliant battle of 
Roanoke Island was fought, and the key to all the 
inland waters of the State captured. Lieut.-Col. 
Heckman was promoted colonel ; Maj. Wilson, lieu- 

tenant-colonel ; and Adjutant Zabriskie, major. Dur- 
ing the service of the Ninth in North Carolina it par- 
ticipated in the battles of Newberne, Fort Macon, 
Young's Cross-Roads, Rowell's Mills, Deep Creek, 
Southwest Creek, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsborough, 
Comfort Bridge, and Winton. At Newberne the 
Ninth acted with great gallantry in the charge that 
took the works. In December, Col. Heckman received 
his commission as brigadier-general, and was assigned 
to the command of the First Brigade, Second Divis- 
ion, Eighteenth Army Corps, consisting of the Ninth 
New Jersey, Third, Eighth, and Twenty third Massa- 
chusetts Regiments. At the same time Dr. A. W. 
Woodhull was made brigade surgeon, and Lieut.-Col. 
Zabriskie was promoted colonel. On the 24th a beauti- 
ful stand of colors, costing seven hundred dollars, the 
gift of the Legislature of New Jersey, Avas presented 
to the regiment, accompanied by most flattering reso- 
lutions passed by the Legislature. 

In January a combined naval and land att.ack upon 
Charleston, S. C, being contemplated, on the 29th of 
that month, the troops being embarked, the fleet of 
one hundred vessels steamed out of Beaufort Harbor 
and down the coast, entering Port Royal Harbor on 
the 31st. The project being abandoned, the Second 
Brigade was sent back to Beaufort, N. C, and the 
First disembarked at Hilton Head. Information 
being received that Gen. Foster was besieged at 
Little Washington, N. C, at the earnest solicitations 
of Gen. Heckman and other officers. Gen. Hunter 
ordered the First Brigade to proceed by sea to his 
relief. October 18th, the brigade sailed from North 
Carolina, and landing at Newport News, Va., re- 
mained in camp there during the remainder of the 

In January, 1864, two-thirds of the Ninth re enlist- 
ing for another three years, the regiment was entitled 
to a veteran furlough, and on the 4th of February 
they reached Jersey City, where they were formally 
received by the citj' authorities. ^After parading the 
principal streets, they were entertained at Taylor's 
Hotel, and late that day proceeded to Trenton, where 
their arms were turned in, and the boys scattered to 
their homes. 

On the 15th of March the gallant Ninth, strength- 
ened by a number of recruits, once more turned its 
face towards the field. On the 17th it reached Ports- 
mouth, Va., and joined the army under Gen. Butler; 
and May 5th it disembarked at Bermuda Hundred. 
At this time the Army of the Potomac was just 
emerging from the Wilderness and heading towards 
Richmond. We shall not follow the Ninth in its 
many battles around Petersburg. On Sept. 17, 1864, 
it proceeded to Bermuda Hundred, and embarking on , 
tran.sports sailed for North Carolina, reaching More- 
head City on the 21st. It remained in this State 
until the close of the war. In October, 1864, one 
hundred and eighty men of the Ninth, whose term 
of service had expired, left for Trenton, where they 



were mustered out. In June, 1865, two hundred and 

sixteen men left for Trenton, and on the 12th of July 
the regiment, as an organization, was mustered out at 
Greensborough, N. C, and the next day proceeded 
by rail to Danville, Va. Upon reaching City Point 
it embarked for Baltimore, and reached Trenton at 
half-past six o'clock on the morning of the 18th of 
July. On the 28th the final discharge-papers were 
issued, and on the following day, after nearly four 
years of service, the regiment ceased to exist. 

It is remarkable that of the officers returning with 
the regiment, all, except the colonel and lieutenant- 
colonel, originally joined the regiment as privates. 

The total strength of the regiment was 2701 officers 
and men, of whom 254 were killed or died in the 
service, 352 were discharged on account of disability, 
36 were never accounted for, and 17 enlisted men 
were promoted. 

The battles the regiment participated in, besides 
those already mentioned, were Deep Creek, Va., 
Cherry Grove, Port Walthall, Procter's, Swift Creek, 
Drury's Bluff, Cold Harbor, Free Bridge, before 
Petersburg, Va., Gardner's Bridge, Foster's Bridge, 
Butler's Bridge, Southwest Creek, Wise's Fork, and 
Goldsboro', N. C. 
The officers from Burlington County were: 
Col. Joseph W. Allen,' drowned at Hatteras Inlet, 
N. C, Jan. 15, 1862. 

Capt. Charles B. Hopkinton,' Co. C. 
Second Lieut. Joel W. Clift, Co. C. Samuel Keys. 

In the Tenth Regiment Infantry, Company C and 
a number of scattering men were from Burlington 
County. Being raised by authority from the War 
Department, without the consent of the Governor of 
New Jersey, its earlier experience was not satisfac- 
tory to officers or men. It was received by William 
Bryan, who was its first colonel, at Beverly, and pro- 
ceeded to Washington, Dec. 26, 1861. Owing to its 
defective organization and the absence of all proper 
discipline it soon fell into disrepute; and for a time 
was of little service. In January, 1862, the War De- 
partment transferred the regiment to the State author- 
ities. It was then thoroughly reorganized and desig- 
nated the Tenth Regiment, it being before known as 
the "Olden Legion." Governor Olden requested 
Col. AVilliam R. Murphy, of Bordentown, to accept 
the command of it, which he consented to do on con- 
dition that the quartermaster of the State should be 
directed to equip and supply the regiment like the 
others, and that he, the colonel, should be permitted 
to select its officers. Col. Murphy was at once mus- 
tered in at Washington, and assumed command. At 
this time the regiment was in an almost hopeless con- 
dition. Among other defects one of the companies 
was enlisted and equipped as cavalry, and most of its 
men were in arrest for refusing to do infantry duty. 

1 See history of BorJentown. 

This company was mustered out and authority given 
to recruit a company of infantry. A considerable num- 
ber of men were discharged on account of physical dis- 
ability, and the field and company officers were com- 
missioned and mustejed into service. The morale of 
the regiment was much improved, and early in the 
summer of 1862 it was ordered into Washington and 
placed upon provost duty. In the early part of 1863 
barracks were erected for it. Col. Murphy, who had 
hoped for more active service for his command, be- 
lieving there was little prospect of its being ordered 
into the field, resigned his commission March 12th, 
and was succeeded by Col. H. O. Ryerson, formerly 
of the Second Regiment. 

April 12, 1863, the Tenth was sent to Suffolk, Va., 
where it was attached to Corcoran's brigade, and saw 
some service against Longstreet, who had threatened 
that section. In July it was sent to perform provost 
duty at Philadelphia, and in September it was sent to 
Pottsville, Pa., where there were indications of riots 
among the miners, and thence was ordered to the 
fords of the Potomac near Shepherdstown, where it 
remained about a month. In November, riots having 
broken out in other parts of the mining regions of 
Pennsylvania, it was ordered to Mauch Chunk, where 
it remained until April, 1864, when it proceeded to 
Brandy Station, Va., and was attached to the First 
Brigade New Jersey Volunteers in time to participate 
in the grand movement against Richmond under 
Gen. Grant. 

The record of the Tenth from this time forward was 
almost identical with that of the First Brigade, which 
is elsewhere given. It shared in the battles, the 
glories, and the hardships of that memorable cam- 
paign, and with the brigade was transferred to the 
Shenandoah Valley, where under Sheridan it took 
part in his glorious victories. During the winter of 
1864-65 it rejoined the army before Petersburg, and 
being largely recruited it rendered efficient service, 
and when the rebel flag went down at Appomattox, 
it turned its face northward, and in June, 1865, it was 
mustered out at Hall's Hill, Va., and soon after pro- 
ceeded to Trenton. 

The regiment participated in the following battles: 
Carrsville, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Spottsylvania 
Court-House, North and South Anna Piver, Hanover 
Court-House, Tolopotomy Creek, Cold Harbor, be- 
fore Petersburg, Weldon Railroad, Snicker's Gap, 
Strasburg, Winchester, Charlestown, Opequan, 
Fisher's Hill, New Market, Mount Jackson, Cedar 
Creek, and Middletown, Hatcher's Run, Fort Stead- 
man, capture of Petersburg, Sailor's Creek, Farm- 
ville, and Lee's surrender. 

Its total strength was 2584 officers and men, of 
whom 274 were killed or died, 293 were discharged on 
account of disability, 138 were not accounted for, and 
48 enlisted men were promoted. 

The following officers of the Tenth were from Bur- 
lington County; 



Col. William Bryan, Col. William R. Murphy. 

Lieut.-Col. John D. Johnson, captain Co. C ; dis- 
charged March 11, 1865 ; paroled prisoner ; lieutenant- 
colonel March 31, 1865. 

Maj. Henry A. Perrine, captain Co. K; discharged 
March 29, 1865; commissioned colonel June 30, 1865; 
not mustered. 

Quartermaster Samuel S. Smith, discharged Sept. 
20, 1864; recommissioned Jan. 24, 1865; captain Co. 
K, May 21, 1865; not mustered. 

Surgeon John W. Bryan, discharged April 14, 1862. 

Assistant Surgeon Jesse J. Thomas, died at Me- 
ridian Hill, Washington, May 4, 1862, of wounds re- 
ceived accidentally. 

Assistant Surgeon Samuel Stille, resigned Sept. 10, 

Capt. John E. Pepper, first sergt., second lieut., 
first lieut., captain Co. C. 

First Lieut. Albert M. Buck, Co. E. 

First Lieut. Robert Love, second lieut. Co. F; 
first lieut. Co. H; discharged Dec. 8, 1864; commis- 
sioned captain Co. A Oct. 5, 1864; not mustered. 

First Lieut. Silas M. Wampole, Co. K ; discharged 
Jan. 18, 1865; paroled prisoner. 

Second Lieut. Joseph D. Smith, sergt., first sergt., 
second lieut. Co. H. 

Second Lieut. Filbert Shellenberger, sergt., first 
sergt.; re-enlisted; second lieut. Co. K; discharged 
Aug. 18, 1864. 

Second Lieut. Joseph R. Horner, Co. C ; promoted 
first lieut. Co. F ; also captain Co. E, Thirty-fourth 

In the Twelfth Regiment Infantry, Company C 
was of Burlington County. The regiment was raised 
under the second call of the President for 300,000 
men, Robert C. Johnson, of Salem, a cadet of West 
Point, and formerly major of the Fourth Regiment of 
three months' men, being commissioned as colonel 
July 9, 1862. It was ready for the field by the 4lh 
day of September, at which time it was mustered into 
the United States service for three years at Camp 
Stockton, near Woodbury, N. J., by Capt. William 
B. Royall, U.S.A. It left the State September 7th, 
nine hundred and ninety-two strong. En route for 
Washington, by reason of the threatened invasion of 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, upon its arrival at Bal- 
timore it was sent to Ellicotl's Mills, Md., where it re- 
mained for three months. December 10th it proceeded 
to Washington, and in a few days marched to Liverpool 
Point, Md., and crossed the Potomac to Acquia Creek, 
Va. From thence it soon moved to Falmouth and 
went into winter-quarters. At this time the Twelfth 
•was attached to the Third Division of the Second 
Corps, and April 28, 1863, under Hooker, it broke 
camp, marched to United States Ford, and two days 
afterwards crossed the Rappahannock. It fought in 
the unfortunate and hard battle of Chancel lorsville, 
where Col. Willets, who had succeeded Col. Johnson, 
was seriously wounded, and one hundred and seventy- 

nine officers and men were reported killed, wounded, 
or missing. 

Returning to its old camp, on June 14th, under 
Maj. Hill, it marched by way of Acquia Creek, Fair- 
fax Station, and Edwards Ferry to Gettysburg's glo- 
rious field. Marching parallel with Lee, but to the 
east of the mountains, still under Gen. Meade, it 
crossed the Potomac at Berlin, reached Warrenton, 
and August 1st went on guard duty on and near the 
Orange and Alexandria Railroad. September 12th 
the regiment, following Pleasonton's cavalry, crossed 
the Rapidan, and subsequently marched to Centre- 
ville, being engaged in several actions in the mean 
time. About this time Maj. Hill was discharged on 
account of physical disability, and the regiment was 
commanded by Lieut.-Col. Davis. On the 7th of 
November the army again moved, crossing the Rap- 
pahannock. The Twelfth accompanied it through 
the " Mine Run campaign," which, though accompa- 
nied by some fighting, amounted to no good. Enter- 
ing into winter-quarters December 27th, they moved 
to Stone Mountain to support the cavalry picket line. 
They lay here until Feb. 16, 1864, when they partici- 
pated in an advance made for the purpose of divert- 
ing the attention of the enemy from the operations 
of Kilpatrick's cavalry, who started on an expedition 
towards Richmond. The Twelfth waded the Rapi- 
dan under a heavy fire of artillery, skirmished with 
the enemy, and during the night recrossed. They re- 
mained in camp until Grant's grand advance through 
the Wilderness. In all those hard-fought battles down 
to the banks of the James, around Petersburg, and 
until Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court-House, the 
Twelfth faithfully performed its duty and shared in 
the hardships and perils. Every heart felt that the 
rebel flag must go down, and that the holy cause of 
union and liberty for which they were battling must 
soon triumph. As conquerors they marched back to 
Washington, where, at Bailey's Cross-Roads, in June 
and July, they were mustered out of service and 
returned to the State. 

The total strength of the regiment was 1899 officers 
and men, of whom 261 were killed or died in the 
service, 171 were discharged on account of disabilitj', 
29 were not accounted for, and 38 enlisted men were 

The regiment took part in the battles of Chancel- 
lorsville, Gettysburg, Falling Waters, Auburn Mills, 
Bristoe Station, Blackburn's Ford, Robinson's Tav- 
ern, Mine Run, Morton's Ford, Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania, Spottsylvania Court-House, North and South 
Anna River, Tolopotomy, Cold Harbor, before Peters- 
burg, Deep Bottom, Mine Explosion, north bank of 
James River, Ream's Station, Fort Sedgwick, Hatch- 
er's Run, Boydton Plank-Road, Hatcher's Run, Dab- 
ney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, Boydton Plank-Road, cap- 
ture of Petersburg, Sailor's Creek, High Bridge, 
Farmville, and Lee's surrender. 

The following officers were from Burlington County : 




. i'. 




Capt. Joel W. Ciift, Co. B; discharged Nov. 2, 
1863, on account of disability. 

Capt. John W. Mitchell; sergeant; first sergeant 
Co. B; first lieutenant ; captain Co. D. 

First Lieut. Ellwood Griscom ; sergeant Co. F; 
second lieutenant Co. A ; first lieutenant Co. E. 

Second Lieut. Samuel Mattson ; private ; cor- 
poral ; sergeant ; first sergeant ; second lieutenant Co. 

Second Lieut. Henry P. Reed ; first sergeant Co. B ; 
second lieutenant; promoted captain Co. F, Thirty- 
fourth Regiment. 

In the Fourteenth Regiment Infantry the only 
officers from Burlington County were: 

First Lieut. William Leatherbury ; sergeant; first 
sergeant Co. B; sergeant-major; first lieutenant Co. 
H ; transferred to Co. E. 

Second Lieut. Tenadore Woodward ; discharged on 
account of disability, Aug. 4, 1864; commissioned 
first lieutenant March 4, 1864, Co. B; not mus- 

In the Twenty-third Regiment Infantry, Compa- 
nies A and B and quite a number of men in other com- 
panies were from Burlington County. On the 4th of 
August, 1862, a draft of three hundred thousand 
militia was ordered by the President to serve for nine 
months. The quota of the State was ten thousand 
four hundred and seventy-eight men. The draft was 
to commence September 3d, and continued from day 
to day until completed. The adjutant-general of the 
State announced the quota required from each county, 
city, and township. A general desire being mani- 
fested by the people of the State to fill the quota by 
voluntary enlistment, it was announced that volun- 
teers in lieu of drafted men would be received up to 
September 1st. The result of this policy, and of the 
general disposition to escape the stigma of a draft, 
was gratifying in the extreme. Everywhere through- 
out the State the utmost enthusiasm and energy were 
exhibited, not only by those liable to the conscription, 
but by citizens of all ages and classes. For several 
days previous to that fixed for the draft men poured 
into camp by thousands, and by the evening of Sep- 
tember 2d the five camps contained ten thousand 
eight hundred volunteers. 

The Twenty-third was mustered in at Beverly, Sep- 
tember 13th ; Company A, from the city of Burling- 
ton, being the first to reach the rendezvous, August 
2oth; Company B, of Bordentown, mustering the 
same evening. The regiment was commanded by 
Col. John S. Cox, of Ellisdale, Monmouth County, 
and its total .strength was nine hundred and ninety- 
six officers and men. Leaving Beverly September 
26th, it proceeded to Washington, and after going 
into camp for a few days, it moved to Frederick City, 
Md. Here it remained until October 8th, when it 
started for Bakersville to join the First New Jersey 
Brigade. On the 30th it marched with the brigade 
towards Crampton's Pass, and on the 3d of Novem- 

ber crossed the Potomac, and moved to New Balti- 
more, where it remained for some time. Col. Cox 
having resigned, he was succeeded by Lieut. -Col. H. 
O. Ryerson, of the Second. About this time Maj. 
Alfred Thompson, of Bordentown, also resigned on 
account of failing health, and was succeeded by E. 
Burd Grubb, a lieutenant of the Third Regiment. 
Gen. Burnside having superseded Gen. McClellan in 
command of the army, the brigade broke camp on the 
16th and moved towards Falmouth tua Catlett's Sta- 
tion and Stafford Court-House. On the morning of 
the 12th of December, 1862, the regiment crossed the 
Rappahannock below Fredericksburg. Sleeping be- 
low the bluff, the next morning it took its position in 
line of battle, and suffered severely on that badly- 
managed field, Maj. Grubb particularly distinguish- 
ing himself for his cool gallantry. On the 15th the 
regiment recrossed the river, and on the 20th reached 
White Oak Church and went into winter-quarters. 
Participating in Burnside's famous "mud march," 
during which it lost a number of men and suffered great 
hardships, it returned to its old camp, and remained 
inactive until spring. Hooker assuming command 
of the army on the 29th of April, 1863, it again crossed 
the Rappahannock three miles below Fredericksburg. 
Skirmishing, marching through the old city, it ad- 
vanced to Salem Church, where it met the enemy in 
force, and had the honor of forming part of the rear- 
guard in retiring from the field of Chancellorsville. 
It recrossed the river at Banks' Ford, May 5th. 

To divert the attention of the enemy, Hooker again 
recrossed the river with a portion of the army. It 
was early in June, when the men were in daily expec- 
tation of orders to return home to be mustered out, 
that orders came for " three days' cooked rations." 
The men well knew the meaning of this, and it was 
an unexpected disappointment to them, but they fol- 
lowed Col. Grubb across the river in good spirits. 
While throwing up breastworks in front of Fred- 
ericksburg, after a few days' duty, orders came to re- 
turn to Beverly, where they soon arrived, and the men 
separated to await the completion of their muster-out 

At this time, late in June, the country was startled 
by the news of Lee's advance into Pennsylvania and 
the supposed danger of Harrisburg. Governor Par- 
ker issued a stirring proclamation to the regiments not 
yet disbanded, and to the people, to hasten to the aid of 
the sister State. When this appeal was issued less 
than half of the men of the Twenty -third were in 
camp, but Col. Grubb promptly ordered the "assem- 
bly," and not a man hesitated to volunteer. Trans- 
portation was at once telegraphed for, and in the dusk 
of the evening the regiment landed in Philadelphia, 
and preceded by a band, marched through the crowded 
streets, greeted at every step by cheers. On the fol- 
lowing morning, in coal-cars, they were carried to 
Harrisburg, where they were at once set to throwing 
up breastworks to prevent the passage of the river, 



which at that time was very sliallow. In a few days, 
however, Governor Curtin feeling the capital safe, 
the regiment returned to Beverly, where it remained 
until June 27th, when it was finally dissolved. 

The Twenty-third participated in the following 
battles: Fredericksburg, Fredericksburg (second), 
Salem Church. 

Its total strength was 1035 officers and men, of 
which 84 were killed or died in the service, 80 were 
discharged on account of disability, and 15 enlisted 
men were promoted. 

The following officers were from Burlington 
County : 

Col. John S. Cox, res. Nov. 10, 18G2. 

Col. E. Burd Grubb, 2d lieut. Co. C; 1st lieut. Co. 
D, 3d Regt. ; maj. and lieut.-col. ; also col. 37th Regt. ; 
brev. brig.-gen. U. S. Vols. 

Lieut. -Col. George C. Brown, res. Dec. 25, 1862. 

Lieut. -Col. Francis W. Milnor, capt. Co. A ; maj. 
and lieut.-col. 

Maj. Alfred Thompson, res. Nov. 13, 1862. 

Maj. William J. Parmenter, capt. Co. K; maj. 

Adjt. William G. Winans, res. Nov. 22, 1862. 

Adjt. Jacob Perkins, 1st lieut. Co. G; res. Jan. 14, 
1863; adjt. 

Adjt. Samuel W. Downs, 2d lieut. Co. K; 1st lieut. 
Co. G; adjutant. Abel H. Nichols, 2d lieut. Co. G ; also 
34th Regt. 

Surg. William Cooke, res. Feb. 13, 1863. 

Capt. JErancis H. HiggiDs, Co. B; res. Feb. 14, 

Capt. Elwood H. Kirkbride, 2d lieut. Co. F; 1st 
lieut. Co. D ; capt. Co. B. 

Capt. Samuel Carr, Co. C; res. April 13, 1863. 

Capt. George W. Severs, 2d lieut. ; 1st lieut. ; capt. 
Co. C. 

Capt. Reading Newbold, Co. D. 

Capt. Augustus W. Grobler, Co. E; res. Feb. 23, 
1863, disability ; also 2d lieut. Co. C, and 1st lieut. 
Co. H, 34th Regt. " 

Capt. Samuel B. Smith, Co. F. 

Capt. Joseph R. Rigdway, Co. G; killed in action 
at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862. 

Capt. Henry C. Risdon, 1st lieut. Co. C; capt. 
Co. G. 

Capt. Henry A. McCabe, Co. H ; res. Dec. 31, 1862. 

Capt. David S. Root, 1st lieut. ; capt. Co. H ; res. 
Feb. 16, 1863. 

Capt. Forrester L. Taylor, 1st lieut. Co. D; capt. 
Co. H. 

Capt. John P. Burnett, Co. I. 

1st Lieut. Charles Sibley, Co. A ; killed in action 
at Salem Heights, Va., May 3, 1863. 

1st Lieut. Samuel E. Bannin, Co. B. 

1st Lieut. Samuel Browne, Jr., sergt.-maj. ; 2d lieut. 
Co. C. 

1st Lieut. David R. Newbold, Co. D; died of typhoid 
fever, at Washington, D. C, Dec. 22, 1862. 

1st Lieuc. Edward L. Dobbins, sergt. ; ; 
2d lieut. Co. I ; 1st lieut. Co. D. 

1st Lieut. Isaac Shinn, Co. E; res. Feb. 7, 1863. 

1st Lieut. Samuel L. Wright, 1st sergt. Co. C ; 2d 
lieut. Co. H ; 1st lieut. Co. E. 

1st Lieut. James S. Budd, Co. F j" killed in action 
at Salem Heights, Va., May 3, 18G3. 

1st Lieut. Edward Riggs, 2d lieut. Co. A ; 1st lieut. 
Co. G. 

1st Lieut. John F. McKee, sergt. -m'aj. ; 2d lieut. Co. 
C; 1st lieut. Co. G. 

1st Lieut. Robert M. Ekings, Co. I; also lieut.-col. 
34th Regt. 

2d Lieut. Lewis Ayers, res. Feb. 22, 1863. 

2d Lieut. George W. Arbuckle, 1st sergt. Co. K ; 
2d lieut. Co. B. 

2d Lieut. William Holman, private Co. I ; 2d 
lieut. Co. C. 

2d Lieut. Charles H. Mclntyre, Co. D ; res. Jan. 6, 

2d Lieut. Alfred C. Seeds, Co. E ; res. April 7, 

2d Lieut. NichoU F. Smith, sergt. Co. B; 2d lieut. 
Co. E. 

2d Lieut. James O. Garman, 1st sergt. ; 2d lieut. 
Co. F. 

2d Lieut. William C. Stokes, 1st sergt.; 2d lieut. 
Co. G. 

2d Lieut. William Frayer, Co. I; res. Jan. 4, 1863. 

2d Lieut. Benjamin R. Haines, sergt. Co. E ; 2d 
lieut. Co. L 

In the Twenty-fourth Regiment Infantry, the 
only officers from Burlington County that we know of 
were : 

Chaplain William C. Stockton. 

1st Lieut. James S. Woodward, 2d lieut. Co. I. 
In the Thirty-fourth Regiment Infantry there were 
a number of Burlington County men, mostly in Com- 
panies A, C, and D. The regiment was raised during 
the summer and autumn of 1803, principally from the 
counties of Mercer, Salem, Burlington, and Camden, 
and plentiful additions from the neighboring cities of 
New York and Philadelphia of men attracted by the 
large bounties then being paid. Tlie headquarters of 
the regiment was first at Beverly, and afterwards at 
Camp Parker, Trenton. Authority was given to in- 
dividuals to raise companies, and as soon as the com- 
panies were completed they reported to camp and were 
mustered in for three years. Company A was mus- 
tered in September 3d, and Company K and the field 
and staff officers October 9th. The regiment was com- 
manded by Col. William H. Lawrence, captain Four- 
teenth Regiment United States Infantry. It left 
Trenton Nov. 16, 1863, passed through Philadelphia 
and Pittsburgh to Jeflfersonville, Ind., where it took 
steam transports down the Ohio to Paducah. During 
the trip it lost about seventy men by desertion. They - 
enlisted for the bounty, and having obtained it left 
at the first opportunity. All the regiments raised 



towards the close of the war were infested with 
"bounty-jumpers," who when captured were duly 
shot. The day after arriving at Paducah, the regi- 
ment was convoyed three hundred miles up the Ten- 
nessee River to Eastport, Miss., but a change in the 
plans of the general commanding caused the Thirty- 
fourth to return down the river to Columbus, Ky., 
and from thence to Union City, Tenn. 

December 22d, with an army under Gen. A. J. 
Smith, the regiment marched to Huntingdon, Tenn., 
in search of the rebel general Forrest, who kept out 
of their way, whereupon they retraced their steps, 
sleeping at one time upon the snow without blankets 
or tents, and with the thermometer, it is said, regis- 
tering ten degrees below zero. 

Jan. 21, 1864, the regiment returned to Columbus, 
where it was left as a permanent garrison. Col. Law- 
rence was placed in command of the post, and Maj. 
G. W. Abeel in command of the regiment. Ken- 
tucky at this time was much infested by rebel guerril- 
las, and a company of the Thirty-fourth was mounted, 
under command of Lieut. Julian Wright, who suc- 
ceeded in breaking up and capturing various bands 
of the "wild cavalry." 

On the morning of the 13th of April, a part of For- 
rest's force, under Gen. Buford, appeared in front of 
Columbus, and after a brisk skirmish summoned Col. 
Lawrence to surrender the garrison. To this the gal- 
lant colonel replied, "That being placed there by his 
government with adequate force to hold his post and 
repel all enemies from it, surrender was out of the 
question." After a desultory skirmish for some hours 
Buford withdrew, foiled in his purpose. 

In May an engagement took place at Hickman, 
Ky., between a detachment of the Thirty-fourth and 
some rebel cavalry, in which a number of the enemy 
•were killed. In July the regiment was again en- 
gaged, and routed the enemy near Clinton, Ky. In 
December, 1864, they proceeded to Nashville, but ar- 
riving too late to participate in the battle it returned 
to Paducah. On Jan. 11, 1865, it left for Eastport, 
Miss., with the Eleventh Corps. From there, Feb- 
ruary 7th, they proceeded to New Orleans. The cap- 
ture of Mobile having been determined upon, the 
Thirty-fourth left New Orleans with the expedition 
for Dauphin's Island. On the 8th and 9th of April 
it took part in the assault and capture of Spanish Fort, 
Forts Huger, Tracy, and Blakeley. Col. Lawrence 
led the regiment gallantly, and both officers and men 
conducted themselves with distinguished courage. 

After the capture of Mobile the regiment moved 
to Montgomery, Ala., where it remained for several 
months on provost duty. During the fall and winter 
detached companies were stationed at points on the 
Alabama and Tennessee River Railroad. Col. Law- 
rence resigned in October, and was succeeded by 
Lieut.-Col. Moore, both being breveted brigadier- 

The regiment was mustered out of service at Selma, 

Ala., April 30, 1866. It then returned to New Jer- 
sey, arriving at Trenton in due time, and was soon 
after disbanded, being the last regiment from the 
State to quit the service of the government upon the 
conclusion of the war. 

The total strength'of the regiment was two thou- 
sand two hundred and ninety-three officers and men, 
of whom one hundred and fifty-five were killed or 
died in the service, seventy-nine were discharged on 
account of disability, forty-four were not accounted 
for, and twenty-five enlisted men were promoted. 

It participated in the battles of Columbus, Hick- 
man, Clinton, Mayfield, and Paris Landing, Ky., 
Nashville, Tenn., Fort Huger, Spanish Fort, and 
Fort Blakeley, Mobile, Ala. 

The following officers were from Burlington County : 

Lieut.-Col. Robert M. Ekings, capt. Co. C; maj. 
and lieut.-col. 

Capt. Martin L. Haines, 1st lieut. and capt. Co. C. 

Capt. Thomas Taylor, 1st lieut. Co. D; capt. Co. I. 

Second Lieut. Richard J. Moore, Co. A ; res. June 
21, 1864. 

Second Lieut. Walter L. Woodward, 1st sergt. ; 2d 
lieut. Co. D. ; disch. July 13, 1865; disability. 

Second Lieut. John B. Wright, first sergeant Com- 
pany E, Tenth Regiment; second lieutenant Com- 
pany K, 

Second Lieut, John Connor, sergeant and first ser- 
geant Company C; sergeant-major; second lieu- 
tenant Company C. 

In the Thirty-fifth Regiment Infantry, the only 
officer we know of was Second Lieut. Edward Ken- 
nedy, sergeant and first sergeant Company A ; second 
lieutenant Company F. 

In the Thirty-seventh Regiment Infantry, there 
were quite a number of men from Burlington County 
in Companies H and I. The regiment was organized 
in pursuance of a call by the President for the im- 
mediate raising by voluntary enlistment from the mi- 
litia of the State of troops to serve one hundred days 
unless sooner discharged, and as was fully set forth 
in the proclamation of Governor Parker, dated May 
16, 1864. Under authority, the raising of two regi- 
ments was immediately commenced. The headquar- 
ters of the Thirty-seventh was established at Camp 
Delaware, near Trenton. As no bounty Avas to be 
given, nor even their services to be credited upon any 
draft, and as local bounties were offered by different 
cities, recruiting became languid, and it was soon ap- 
parent that neither of the two regiments would be 
enabled to fill its ranks. Therefore, June 23d, the 
Thirty-eighth Regiment was consolidated with the 
Thirty-seventh, which was commanded by Col. E. 
Burd Grubb, a gallant and dashing soldier. It left 
the State. June 28, 1864, and at Baltimore embarked 
on transports and proceeded to City Point, Va., and 
reported for duty to Gen. Grant. As might have been 
expected of a regiment raised under such circum- 
stances, theperson?tel was not altogether encouraging. 



The medical examination was by no means search- 
ing, and as a result there were men in it who would 
not have been accepted in other regiments. There 
■were also scores of young boys from fifteen years of 
age upwards. The regiment encamped near Point of 
Rocks, July 1st, and furnished fatigue parties for un- 
loading vessels, working on fortifications, etc. It then 
moved to Redoubt Converse, on Spring Hill, near Ap- 
pomattox River. Here detachments were sent to un- 
load vessels, to corps headquarters, to guard commis- 
sary and stores, to do picket duty, and to garrison the 
fort. While in this fort died Lieut. -Col. Barlow and 
Adjutant Parker Grubb. 

On the 28th of August the regiment marched to 
the extreme front, relieving veteran troops in the 
trenches and fortifications before Petersburg. The 
regiment remained here until its term of service had 
nearly expired. Before returning home a number of 
the men re-enlisted for a period of one year, and were 
assigned to Battery E, First Regiment New Jersey 
Artillery. On the 26th of September it left the front 
and returned home, receiving a gratifying compli- 
ment from Maj.-Gen. Birney, commanding the Tenth 
Army Corps. The regiment was engaged in no bat- 
tles, yet it had five meu killed and twenty-nine 

Its total strength was seven hundred and eighty-one 
officers and men, of whom nineteen were killed or 
died, three were discharged on account of disability, 
three were not accounted for, and four enlisted men 
were promoted. 

The officers from Burlington County were: 

Col. E. Burd Grubb. 

Adjutant Parker Grubb. 

Quartermaster J. Warner Kinsey ; also quarter- 
master 40lh Regt. 

1st Lieut. Jonathan W. Maguire, Co. H; also 1st 
lieut. Co. B, 40th Regt. 

1st Lieut. Henry C. Woodward, Co. I; also 1st 
lieut. Co. C, 40th Regt. 

2d Lieut. Michael H. Johnson, Co. I. 

2d Lieut. William H. Stiles, Co. H; also 1st lieut. 
Co. I, 40th Regt. 

The Fortieth Reg-iment Infantry had scattered 
through it a number of Burlington County men. It 
was recruited under the call of July, 1SG4, for 500,000 
men. Its headquarters was established at draft ren- 
dezvous (Camp Perrine), Trenton, and the term of en- 
listment was for one, two, or three years. Company A 
was mustered in Oct. 24, 18G4, and left the State the 
same day. Company K was mustered in March 10, 
1865, and left the State on the 12th. Each company, 
on its arrival in the field, was attached to the Fourth 
Regiment, and so remained until six companies had 
reported for duty, when the regiment was organized, 
its strength being 1021 officers and men, commanded 
by Col. Gilkyson, who was mustered in March 19, 
1865. It was assigned to the Sixth Army Corps. It 
participated in the battles of Hatcher's Run, Fort 

Steedman, capture of Petersburg, Sailor's Creek, 
Farmville, and Lee's surrender (Appomattox). In 
the last fight before Richmond it displayed conspicu- 
ous gallantry, and though its record is brief, it is 

The total strength of the regiment was 1409 oflScers 
and men, of whom 19 were killed or died in the ser- 
vice, 20 were discharged on account of disability, 33 
were not accounted for, and 19 enlisted men were pro- 
moted. The following ofiicers were from Burlington 

Capt. John W. Goodenough, Co. K; brevet major, 
April 2, 1865. 

1st Lieut. Joseph F. Mount, 2d lieut. Co. C ; 1st 
lieut. Co. A. 

1st Lieut. Henry C. Woodward, Co. C. 

1st Lieut. Samuel Phillips, 2d lieut. Co. D. 

2d Lieut. James Phillips, Co. E; brevet 1st lieut. 
April 2, 1865. 

2d Lieut. George A. Beldin. 

In the First Cavalry, the Sixteenth Regiment of 
the line, I\ew Jersetj Volunteers, Company C was raised 
in Burlington County, and F in Burlington and 
Ocean Counties. There was also scattered through 
the regiment quite a number of men from the county. 
On Aug. 4, 1861, authority was given by the War 
Department to the Hon. William Halsted to raise a 
regiment of cavalry, the time for doing so being lim- 
ited to ten days, but afterwards extended to ten days 
more. The headquarters was established at Trenton. 
On the 24th the first four companies, under Maj. M. 
H. Beaumont, arrived at Washington, and one week 
later six other companies were brought in by Hal- 

Tlie camp was established at Meridian Hill. Col. 
Halsted, for many years a prominent member of the 
bar of New Jersey and at one time a member of 
Congress, was in his seventieth year. Although a 
gentleman of ability, he appears not to have possessed 
the qualities requisite to enforce obedience from and 
bring into subordination a large body of men fresh 
from the pursuits of civil life. The camp, therefore, 
from the first was a scene of tumult and disorder. 
There was no authoritative announcement of duties, 
no promptly enforced penalty for disobedience. Drills 
were scarcely thought of, officers had little idea of 
their duties, and not a proper appreciation of their 
position. There were two lieutenant-colonels con- 
tending for the position to which both had been ap- 
pointed, and the oflBcers were divided into cliques. 
The regiment moved from camp to camp, and at 
length crossing into Virginia was attached to Palmer's 
brigade of cavalry. Here the difficulty as to the 
lieutenant-colonelcy was settled, and Joseph Karge 
was confirmed in that position. Col. Halsted tak- 
ing sick-leave, Lieut.-Col. Karge undertook to right 
matters. Having formerly been an officer in the 
Prussian army, and trained to regard a despotic dis- 
cipline as the only principle of military authority, he 



found many difBculties to encounter. The men who 
had not yet learned to obey, and had been accustomed 
to an almost impunity of insubordination, could not 
understand his unreasoning severity, and the whole 
camp became a scene of discontent that threatened to 
break out into riot and mutiny. To add to the trou- 
ble, in October the last raised company came into 
camp without uniforms, blankets, or tents, and the 
horses of the whole command were supplied with an 
insufficiency of forage. This ended in the removal 
of Quartermaster Benjamin B. Halsted, who had been 
irregularly mustered in. Hearing this the colonel, 
feeling that he should have been consulted before 
such a change had been effected, hurried back to 
camp, and signalized his resumption of command by 
an unseemly altercation with the lieutenant-colonel. 
Confusion now was worse confounded. The colonel 
took the part of the men in their complaints against 
the lieutenant-colonel, and the reforms in drill, disci- 
pline, and camp routine at once fell into abeyance. 
While this miserable state of affairs was existing the 
colonel became involved in difficulty with the War 
Department, which resulted in his arrest. The lieu- 
tenant-colonel sent the most inefficient and probably 
obnoxious officers before the Examining Board in 
Washington. " The army swore in Flanders," but 
there was a decided improvement in the discipline. 
Col. Halsted returned to the command in five weeks, 
the lieutenant-colonel and major were soon in arrest, 
and the colonel's time was occupied in extricating the 
officers who had been sent before the Board of Ex- 
amination. At last, Feb. 19, 1862, the regiment was 
transferred to the care of the State. It was then 
thoroughly reorganized. Col. Halsted was mustered 
out, and Percy Wyndham, an Englishman by descent, 
colonel in the Sardinian army, a soldier of Gari- 
baldi, was appointed colonel by the Governor of New 
Jersey. " Halsted's Horse" became the First New 
Jersey Cavalry, and from that day commenced its 
bright and glorious career. 

During the winter the regiment was employed on 
picket duty. In April, 1862, it was ordered to Fred- 
ericksburg to join McDowell. On the 20th it scouted 
to King George Court-House. Company G, the next 
day, brought in some two hundred slaves and a num- 
ber of horses, and Capt. Broderick surprised a courier 
post, killing several and capturing five horse*. It re- 
turned to Falmouth on the 28th, where it was trans- 
ferred to Gen. Bayard's brigade of cavalry. It re- 
mained here until late in May, when it was ordered 
to the Shenandoah Valley to oppose the advance of 
" Stonewall" Jackson. It reached Strasburg June 1st, 
and captured one hundred and fifty rebel stragglers. 
Pushing on to Woodstock, a brisk skirmish ensued. 
About noon of the 6th our army arrived upon the 
hills of Harrisonburg, and a sharp combat ensued, the 
First acting splendidly, and the gallant colonel was 
left wounded upon the field. Gen. Ashby was killed 
by Fred Holmes, of the Pennsyl vania " Bucktails," who 

were the only troops who came to the assistance of the 
First, but our boys were driven from the field. The 
battle of Cross Keys was fought on the 8th, where 
Jackson was able to check Fremont, and keep open 
his line of retreat. 

A few days afterwards the First Cavalry returned 
to Gen. McDowell, and about the 20th of June reached 
Manassas Junction. From thence it marched to Madi- 
son Court-House, and then, under Gen. Hatch, to Gor- 
donsville and Charlottesville, from which, unsuccess- 
ful, it returned to Culpeper Court-House. Passing by 
the three skirmishes at Bartlett's Ford, we come to 
Cedar Mountain. Gen. Banks fought this battle under 
the impression his force was over one-third larger 
than it really was. Gen. Pope arriving upon the field, 
drew in Banks' too extended lines, and Jackson was 
repulsed. During the battle Gen. Pope actually had 
the audacity to send one of his aides, Capt. Asch, 
First Cavalry, to order a rebel battery that was annoy- 
ing him much to cease firing. The captain hinted 
that it was a rebel battery, to which the general replied, 
"Nonsense!" The captain rode boldly up and ex- 
claimed, " The general directs that you cease firing." 
" Does the general order that ?" asked the surprised 
artillery officer. " Yes," said Asch ; " he sent me with 
peremptory orders." And while the wondering rebel 
obeyed, Asch galloped off, delighted to escape without 
detection. When the First was about to charge, two 
men of Company A, being wounded, drew their horses 
out of the ranks, and saluting their officer with their 
swords, said," We are hit, sir." It was a splendid act, 
and showed their soldierly qualities. 

On the 20th the First skirmished with Stuart's cav- 
alry at Brandy Station, driving them back with loss. 
A hard fight took place at Rappahannock Station, 
where the cavalry covered the withdrawal of Pope's 
army. It was a gallant fight ; Lieut. -Cols. Karge and 
Hick were wounded, and Eobbins and Stuart were 
captured, and forty men killed or unhorsed. 

Jackson soon after made his famous march in the 
rear of Pope at Bull Run (second), and the First, with 
the brigade, was sent to hold Thoroughfare Gap, to 
prevent the enemy under Lee from falling on the left 
flank and rear of our army, capturing one hundred 
and fifty prisoners and blocking the gap by felling 
trees. Eicketts came with four brigades, made a gal- 
lant fight, but, through ignorance of the position of 
the rest of our army, retired towards Manassas Junc- 
tion and Bristoc Station. In the disastrous battle of 
Bull Run, in which Pope's left flank was completely 
turned, the First Cavalry took little part, skirmishing 
afterwards on our right flank, and going into camp at 
Bailey's Cross-Roads. 

During the Maryland campaign the First scoured 
Northern Virginia from the mountains eastward, 
Wyndham on one occasion dashing through Thor- 
oughfare Gap and harassing Lee's communications, 
and Karge riding into Warrenton, and capturing six- 
teen hundred prisoners and a large amount of stores. 



Lee was retreating down tlie valley, and Stuart's 
cavalry attempted to destroy the bridges and railroads 
east of the mountain to make safe that retreat. Bay- 
ard's brigade started from Chantilly, scouting through 
Aldie and Middleburg up to Upperville, to preserve 
those structures. Considerable fighting ensued dur- 
ing these operations, Wyndham, Karge, and Capt. 
Kester distinguishing themselves by their activity 
and bravery, and Stuart was foiled in his attempt. 
The regiment was on the field of Fredericksburg, but 
not actively engaged. Here Bayard was killed. 

The First was attached to Gregg's division, and 
April 30, 18G3, started across the Rappahannock on 
" Stoneman's raid." They penetrated as far as the 
James River, destroying bridges, boats, store-houses, 
and railroads, and capturing a vast amount of prop- 
erty which they safely returned with. 

The battle of Chancellorsville was lost, and Lee 
promptly put his army in motion for his expedi- 
tion to Pennsylvania. Hooker massed our cavalry 
under Pleasonton near Catlett's Station. The First 
Cavalry with its division crossed the Rappahannock 
at Kelley's Ford, and soon encountered the enemy at 
Brandy Station. Here a desperate hand-to-hand bat- 
tle was fought, and the field was the scene of innu- 
merable small encounters, in which heroic courage was 
shown by the combatants on both sides. To record 
the acts of daring and recklessness, in which the only 
feeling that animated the men' was victory at any 
sacrifice, would be to give an account of each indi- 
vidual officer and man. All were heroes on that day. 
"Wyndham, who commanded a brigade, was badly 
wounded. Lieut.-Col. Broderick, the senior officer 
of the First, and the steadfast Maj. Shelmire were 
left dead upon the field, Shelmire stretched across 
the body of his foe.' Of the two hundred and 
eighty officers and men, six oflScers and over fifty men 
were killed. 

On the 2d of July, 1863, the First Cavalry debouched 
upon the field of Gettysburg and, dismounted, went in 
on the right of our line. Mounted and dismounted, 
it gloriously performed its duty in that great battle. 
At White Sulphur Springs, when Meade discovered 
the attempt of Lee to cut his communications with 
Washington, the regiment was severely engaged, the 
gallant Capt. Lucas, of Company F, being shot in the 
brain. / 

Crossing the Rapidan with Meade in his Mine Run 
advance, Nov. 27, 1863, the division surprised the 
rebel pickets at Ely's Ford, and bivouacked in the 
AVilderness. Moving to Hope Church, the First Cav- 
alry engaged the enemy, advancing dismounted with 
successive rushes under a terrific fire that caused 
them heavy loss. Gray, of Company C, had his hand 
shattered, and Hobeusack, of Company F, was struck 

1 Miij. Shelmire, with lii-f Company A, was from Moiitjromcry County, 
Ptt. A ))lain Pennsylvania farmer, the Btcadiiicss Hud integrity of his 
cliarncter, his sterling worth and Christian life, won for hm the confi- 
di'uce of Lid cumraCes. 

by a piece of shell that for some minutes crazed him. 
The Fifth Corps coming up and deploying, the cav- 
alry gave place and retired. On the 1st of December 
our army recrossed the Rapidan and the Rappahan- 
nock, and soon after went into winter-quarters near 
Warrenton, where they remained doing picket duty 
until the opening of spring, when Grant prepared to 
strike his ponderous blows against the Rebellion. 

At two o'clock on the morning of the 4th of May, 
1864, the First Jersey, leading the column of Gregg's 
division, crossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford. Cap- 
turing rebel pickets, it advanced beyond Chancellors- 
ville, and the next day moved to Todd's Tavern. 
Here about noon a brisk engagement opened, and 
with varied results ended in the First Jersey driving 
the rebels across the Po, which river they made 
their line of defense. Tlie loss of the regiment in 
this brilliant affair was six men killed and two ofiicers 
and forty-one men wounded. Col. Kester's conduct 
throughout the action was conspicuous for bravery 
and dash. On the 7th it was again in action, the 
combined cavalry at last sweeping the rebels out of a 
line of breastworks. This was the last fight of Union 
cavalry in the Wilderness. 

On the 9th of May the whole cavalry corps under 
Sheridan moved south towards Richmond, the First 
Jersey having the rear of the column. Lee, not un- 
derstanding the strength of our force, detached a 
couple of brigades to cut off the retreat, and a larger 
body to gain its front. But little fighting conse- 
quently ensued, and our whole force crossed the North 
Anna. Thence the Second Division moved to the 
South Anna, which it crossed unmolested, and pushed 
to Ashland Station and Court-House, where the store- 
house was burnt and the railroad destroyed for miles. 
Some sharp fighting took place, but when our cavalry 
had finished their work they started upon their re- 
turn, rejoining the army on the 25th. 

On the 26th of May the First Jersey moved down 
the Pamunkey on a reconnoissance, and crossing at 
Hanover Town with the First and Second Divisions 
and a part of the Sixth Corps, advanced upon Lce'e 
right. On the 28th, Gregg took up a position near 
Hawes' Shop to cover the crossing and movements of 
our infantry. Here the First Jersey became fiercely 
engaged with the enemy, and Lieuts. Shaw, of Com- 
pany F, and Wyukoop, of Company A, were severely 
wounded. The total loss of the nine companies en- 
gaged was eleven officers and fifty-three men killed 
and wounded. The effort of Lee, however, to check 
the advance of Grant was frustrated. The flank 
movement proved an entire success, and Meade 
moved upon Shady Grove Church. 

June 7th, the First Jersey, with its division, left 
Newcastle, on the Pamunkey, and pushed rapidly 
towards Trevillian Station, nine miles from Gordons- 
ville, where, on the evening of the lOlh, the rebels 
were attacked and driven out with serious loss. Ac- 
complishing its object in the destruction of the rail- 



road and other property, the cavalry withdrew to the 
AVhite House. 

Crossing the James with the Army of the Potomac, 
the First Jersey rested for two days near Fort Pow- 
hatan, whence, June 29th, it moved southward to the 
relief of Wilson, and then towards City Point. Oh 
the evening of July 26th, with the First and Second 
Cavalry Divisions and the Second Corps, it secretly 
and rapidly crossed the James at Deep Bottom, sur- 
prised the command of Gen. Pickett, and on the 28th 
made a flank movement around the enemy's left 
towards Charles City and Malvern Hill. 
Falling back to Strawberry Plains, after various man- 
oeuvres, it pushed on to Lee's Mills, where the rebels 
had established themselves, whom they rapidly drove 
from their position. 

On August 12th the First Jersey was again in 
motion, and the next day participated in the rout of 
the rebel cavalry under Gen. Chambliss near Charles 
City CrossRoads. On the 19th the cavalry recrossed 
the river and marched to join Warren, who had 
seized the Weldon Railroad. On the 21st it was 
hotly engaged repelling an attack upon Warren's 
left, meeting with some loss. 

With this engagement terminated the three years' 
term of the First Jersey. On Sept. 1, 1864, the men 
whose term of service had expired embarked at City 
Point, and reaching Trenton were mustered out on 
the 16th. The regiment though as an organization 
still remained in the field, enough of its original 
members having re-enlisted and many recruits having 
been received. Its commander. Col. John W. Kester, 
a brave and good officer, retired from the service, and 
was succeeded by Lieut.-Col. Janeway. 

September 29th the First Jersey moved from Prince 
George Court-House to the Jerusalem plank-road, 
and the next morning to the extreme left of the army, 
held by Warren's corps. Soon after it advanced to 
the junction of the Ream's Station and Dinwiddle 
Court-House roads, and while holding this position a 
battalion charged into Ream's Station, driving the 
enemy from the works and three miles beyond. Sev- 
eral brisk skirmishes occurred during the day. During 
the intense darkness of the night of the 30th, while 
seeking to communicate with Parks' Corps (Ninth), 
it fell in with an invisible foe. "Who goes there?" 
rang out sharply on the air. "Butler's South Caro- 
lina Brigade!" was the startling reply. "Who are 
you?" "First New Jersey Cavalry: charge!" and 
with a yell the boys dashed through the darkness 
upon them. A great clattering of hoofs was heard, 
and as it rapidly receded in the distance the First 
Jersey was left victors of the bloodless field with one 
prisoner, Capt. Butler, a' brother of the rebel general. 

During a drizzling rain, while on the Vaughn's 
road, disposition was made for battle, the First Jer- 
sey being held in reserve. On came with fury Dan- 
ovin's and Mabone's brigades, dismounted, driving in 
our cavalry, also dismounted. The dense woods in 

front swarmed with rebels, who rushed forth on the 
double-quick. But the Jersey boys received them at 
twenty paces with a withering fire that for a moment 
cooled their ardor, yet thrice did they return to the 
charge, until the fearful havoc caused them to retire. 
Then a counter-charge was made, the enemy's works 
taken, and they driven far beyond. Foster says, pages 
471, 472, " While these events were occurring, our 
left flank was picketed by Lieut. Hughes with Com- 
pany C, which during the last assault of the enemy 
in front had become hotly engaged. Hughes, how- 
ever, soon found that he was surrounded ; but not by 
any means dismayed, he at once ordered a charge, 
and succeeded in cutting his way out and rejoining 
j his regiment in time to give notice of the flank attack. 
While surrounded, Sergt. Watts, of Company C, see- 
ing a group of men dressed apparently like our own, 
rode up to one, who proved to be Gen. Young, and 
with some excitement asked, 'How in thunder are 
we going to get out of here?' The general, who 
had mistaken the charge of Hughes for the advance 
of a mounted brigade, and had delayed his own at- 
tack upon our flank long enough to enable Beaumont 
to regain his works, seemed to be quite as much puz- 
zled as Watts; at any rate he altogether failed to 
improve his opportunity to capture the surrounded 
troopers. Indeed, Private Miles Downey, in the 
movement through the rebel lines, seized upon Capt. 
! Jones, one of the aides of Gen. Young, and brought 
him in a prisoner without receiving a scratch." 

Maj. Beaumont, in his ofiicial report, says, " Great 
credit is due to Lieut. Hughes and Company C, as 
their gallant onslaught upon Gen. Young's rear 
doubtlessly saved us the day. We ascertained after 
the fight, from the enemy's pickets, that Gen. Young 
when Company C charged, sent word to Gen. Hamp- 
ton that he had been surrounded and would probably 
be captured. To Capts. Hart, Hobensack, and Hick, 
commanding battalions, I cannot give too much 
praise. I owe the coolness and firmness of my men 
to their gallant example." 

"Serjeant" James T. "Clancy, Company C, killed 
Gen. Danovin within ten yards of our lines, as he led 
his brigade in the first assault, and no doubt his death 
assisted in a great measure to demoralize the enemj-." 

The First Jersey was engaged in the expedition to 
Stony Creek Station, where a large amount of stores 
were destroyed, and some prisoners, guns, and wagons 
captured. Soon after it moved with its division, the 
Fifth Corps, and part of the Second Corps to destroy 
the Weldon Railroad, upon which it was known the 
enemy were receiving large supplies that were wag- 
oned to Petersburg. Some two miles beyond Sussex 
Court-House the extreme advance, commanded by 
Capt. Hughes, of Company C, met with some resist 
ance, but drove the enemy until ordered to halt for 
the night at Jarrett's. Near Hicksford the enemy 
was posted in some force, with a battery in position 
and strong works on both sides of the Mehcrriu Pkivcr. 



A heavy fire being opened, Col. Janeway obtained 
permission to dismount his command, and forming a 
heavy skirmish line charged with a cheer and drove 
the enemy in disorder out of the works. Soon after 
the Avork of destroying the railroad and other prop- 
erty was commenced, and few "raids" of the war in- 
flicted greater damage on the enemy than this. The 
casualties in the regiment were Comparatively small, 
and only one officer was killed, Lieut. Joseph E. 
Reed,' whose loss was universally regretted. 

On the morning of March 29th the First Jersey 
broke camp near Petersburg, and marched forth to 
strike the last glorious blow at the Rebellion. That 
night they occupied Dinwiddie Court-House. Per- 
forming minor service on the 31st, Maj. Robbins threw 
up a breastwork of rails at the ford on Chamberlain's 
Creek, where the rebels in heavy force attacked him 
and were handsomely repulsed, Avith Gen. Ransom 
among their killed. Finding the battalion could not 
be driven from its position, which was an exceedingly 
strong one, by a direct attack, a brigade was sent to the 
right, another to the left, and with a third in front a 
combined attack was made, and thus with both flanks 
enveloped Robbins was forced to fall back. The 
whole line of cavalry was forced back and Maj. Hart 
killed. Early the next morning the enemy were 
driven back. Lee had now evacuated his lines and 
was pushing to the westward. On the night of the 
2d of April the First Jersey with its brigade moved 
from Dinwiddie Court-House, crossed the Southside 
Railroad, and encamped on Wilson's plantation on 
the Namogord road, and the next morning, the 4th, 
moved on a road running parallel to the one Lee was 
retreating on and bivouacked near Jettersville. 
Moving the next morning on Amelia Court-House, 
■where Lee and his army had gathered, a wagon-train 
was captured, its guard of a brigade of cavalry and 
a regiment of infantry being scattered in flight. In 
the charge the First Jersey captured five battle-flags. 
Fighting and skirmishing, being themselves once 
routed, the gallant Janeway was at last ordered to 
support a charge. The charge failed. Janeway at 
the head of his regiment then charged to save the 
routed troopers, and fell pierced by a bullet through 
the head. 

They bivouacked at Jettersville that night, and 
moved out at ten o'clock the next morning. Gens. 
Merritt and Custer were heavily engaged at Sailor's 
Creek when they came up. Through mistake the 
First charged, and were repulsed. Later the grandest 
cavalry charge of the war was made, and Ewell, with 
nearly all his corps, was captured. In this charge 
Capt. Hughes, of Company C, was wounded. On 
the 7th the Second Brigade was entrapped into a 
charge and routed. The First Jersey moved to the 
left of the road, and when the retreating troopers had 
passed charged the enemy and stopped the rout. In 

1 or Ellisduk' 

this Lieut. Lawrence Fay, of Company F, was 
wounded. On the morningof the 9th theboys' hearts 
Avere gladdened by the intelligence that the enemy 
was headed off. If the roads could only be held un- 
til the infantry came up, Lee and his army would be 
captured. A part of the division of cavalry AA'as en- 
gaged with the enemy, when orders came for the First 
Jersey to find and engage the enemy's flank. Much 
manoeuvring folloAved, and Capt. Beekman, with the 
First Battalion, skirmished and made the last charge of 
the First Jersey, driving the enemy in confusion from 
their position. Hardly had the charge ended Avhen 
orders were received for hostilities to cease. The 
last flag of truce was sent out through their brigade 
lines, and Lieut. Darnstaedt, of Company I, receiA'ed 
a painful wound after the flag had passed. It is 
claimed that he was the last officer Avounded in the 
combined armies operating against Lee's forces. 

The regiment soon after marched to Washington, 
and May 26, 1865, Company F was mustered out. 
On May 31st most of the regiment was mustered out 
at Cloud's Mills, Va., and the balance at Vienna, Va., 
July 24th. In due time it proceeded to Trenton, 
where itAvas finally dissolved. 

The total strength of the regiment was 3317, of 
AA'hom 16 officers and 282 men were killed or died in 
the service, 22 officers and 298 men were discharged 
on account of disability, 238 men AA-ere not accounted 
for, and 76 enlisted men were promoted. 

The regiment took part in the following engage- 
ments : Pohick Church, Va., Dec. 29, 1861; Pohick 
Creek, Jan. 15, 1862; Seddons' Farm, May 1, 1862; 
Gray's Farm, May 9,1862; Rappahannock Station, 
May, 1862; Strasburg, June 1, 1862 ; Woodstock, June 
2, 1862; Harrisonburg, June 6, 1862 ; Cross Keys, June 
8,1862; Madison Court-House, July 27, 1862; Barnett's 
Ford, July 29, 1862 ; Barnett's Ford, Aug. 4, 1862; Bar- 
nett's Ford, Aug. 7, 1862; Cedar Mountain, Aug. 9, 
1862; Rappahannock Station, Aug. 18, 1862; Brandy 
Station, Aug. 20, 1862; Rappahannock Station, Aug. 
20 and 21, 1862; AVarrenton, Aug. 23, 1862; AVater- 
loo Ford, Aug. 24, 1862; Snicker's Gap, Aug. 28, 
1862; Bull Run, Aug. 29 and 30, 1862; Chantilly, 
Sept. 1, 1862; Warrenton, Sept. 24, 1862; Aldie, Oct. 
31, 1862; Port ConoAvay, Nov. 19, 1862; Fredericks- 
burg, Dec. 11-13, 1862; Rappahannock Station, 
April 7, 1863 ; Stoneman's raid, April 30, 1863 ; Rap- 
pahannock Station and Kelly's Ford, May 19, 1863 ; 
Brandy Station, June 9, 1863; Aldie, June 17, 1863; 
Middleburg, June 19, 1863 ; Upperville, June 21, 
1863; near Aldie, June 22,1863; Westminster, Md., 
June 30, 1863; Gettysburg, Pa., July 2 and 3, 1863; 
Emmittsburg, Md., July 4 and 6, 1863 ; Tettersburg, 
Pa., July 7, 1863 ; Cavetown, Md., July 8, 1803 ; 
Harper's Ferry, Va., July 14, 18G3; Shepherdstown, 
Md., July 16, 1863; Berryville, Va., July 31, 1863; 
Salem, Aug. 15, 1863; White Plains, Aug. 16, 1863; 
Sulphur Springs and Brandy Station, Oct. 12, 1863; 
Bristoe Station, Oct. 14, 1863; near Warrenton, Nov. 



12, 1863; Mountain Run, Nov. 27, 1863; Mine Run, 
Nov. 27, 1863 ; Parker's Store, Nov. 29, 1863 ; Custer's 
raid, Feb. 18, 1864; Ravenna River, Feb. 21, 1864; 
Ely's Ford, May 3, 1864 ; Todd's Tavern, May 5 and 7, 
1864 ; Sheridan's raid, May 9, 1864; Beaver Dam Sta- 
tion, May 10, 1864; Yellow Tavern and Ashland Sta- 
tion, May 11, 1864; fortifications of Richmond, May 
12, 1864; Church of the Messiah, May 21, 1864; North 
Anna River, May 24, 1864 ; Hawes' Shop, May 28, 1864 ; 
Emmons' Church, May 29, 1864; Cold Harbor, June 
1, 1864; Gaines' Mills, June 2, 1864; Chickahominy 
River, June 2, 1864; Bottom's Bridge, June 4 and 5, 
1864; Pamunkey River, June 8, 1864; Trevillian 
Station, June 12 and 14, 1864; White House, June 
20 and 21, 1864; St. Mary's Church, June 24, 1864; 
near Petersburg, June 29 to July 12, 1864; raid 
through the Shenandoah, July, 1864; Deep Bottom, 
July 28. 1864; Malvern Hill,' July 28 to 30, 1864; 
Deep Bottom, Aug. 14, 1864 ; Charles City Cross-Roads, 
Aug. 16 and 17, 1864; Ream's Station, Aug. 26, 1864; 
Malvern Hill, Sept. 5, 1864 ; Charles City, Sept. 11, 
1864; Jerusalem Plank-Road, Sept. 17, 1864 ; Ream's 
Station, Sept. 29 and 30, 1864; Vaughn's Road, Oct. 
1, 1864; Boydton Plank-Road, Oct. 6, 1864; Stony 
Creek, Nov. 27, 1864; Bellefield Station, Dec. 9 and 
10, 1864; Dinwiddle Court-House, Feb. 6, 1865; 
Hatcher's Run, Feb. 6 and 7, 1865 ; before Peters- 
burg, March 20, 1865 ; Dinwiddle Court-House, March 
30, 1865 ; Five Forks and Chamberlain's Creek, March 
31, 1865; Amelia Springs and Jettersville, April 5, 
1865; Sailor's Creek, April 6, 1865; Farmville, April 
6 and 7, 1865; Appomattox Court-House (Lee's sur- 
render), April 9, 1865. 

The oflBcers of the regiment from Burlington 
County were : 

First Lieut. Richard Hamilton, sergeant Company 
C; first lieutenant Company B; discharged April 25, 

First Lieut. Cortland Inglin, corporal Company F ; 
sergeant-mnjor ; second lieutenant Company F ; first 
lieutenant Company G. 

First Lieut. Edward Gaskill, private Company E ; 
quartermaster's sergeant ; first sergeant Company E; 
second lieutenant Company G ; first lieutenant Com- 
pany E. 

First Lieut. John D. Williams, corporal ; sergeant; 
re-enlisted Company A ; second lieutenant Company 
B; first lieutenant Company H. 

Second Lieut. Aaron S. Robbins, Company F ; re- 
signed April 17, 1862. 

Second Lieut. Joseph R. Reed, commissary -sergeant ; 
re-enlisted ; first sergeant Company E ; second lieu- 
tenant Company G; not mustered. Died Dec. 10, 
1864, of wounds received in action at Bellefield Sta- 
tion, Va. 

In the Second Cavalry, the Thirhj-second Regiment 
of the line, there were a few men in Company E from 
Burlington County. The regiment was commanded 
by Col. Joseph Karge, formerly of the First Cavalry; 

left Trenton eight hundred and ninety strong, Oct. 5, 
1863, and proceeded to Washington. In camp near the 
Long Bridge it received its horses and sabres. It served 
until the close of the war in the Southwest. From 
the first to the last the regiment exhibited a courage 
and discipline which justly ranked it among the best 
of our cavalry, and its record, covering a field of pe- 
culiar hardship and bard fighting, will shine with 
lustre and glory in the annals of the brave long after 
the men who fought in its ranks have gone down to 
their last sleep. 

The total strength of the regiment was two thousand 
nine hundred, officers and men, of whom two hundred 
and thirty-four were killed or died in the service, 
ninety-three were discharged on account of disa- 
bility, one hundred and fifty-three were not ac- 
counted for, and thirty-two enlisted men were pro- 

The only ofiicers in it from Burlington County were: 

Capt. Frank T. Adams, second lieutenant Company 
M ; first lieutenant Company K ; captain Company I ; 
not mustered. 

Second Lieut. Lemuel Fisher, Company E. 

In the Third Cavalry, the Thirty-sixth Regiment of 
the line, there were but few men from Burlington 
County. It was mustered into service as the " First 
United States Hussars," a name, however, which was 
not long retained. In the field it soon obtained the 
sobriquet of " The Butterfly," from the yellow lining 
of the men's blue coats. It was commanded by 
Col. A. J. Morrison; left Trenton twelve hundred 
strong, March 29, 1864, and marched through Phila- 
delphia and Wilmington to Perryville, Md., thence 
entering Virginia, where it participated in the glo- 
rious battles of Grant, and was mustered out at the 
close of the war. 

The total strength of the regiment was 2234 officers 
and men, of whom 145 were killed or died in the ser- 
vice, 83 were discharged on account of disability, 187 
were not accounted for, and 24 enlisted men were 

The only officer of the regiment from Burlington 
Couuty was : 

Maj. T. Malcolm Murphy, sergeant-major Second 
Cavalry; captain to fill original vacancy; commis- 
sioned major, but not mustered. 



New Jersey, lying between the great sea-ports of 
New York and Philadelphia, naturally became the 
great highway of communication, not only between 
these early villages, but between the New England 



and Soutliern colonies. Prior to the coming of the 
English, the Dutch communicated between their set- 
t|lements at New Amsterdam and those on the Dela- 
ware by an Indian trail. A portion of this " old 
Indian path" can even now be traced with great 
accuracy, and vestiges of the inhabitants of the forest, 
their corn-mills, in bowlders, are still found upon it. 
The late Hon. George Sykes, in a communication to 
the author, says, — 

, "The old Indian path from Burlington to Slirewsbnry left the Old 
Tork rond on tlie farm now owned (180.5) by William H. Black, ou the 
north tide of BlacU's Creeti, a little easterly from Mansfield Sqnare, and 
mnning easterly iilonp the northerly Bide of the creek, by the house now 
occupied by W. II. Black, that on the farm late helonginc to Chailotte 
Taylor, and the house now occupied by William Augustus Newbold (near 
the crossing of the Old York road and the Bordentown and Reckless- 
town pike), followed the old lane or drift-way leading easterly from the 
last-named hou-e till it came to Kecklesstown ; then a little southerly 
of the present road and to the southwaid of the old house, lately pulled 
down, ou the farm late belonging to William Pypphir, deceased (Pep- 
jderi, and ninninp easterly, near the present road to the south of Wil- 
liam W.Bullock's house (near the junction of the Recklcsttown and 
Arneytown ruad), continued an easterly course a few rods to the north 
of the mansion just built by the fii-st Anthony Woodward, near the house 
on the farm late of John AV. Cox, now of Woodward ; thence easterly 
through the Eidgway farm, now Edward Howard's, and the f.irm now 
occupied by .Joseph Gardiner Abbott to Crosswicks Creek ; thence east- 
erly through the homestead farm of the late Janii'sS. Lawrence, deceased, 
to the dwelling-house opposite to the road to Fillmore; thence along 
the present old road from Judge Lawrence's to the blacksmith's shop, 
easterly from the Screaming Hill niecting-house, and fo on, cros.<iing 
Thomas DeBow's suw-mill pond, to Freehold, and thence to Colt's Neck, 
Shrewsbury, and Middlelown. This road, then only a bridle-path, prob- 
ably was the cause of Anthony Woodward's selecting this situation to 
build iipon it, being the only raid or path through or indeed anywhere 
near his premi'ses." 

Much of New Jersey at this time was an unexplored 
wilderness, or had only been traversed by the hunter 
of the wild game that abounded, or the seekers after 
desirable tracts of land. A single road, or more prob- 
ably a bridle-path, aiforded the only means of com- 
munication between the New York Bay and the Dela- 
•ware River. In 1G77, William Edmundson, traveling 
southward from New York, says that in going from 
Middleton to the Delaware (although with an Indian 
guide), he was unable for a whole day to discover the 
proper course, and was obliged to go back until his 
guide could strike the Raritan. They then followed 
its margin until they came to a "small landing from 
New York," — probably Inman's Ferry, now New 
Brunswick, — and thence wended their way along a 
small path to Delaware Falls. He says, "We saw no 
tame animals in all the way." ' 

This road was the only one opened by the Dutch. 
It was connected with New York by water from Eliza- 
bethtown Point, and ran near to where New Bruns- 
wick now stands. From thence it ran in almost a 
straight line to the Delaware above where Trenton 
now stands. This was called " the upper road." 
Another, which branched off five or six miles from 
the Raritan, and arrived at the Delaware by a more 
circuitous route at the present Burlington, was called 
"the lower road."' 

1 Watson's Annals. * Collections of N. J. Hist. Soc, page 161. 

As early as 1676 some general regulations were 
adopted for the opening of roads. These roads were 
only bridle-paths, and continued so for many years, 
and as late as 1716, when an act of Assembly was 
passed "for the further establishment of Fees and 
Ferriages." Provision was only made in the rates 
allowed for "horse and man" and "single person." 
In 1695 the inn-keepers of some of the towns in East 
Jersey were taxed jointly to the sum of ten pounds 
for five years, to prevent the road from " falling into 
decay." In 1684, Deputy Governor Gavven Laurie, 
at the request of the proprietaries of East and West 
Jersey, opened another road, leading from Burlington 
to Perthtown (Perth Amboy), and also established a 
ferry from Amboy to New York. The old road, 
however, appears to have been preferred by travelers, 
as in 1698 Governor Basse was directed to bring the 
matter before the Assembly, with the view of having 
an act passed that would cause the public road to 
pass through the port-town of Perth Amboy to Bur- 
lington. Nothing, however, was done in the matter, 
as Basse was soon superseded by the reappointment 
of Col. Andrew Hamilton. 

"In April, 1707, the Assembly, enumerating their 
grievances to Lord Cornbury, complained that pat- 
ents had been granted to individuals to transport 
goods on the road from Burlington to Amboy for a 
certain number of years, to the exclusion of others, 
which was deemed not only contrary to the statute 
respecting monopolies, but also 'destructive to that 
freedom which trade and commerce ought to have.' 
The Governor, in his reply, gives us an insight into 
the facilities afforded by this wagon. After stating 
the difficulties which had previously attended the 
carriage of goods upon the road, he says, ' At pres- 
ent everybody is sure, once a fortnight, to have an 
opportunity of sending any quantity of goods, great 
or small, at reasonable rates, without being in danger 
of imposition, and the settling of this wagon is so 
far from being a grievance or a monopoly, that. by 
this means, and no other, a trade has been carried on 
between Philadelphia, Burlington, Amboy, and New 
York which was never known before, and in all 
probability never would have been.' As none of the 
grievances suffered under Lord Cornbury's adminis- 
tration were removed until his recall in 1710, it is 
probable this wagon continued to perform its journey 
' once a fortnight' till then, if no longer. Soon after, 
however, the road seems to have been more open to 

The following advertisement, copied from the 
Mercury, Bradford's Philadelphia paper, of March, 
1732-33, is probably the first inserted in regard to 
passenger and merchandise transportation on this 
route : 

"This is to give notice unto Gentlemen Merchants Tradesmen Trav- 
ellers and others that Solomon Smith and James Moore of Burlington 
keapelh two Stage Waggons intending to go from Burlington to Amboy 
and from Amboy to Burlington again Once every Week orofffer if that 



Busines6 Presents. They liave also a Very good Store House very Com- 
modiiis fur the Storing of any sort of Merchants Goods free from any 
C'liarge were Good care will be taken of all sorts of Goods." 

" About this time also a line ran by the way of 
New Brunswick, and in 1734 the first line via Borden- 
town was established, running from South River, the 
proprietor of which would be at New York ' once a 
week, if wind and iveather permit, and come to the 

"In October, 1750, a new line was established, the 
owner of which resided at Perth Amboy. He in- 
formed all gentlemen and ladies ' who have occasion 
to transport themselves, goods, wares, or merchandise 
from New York to Philadelphia,' that he had a 
' stage-boat' well fitted for the purpose, which, wind 
and weather permitting (that never-forgotten pro- 
viso), would leave New York every Wednesday for 
the ferry at Amboy on Tlmmday, where, on Friday, a 
stage- wagon would be ready to proceed immediatehj to 
Bordentoum, where they would take another stage- 
boat to Philadelphia, nothing being said (very 
wisely) of the time when they might expect to arrive 
there. He states, however, that the passages are 
made m forty-eight hours less than by any other line. 
This was probably the case, for the route was so well 
patronized that in 1752 they carried passengers twice 
a week instead of once, endeavoring ' to use people in 
the best manner,' keeping them, be it observed, /rowi 
five to seven days on the way." ^ 

The success of this line seems to have led to an op- 
position. In the Pennsylvania Gazette (in the Phila- 
delphia Library) of April 4, 1751, appears a long ad- 
vertisement over the names of Joseph Borden, Joseph 
Richardson, and Daniel "Obryant," in which they 
"give notice to all persons that shall have occasion 
to transport themselves, goods, wares, or merchandise 
from Philadelphia to New York, or from the latter 
place to the former, that" Joseph Borden has a 
"stage-boat well fitted up, and if Avind and weather 
permit will attend at the crooked-billet wharf in 
Philadelphia" (end of the first alley above Chestnut 
Street. Watson's Annuls, vol. i. p. 4G4) "every Tues- 
day," and proceed " to Bordentown on Wednesday," 
and on Thursday morning a " stage waggon with a 
good arning, kept by Joseph Richardson," will proceed 
" to John Clucks, opposite the city of Perth Amboy, 
who keep."* a house of good entertainment, and on 
Friday morning a stage-boat well fitted and kept by 
Daniel Obryant" will proceed "to New York and 
give her attendance at the White Hall slip near the 
half moon tavern." It is also stated "if people be 
ready at the stage days and places tis believed they 
may pass the quickest (,) 30 or 40 hours, the cheapest 
and fastest way that has yet been made use of," A 
lengthy "N.B." is added, stating that any passengers 

1 Barber's Hist. Col. of New Jersey, pp. 42-43. This was probably 
inserted in a New York City paper, as diligent eearch in the papers 
in the Philadelphia Library failed to discover the original advertise- 

or goods coming to Bordentown on a Sunday or 
Monday, "whose waggon hire shall amount to Six- 
teen shillings or upwards, shall upon first notice have 
a waggon and transportation to" John Clucks. 

In the Philadelphia Mercury, under date of Nov. 
11, 1756, Joseph Borden advertises his stage-boat 
to be at the same wharf in Philadelphia every Mon- 
day and Tuesday, and his " shallop" to be at the same 
place every Friday and Saturday, to proceed to Bor- 
dentown, and thence by " stage waggons" to Amboy. 
The following, part of the above advertisement, shows 
there was considerable rivalry between the opposition 

*' As to the owners of the Burlington 6t«gebo.Tsting of theiradrantnges 
being superior to mine, I fhall not take the trouble to make reply too, 
because Ihe publick by tliis time is the I'est judges of our stages and tlifir 
advantages, only shall just note the last clause of their advertisement, 
that is, they say we are one tide more upon the water than they arc, 
which, in fact, is saying we are always two tides upon our passage. 
Well dune, brother adventurers, that is a large one. All ginllenien au'I 
ladies that please to favour me with their business, may depend upon 
the utmost care and dispatch of their humble servant, 

"Joseph Boedf.n." 

This route was from White Hall Slip in New York 
and through the Narrows to a tavern at Amboy. The 
boats were large, well fitted, and comfortable, as the 
outside passage was often rough. 

" From 1765 to 1768 attempts were made by the 
Legislature to raise funds by lottery for shortening 
and improving the great thoroughfares, but without 
success. Governor Franklin, alluding to them in a 
speech to the Assembly in 1768, states, that * even 
those which lie between the two principal trading 
cities in North America are seldom passable without 
danger or difficulty.' Such being the condition of the 
roads, it was a great improvement to have John Mer- 
serean's ' flying machine,' in 1772, leave Paulus Hook 
three times a week, with a reasonable expectation 
that passengers would arrive in Philadelphia in one 
day and a half. This time, however, was probably 
found too short, for two days were required by him in 

All the products of agriculture and of the mines, 
and nearly all the trade of the valley of the Delaware 
and its tributary streams, before the commencement 
of the present century, naturally came to Phila- 
delphia. Durham boats, managed with poles, long 
and narrow, drawing not more than two feet of 
water, and carrying from five to six hundred bushels 
of wheat, came down, mostly during the spring and 
freshets, sometimes even from Navesink, on the New 
York State line. From Trenton and below sail-boats 
were used, and Philadelphia was the chief seaport of 
the continent. To draw the produce and trade of tlie 
Delaware River to the waters of East Jersey and 
New York turnpike roads were introduced, and since 
March, 1801, authority was given to build over sixty 
of these roads. Their construction was much aided 
by the capital of that city. The first turnpike in 
Burlington County was chartered Nov. 24, 1808. It 
ran from Burlington through Bordentown, to inter- 



sect the Trenton and New Brunswick pike. The 
se:;ond one built in tliis county was chartered Feb. 
16, 181G, and ran from Bordentown to South Amboy. 
A number of other turnpikes have been built in va- 
rious part of the county, all of gravel, and the main 
highways are generally in good condition, and during 
the summer and fall may be traveled with pleasure. 

Steamboats on the Delaware. — The waters of the 
Delaware were first ruffled by a steamboat in 1788. 
John Fitch, a watch- and clock-maker, was the pro- 
jector. Besides the disadvantage of being poor was 
his great want of education, and a multitude of diffi- 
culties which he did not foresee occurred to render 
abortive every effort of his persevering mind to con- 
struct a steamboat. He applied to Congress for assist- 
ance, without success. He then offered his invention 
to the Spanish government for the navigation of the 
Mississippi, but they declined it. He at last formed 
a company, and by the aid of its funds built his first 
rude steamboat. Instead of wheels he used long pad- 
dles, working in frames at the side. Two long chains 
of the same construction as in watches extended from 
stem to stern, working the paddles. The crude ideas 
which he entertained, and the want of experience 
with the very ordinary mechanic of those early days, 
subjected poor but persevering Fitch to difficulties of 
the most discouraging and humiliating character. 
But at last his steamboat, undoubtedly the first ever 
built in America, in July of that year made a suc- 
cessful trip from Philadelphia to Burlington, but as 
she was rounding to at the wharf her boiler burst.' 
She was, however, floated down to the city, where 
after great difficulty a new boiler was procured, and 
in October following she again steamed to Burling- 
ton. Watson's " Annals," vol. ii. p. 446, says, " The 
boat not only went to Burlington, but to Trenton, re- 
turning the san'ie day, and moving at the rate of eight 
miles an hour. In the summer of 1790 she again 
made several successful trips up the river for tlie last 
time. The continued breaking of some part of the 
machinery at last forced Fitch to abandon the great 
invention upon which the public looked so coldly." 
Poor Fitch lived many years too soon to be successful, 
but to him belonged the honor of building the first 
American steamboat. Before Fitch's death he con- 
ceived the idea of the paddle-wheel and of the screw. 
Of Fitch, Adjt.-Gen.Stryker, in "Trenton One Hun- 
dred Years Ago," on page 7, says, " Under the same 
roof was the shop of John Fitch, then a gunsmith 
and maker of buttons for the American army. He 
was at one time apprenticed to 'James Wilson, the 
silversmith,' and afterwards Wilson worked for Fitch 
when he had a large order for repairing arms, and 
employed, it is said, sixty men in business. Fitch's 
shop was burned by the British. He went to Penn- 
sylvania, and afterwards became the successful steam- 
boat inventor." 

1 Watson's AnDale of PliiluJelpUia, toI. ii. p. 446. 

In John Wood's^ journal we find entered : 

"A steamboat with side paddle-wheels, built at 
Bordentown by Samuel Morey and Burgess Allison, 
navigated to Philadelphia and back." The Rev. 
Lansing Burrows, A.M., in his " Hisiory of the Bor- 
dentown Baptist Church," in speaking of Mr. Alli- 
son, on page 2, says, "He certainly contributed much 
to the invention of the steamboat, though his name 
in that connection is now eclipsed by those of his 
intimate friends. Fitch and Fulton." 

Oliver Evans, a blacksmith of Philadelphia, in 
1804 built a large scow, with a steam-engine and ma- 
chinery for cleansing docks for the Board of Health 
of that city. He mounted it on wheels, and by steam 
propelled it through the streets of tlie city to the 
Schuylkill. Launching it into the river, with a pad- 
dle-wheel in the stern, he steamed around to the 
Delaware front of the city.' 

In 1808, John Stevens built the "Phoenix" at Ho- 
boken, N. J., and Robert L. Stevens brought her 
around by sea to Philadelphia.* 

In Mr. Wood's journal we find a clipping from a 
newspaper, the name and date of which unfortunately 
was not noted. We copy from it as follow.s : " In the 
year 1812" (1809^) "a large steamboat, named the 
* Phoenix,' commanded by Captain Degraw, was placed 
on the river for the purpose of carrying the New York 
passengers. She ran from Philadelphia to Borden- 
town, and the passage thence occupied three hours 
when running with the tide, and five hours against it. 
The boat had no wheel-house, and presented a very 
singular appearance. Sometimes when in motion the 
water would be thrown as high as her smoke-stack. 
She was sent around from Hoboken by the elder John 
Stevens, and Robert L. Stevens was her temporary 
engineer. She belonged to what was then called the 
'Swiftsnre Line,' and attracted much interest. Her 
hour of departure was announced by the blowing of 
a large tin horn, and hundreds of persons would crowd 
the wharves to see her embark on her voyage. Pas- 
sengers on this boat were landed in New York some 
time during the following night if no accident oc- 

After the " Phoenix" the next steamboat that ran 
up the river was named the " Philadelphia." It was 
put on by the Union Line, and was commanded 
by Capt. Jenkins. She ran from Philadelphia to 
Bristol, and afterwards established a Avharf three 
miles above, called "Van Hart's." Passengers hence 
took stages for New Brunswick, and to New York in 
the "William Gibbons." For some unaccountable 
reason this boat always went by the name of " Old 
Sal," probably from a grotesque-looking female figure- 
head on the bow. 

The next steamboat was the " Pennsylvania," and 

* See history of Bordentown. 

* WatBou's Annals, vol. ii. p. 455. 

< John Wood's, Sr., journal. • 

' Watson's Anuals, vol. ii. p. 440. 


"MC /VF» copied by Jasper 
Dankers, 1679. Probably from one 
made by an English surveyor during 
the year preceding. 

Fmm "Journal of a Voyage, <tc., by Jasper Dan- 
kers and PeUr Sluyter, »n Iti79-S0." 

Oopitd by the Hon. Edwin Salter, WathingUin, £>. C. 

of the Delaware River from Burlington to Trenton. 

Engraved expressly for this work. 



carried passengers for the " Citizens' Line." The 
engine of this boat was subsequently placed in the 
"Old Lehigh." Passengers by this line landed at 
Bordentown, and thence took coaches to Washington, 
N. J., whence they were conveyed to New York on 
the steamer " ^tna," Capt. Robinson. The " ^Ecna" 
exploded her boiler in New York harbor in ]May, 
1824, having on board the Philadelphia passengers, 
and several lives were lost. Her place was supplied 
by one named " New York." 

The Union Line then built the "New Philadel- 
phia," to compete with the " New York," of the Citi- 
zens' Line, and then the "Trenton" came out to run 
against the "Pennsylvania," of the Citizens' Line. 
This line then built a new boat and named it the 
"Philadelphia," to beat the "Trenton." There was 
a wonderful competition among these lines for several 
years, when Capt. Whilldin and Cornelius Vanderbilt 
started an opposition to them all. This was called 
the Dispatch Line, and the fare at one time was re- 
duced to one dollar. The boat on this end was named 
the " Emerald." The Dispatch Line was soon dis- 
posed of, and the Union and Citizens' with some of 
the others afterwards became merged in the Camden 
and Amboy Railroad Company. 

The next boat was the " John Stevens," built at 
Hoboken in 1846, and destroyed by fire at White Hill 
on the night of the 16th of July, 1855. She was 
rebuilt at Bordentown, and launched at 5.25 a.m. on 
the 9th of August, 1865. The next boat on the river 
was the "Richard Stockton," now running between 
South Amboy and New York. 

The following advertisement, copied from a Phila- 
delphia paper, we find in Mr. Wood's journal : 

" For Kew YoiJ: at C o'clock AM. Citizens'' Line for l\'ew York. 

"April antli, 1829. 

" The now.anJ splendid steamlioat ' Pliilade)pliia,'CHpt. Z. W. Kelluin, 
will leave Aicli street wharf every djiy (Sunday exiejited) nt C o'clock 
A.M. for Burlington, Biistol, While Hill, and Bordentown. Passengers 
for New York take Coach at Bordontown, 24 miles to Washington. 
There take snperior steamboat ' Kew York,' Capt. G. Jenkins, and arrive 
in New Yoik by C o'clock the same afternoon. 

"Fare through §4 00. 

" Passengers take coach at Bristol. 

" N. B. For SP.Tts apply at steamboat office. No. 8 Arch street, corner 
of Front, or of the Captain on board of the Boat at Arch street Wharf, 

The following are the names of the steamboats that, 
ran between Bordentown and Pliiladelphia and 'J'ren- 
ton and Philadelphia from 1810 to 1876: 
The Phoenix, 1810. 

" New Jersey, 1812. 

" Eagle, 1813. * 

" New Philadelphia, 1815. 

" ^tna, 1824. 

" Albemarl, 1824. 

" Trenton, 1825. 

" Burlington, 1826. 

" Pennsylvania, 1826. 

" Franklin, 1830. 

The Emerald, 1830. 

" Marco Botzario, 1830. 

" Swan, 1831. 

" Congress, 1832. 

" John StevenSj . 

" Edwin Forrest, 1845. 

" Richard Stockton, . 

" Hornet, . 

" Nelly White, 1876. 

" Pope Catlin, 1876. 
These are all the steamboats that have run up the 
Delaware to my recollection. 

JoHX Wood, Sr. 
1848. A steamboat exploded on the Delaware and 
Raritan Canal, about the fir.-^t lock, near Bordentown. 
1859. The steamboat " New Jersey" burnt. 
1859, April 30. The steamboat " Bordentown" left 
the railroad wharf for New York. 

1864, July 11th. The steamboat "John Potter" 

1869. The old "Burlington" rebuilt, and on the 
24th of March passed the shops on her first trip as a 

The Colonial Post.— About the year 1694, Col. 
John Hamilton, son of Governor Andrew Hamilton, 
devised a scheme by which the post-office was estab- 
lished. He obtained a patent for it, and afterwards 
sold his right to the crown. The mails were carried on 
horseback, and it is probable some attempt was made 
at regularity, and although the speed was somewhat 
increased, but little regard was paid to it. In 1704, 
in the month of May, a New York paper says, " The 
last storm put our Pennsylvania post a week behind, 
and it is not yet com'd in." In 1720 the post set out 
from Philadelphia every Friday, left letters at Bur- 
lington and Perth Amboy, and arrived at New York 
on Sunday night. In 1754, Benjamin Franklin was 
appointed superintendent of the colonial post-office. 
System and punctuality was introduced and the ser- 
vice was much improved. In October of that year 
notice was given that until Christmas the post would 
leave the two cities three times a week at eight o'cloclc 
A.M., and arrive the next day about five o'clock p.m. 
After Christmas, " being frequently delayed in cross- 
ing New York Bay," it would leave only twice a week. 
In 1764, "if weather permitted," the mails were to 
leave every alternate day, and go through in less than 
twenty-four hours. This was continued until the 
Revolution put a stop to their regular transmission. 
In 1791 there were only six post-ofiices in New Jer- 
sey, viz. : Trenton, Princeton, New Brunswick, Bridge- 
town (Railway), Elizabethtown, and Newark. 
Post-Offices of Burlington County.'— The fol- 

1 We are indebted to the Hon. Edwin Salter, of New Jersey, now resid- 
ing in Washington, for notes on the post-offices, he having personally 
searched the records of the department to obtain the information. His 
genealogical and historical arlicles, which have appeared in various 
new spapers of the State for a series of years past, have rendered his name 
familiar to most Jersey men. 



lowing is a complete list of all the post-offices that were 
ever established in the county : 

vlrn'i/^oirii.— EstBMisliod April 24, 1827 ; discontinued Feb. 8, 1871. John 
Darliy, the shoemaker and grave-digger of the village, was tho 
poslninster during the forty-four years of its existence. 

./4/sirtn.— Oiiginally established in J.-iiniaiy, 1708. In 1815 it wasdiscon- 
tiriued. and an office established " near by" at Sooy's Inn, jwssilily 
Nicholas Sooy'!!, at or not far from Green Bank. Atsion was re- 
estilbli^hed June 13, 1832. Tiie nam.' war- changed June 4, 18C0, to 
Fruitlund, and, with better taste, back again to Atsiuu Aug.. 21, 

Basf 7^irr.— Established May 8, 1840. Nov. 6, 1841, the name was 
changed to Bass River Hotel, and Aug. G, 1850, it was changed to 
New Gretna. 

Beverly. — Established Jan. 4, 1849, and Charles C. McElroy was appointed 

BiVmiii^/uim.— Established Feb. 11, 18G8. 

Lordeuloirn. — Established Jan. 1, 1801, with William Norcross as post- 

ftWjpboroiij/i.— Established Feb. 8,1849. 

L' oicn''s Mills. — Established Aug. 28, 1850. Byron Woodward was its 
first postmaster. 

BntU Toirn.— Established June 1, 1808. 

Burling'on. — Estiblislied April 1, 1708, Tliomas Douglass, postma<ti'r; 
July 1,1798, Thompson Neal ; in 1805, Stephen C. Ustick ; and in 
1818, George Allen were appointed postmasters. 

Bns(Wo7i.— E^tal lished April 11, 1882. 

C/(«/nood.— Established Jan. 29, 1803 ; discontin\ied June 4, 18CG ; named 
after Mr. Frank Chetwood, of Elizabeth, a pruiniuent man in build- 
ing the New Jersey Southern Railroad. 

dnnnniinmn. — Established April 22, 183G. Abm. Lippincott, postmaster. 
Samuel Allison pave the meaning of this woid to be "tangled roots." 
One or two other definitions have been given. Mr. Salter, however, 
established the fact some years ago, in an article in the Mmint H'tUi/ 
Mirror, tliat the first two syllables give the Indian name for stone. 

Oo/«m!*i(fl.— Es;abli6hcd Dec. 14, 1827, with John W. Wright as post- 

0>oJt.«oirn .—Established Jan. 24, 1851. 

CrossuUks. — Established March 25, 1823. Nathan Satterthwaite was the 
first poptmnster. 

Delanco. — Established Oct. 5, 1857; discontinued Aug. 29, 18C0; re-estab- 
lished Dec.l4, ISCI. 

E<Igeiialer ParA-.— Established Sept. 28, 1881. 

Eieshiim. — Established April 1,18(IS, with Henry Bennett as postmaster; 
name clianged toMarlton, 1845. 

fWioicK/ii)).— Established Jan. 13, 1840. 

FiVfiZsf.orOTi^;/.— Established Feb. 3, 1880. 

/"/oreiic?.— Established Apr.l 6, 1854. 

Georgetown. — Established July 12, 1847. Many years ago a man settled 
liere, and after expending more money than ho was worth in build- 
ing a fine brick house was forced to mortgage the iiroperty. The 
■village in consequence was called " Foolstown." When the post- 
office was established the name of Georgetown was selected in com- 
pliment to the Hon. George Sykes. 

Green Banli. — Established May 8, 1840; discontinued; reestablished 
Nov. 22, 18G2. The name of this post-office was formerly "Sooy's 

fluiiie.'TJorf.— Established Feb. 2, 1853; discontinued in 185G; re-estab- 
lished March 20, 18G2 ; discontinued Nov. 8, 1871, and re-established 
Dec. 28,1876. 

HanovT JIfiHv.— Established April 20, 1871 ; discontinued Oct. 23, 1874. 

HarritrilV. — Established March 24, 185G. Richard C. Harris was tlie 
first postmaster. The name of this village formerly was McC'artys- 
viile. McCarty. a once noted merchant of Pliiladelphia, owned the 
mills eitiiatcd there. The name of the place changed with the 
names of the proprietors. 

iJarZ/orrZ.— Established Jan. 24, 1808. 

/(ifiKin 3/. ««.— Established Aug. 2, 18G1 ; discontinued March 11,1802; 
re-established Sept. 7, 1877. 

.^acX-oonriHe.— Established June 12, 1829. 

Jncofcs^oirn — E-tablished May 11, 1849. 

Jobttoicn. — Established March 15, 1817. John Horner was the first 

Juliutloicn. — Established March 9, 1812; John Fennimore, first post- 

ikiniora.— Established Feb. 10, 1873. 

Lebanon GlaM-Worlte. — Established Kov. 19, 1802; discontinued Feb. 22, 

Leirieloim. — Estabfished Feb. 29, 1872. 

Long Beach. — Established June 28,1801; discontinued April 20, 1803; 
re-established July 0, 1874. 

Loirer Banl.— Established Sept. 19, 1854. 

Lumfterton.— Established Aug. 3, 1848. 

3far//on.— Established Aug. 6, 1845 ; Samuel Swain, postmaster. See 

Jir<i<ioHtt/;e.— Established Jan. 24, 1R08. 

Jtferf/ord.— Established May 2, 1820; Shinn Oliphant the first post- 

JUnoreMown. — Established July 1, 1802; Isaac Wilkins, first postmaster. 

Mount /fo%.— Established Jan. 1, 1801 ; Stephen C. Ustick the first post- 

Mount Laure/.— Established Jan. 13, 1849 

Keic Gretna, formerly Bass River. — Est^iblished Aug C, 1850. 

Keic Liehon. — Established Feb. 1, 1S34, with Eayre Oliphant as postmas- 
ter; discontinued April 8, 1830; re-estubli^h''d Pec. 20, 1851. 

Keie Mdlx, now Pembeiton. — Established Jan. 1, ISOl, with William 
Kempton as postmaster; name changed in 1827. 

PafjH7/ra.— Established Aug. 4, 1851. 

Parri/.— Established Aug. 12, 1880. 

Pfniherlon, formerly New Mills; name changed March 10, 1827. 

Poi«(n7/e.— Established Dec. 3, 1857. 

Progress. — Established Dec. 22, 1854; name clung k1 to Riverside in 

Enncocas. — Established May 1,1838. A post-office called Aucocas was 
established Jan. 21, 183G, and discontinued June 23, 18:!G. 

lieckleistown. — Established Feb. 20, 1830, with James Wondcily as post- 

Bed tio«.— Established Sept. 7, 1877. 

liirerside, formerly Progress. — Established Nov. 15, 18G7. 

S/iamojiy— Established Oct. 10, 184'J; discontinued Jan. 22, 1850; re-es- 
tablished Feb. 10, 1803. 

Sykefi'ille, formerly Plattsburgh. — Established Dec. S, 1857; discontinued 
Oct. 2C, 1S74; re-estiiblished Dec. 1, 1874. Named alter the Hon. 
George Sykes, lately deceased. 

iSmi/7iri7?e.— Established Dec. 7, 1800. Named after the Hon. H. Smith. 

rubcrnacZe.— Established Sept. 7, 1877. 

Tacherton. — Established Jan. 1, 1798, with Reuben Tucker as postmaster. 

Vincenfoirn.— Established April 20, 1821; Mahlou Sleeper, postmaster. 

Wading Tfirer.— Established Feb. 8, 1858. 

Woodmnn»ie. — Established May 23, 1807 ; discontinued and re established 
in 1872. 

Wriglilstoim. — Established Feb. 3, 1824, Samncl Brown being the first 

Contrary to the general supposition, Tuckerton was 
the first post-office established in Burlington County. 
Atsion was established at the same time. It was on 
the route from Philadelphia to Tuckerton, and was 
then a place of much bus^iness. The office at both 
these towns owe- their origin to the energy and enter- 
prise of Judge Ebenezer Tucker,' from whom Tucker- 
ton was named. 



" I:^ Beecher's Magazine for Januarj', 1872, Judge 
Lucius Q. C. Elmer published an article entitled 
'General Bernard and Joseph Bonaparte.' In De- 
cember, 1823, an act was passed by the Legislature of 

' The judge was born in 1758, was a soldier of the Revolutionary war, 
and particii)ated in the battle of Long Island. He held numerous im- 
portant positions, was a member of the Congress of the United States 
from 1825 to 1829, and died Sept. 5, 1845. 



New Jersey appointing Lucius Q. C. Elmer, Peter 
Kean, and George Holcombe commissioners for the 
purpose of ascertaining tlie practicability and ex- 
pediency of a. canal to unite the tide-waters of the 
Delaware and Raritan Rivers. There was at that 
time a board of engineers, organized by virtue of a 
special act of Congress as a board of internal improve- 
ments. This board came into New Jersey, and in 
conjunction with the State board made a hasty ex- 
amination of the route previously surveyed, in 1816, 
by a State commission under John Randel, Jr., Esq. 
Tiie final result of this examination was that the 
plan of making the canal a State or national work 
was abandoned, and in 1830 the Delaware and Rar- 
itan Canal Con)pany was incorporated, who, mainly 
through the energy of Commodore Stockton, con- 
structed the existing work. The board of United 
States engineers consisted of Gen. Simon Bernard,' 
specially appointed at its head, Lieut. -Col. Joseph G. 
Totlen, of the Engineer Corps, and John L. Sullivan, 
of Boston,^ civil engineer."^ 

The Camden and Amboy Railroad and Trans- 
portation Company was incorporated by an act of 
the Legislature dated Feb. 4, 1830. The capital 
stock was one million of dollars, with the privilege of 
increasing it to five hundred thousand dollars, divided 
into shares of one hundred dollars each. The road 
was to run from Camden on the Delaware to some 
point on the Raritan Bay, the bed to be not more 
than one hundred feet wide, with as many sets of 
tracks as necessary; reserving to the State the right 
to subscribe one-fourth or less of the capital stock by 
the 1st of the ensuing January, which right was not 
exercised; limiting the charges to not more than eight 
cents per ton per mile for transportation of freight, 
and ten cents per mile for carrying each passenger; 
that the company should 4)ay a transit duty to the 
State often cents for each passenger, and fifteen cents 
for each ton of merchandise in lieu of all other taxes. 
Suitable steam or other vessels were required to be 
provided at either terminus of the road to make con- 
nection with the cities of Philadelphia and New York. 

1 Gen. Bernard was a dislinguiplied engineer in the army of Napoleon, 
li.iving tlie brevet rank of liriiteuant-general as one of his aides, in wliich 
capacity lie acted at the hatlle of Waterloo. Upon the downfall of the 
emperor he canii' to the United States, about the year ISIC. He was the 
fust and uiilil the late war the only f..rfigii officer adniitteti to the mil- 
itary service of the United Slates after the Revolutionary war. During 
the twelve or fifteen years that he remained at the head of our corps of 
engineers he planned a system of foilificatious for the general defense 
of the coast. Soon after Louis Philippe becnme king be returned to 
France, was appointed an aide to the king, and in 1830 was placed in the 
cabinet as Secretary of War. He died in 1S39, and his death was, by 
general order of our War Department, announced to the army and people 
in terms of highest commendation and respect. 

Among the ntlachi's to the board was Capt. Poussin, also from France, 
then holding the rank of captain United States topographical engineers 
He returned to France with Bernard, and upon the overthrow of Louis 
Pliilippe, in 1848, was sent by the provisional government as minister 
to the United States. Having the misfortune to displease Mr. Clayton, 
our Secretary of State, be was dismissed or withdrawn. 

Bonaparte's Park and the Murats, E. M. Woodward, pp. 74-7G, 

The road was to be commenced within two and com- 
pleted within nine years. The State reserved the 
right to purchase the road at and after the expira- 
tion of thirty years, at a valuation to be made accord- 
ing to law. It was also stipulated that if the Legis- 
lature shall authorize the construction of any other 
railroad for the transportation of passengers across the 
State from New York to Philadelphia, which road 
shall be constructed and used, and which shall com- 
maicc and terminate within three miles of the terminals 
of the road authorized by this act, then the transit du- 
ties shall cease, and such other railroad shall be liable 
to a tax not less than the amount payable to the State 
by this company. 

By an act passed Feb. 4, 1831, it was further stipu- 
lated that the company should transfer to the State 
one thou.sand shares of the capital stock, the install- 
ments on which shall be paid by the company, the 
State to appoint one director; but providing that 
when any other railroad between New York and 
Philadelphia shall be constructed and used, then the 
dividends shall be no longer payable to the State, and 
the said stock shall be retransferred to the company. 
In consideration of which it was stipulated that it 
should not be lawful to construct any other railroad 
across the State within three miles of the road of the 
company until after the time limited for the coinple- 
tion of said railroad, nine years from Feb. 4, 1830. 

The Camden and Amboy Railroad and the Dela- 
ware and Raritan Canal Companies (both companies 
incorporated the same day and with provisions very 
similar) were consolidated by an act pas.sed Feb. 15, 
1831, for the purpose of completing the road and 
canal, subject to the provisions, reservations, and con- 
ditions of their respective charters, the directors ap- 
pointed under which were empowered to manage the 
affairs of the company in joint meeting; and the 
companies were jointly liable for contracts made by 
either, and were prohibited from charging more than 
three dollars for passengers from and to Philadelphia 
and New York. This act provided further that the 
railroad and canal should be completed within the 
specified time, and if one of the works be completed 
at the specified time without the other, the work com- 
pleted shall be forfeited to the State. 

By an act of March 2, 1832, one thousand shares 
of the joint capital stock were transferred to the 
State, and the companies contract that if within one 
year from the time that the railroad from Borden- 
town to Amboy is completed the transit duty re- 
served by the acts incorporating such companies and 
the dividends on the stock so transferred shall not 
amount to thirty thousand dollars, the companies 
shall pay the deficiency to the State, and so annually 
during the charter ; and the State may appoint one 
director to represent the stock. The joint companies 
also covenant to construct a lateral railroad from 
Spottswood to New Brunswick as soon as any railroad 
shall be built from Brunswick to the Hudson River, 



and not to charge more than two dollars and fifty 
cents fare between New Brunswick and Philadelphia. 
The condition of these grants, however, is that it 
shall not be lawful at any time during the railroad 
charter to construct any other railroad in the State 
which shall be intended or used to compete in busi- 
ness with the Camden and Amboy Railroad between 
New York and Philadelphia without the consent of 
the companies. 

So doubtful were the early legislators of New 
Jersey as to the feasibility of railroads and canals 
that the following proviso was thoughtfully inserted 
in both charters: "That in case the said company, 
after the same is completed, shall abandon the said 
road, or cease to use and keep in repairs at any time 
for three successive years, that then this charter shall 
be annulled, and the title to the lands over which the 
said road shall pass shall be revested in the persons 
from whom the lands were taken, their heirs and as- 
signs; Provided always, If the State shall take pos- 
session of said road, that road, and the title to the 
lands shall be vested in the State so long as they shall 
maintain the same." 

"Gordon's Gazetteer of New Jersey," published in 
January, 1834, on page 20, says, "The united com- 
panies have completed one track of railroad from a 
point below Bordentown" (White Hill )," on the Dela- 
ware River, to South Amboy, passing through, or 
rather over Ilights Town and by Spottswood, a dis- 
tance of thirty-five miles, at no expense, it is said, of 
more than eighteen thousand dollars the mile. Upon 
this road passengers and merchandise have been car- 
ried since February, 1833. It is constructed in a 
very substantial manner of cast-iron rails, supported 
upon blocks of stone or wooden sleepers, placed three 
feet distant from each other in the line. Until Sep- 
tember, 1833, the carriages were commonly drawn 
by horses. At that time steam locomotives were 
applied to one of the three daily lines which traverse 

" The remainder of the road from Bordentown to 
Camden is in progress, and is being constructed of 
wood faced with iron bars, it being supposed that it 
will not be employed more than two or three months 
in the year, and will therefore not require the 
strength of the portion between Bordentown and 
New York." 

The engine referred to was the " John Bull," which 
was at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 
1876. The following is a copy of the card attached 
to her : 



built by Messrs. Geurge and Hubert Stpphenson, 

at Newcustle-uiion-Tync, Eiiglaiid, 

For Camden <t Amboy Railroad and Trauspor- 

tation Comjiany, 

In tlip year 18:51. 

Arrived at riiiladel|iliia, Penn'a, Angiist, 1831, 

Traubferred to Bordentown, N. J., Sept. 4th, 



Cylinders 9 indies diameter, 20 indies stroke. 

One pair driving wheels, 4 feet C inches diam- 
One pair wheels 4 feet G indies diameter, not 
Hubs of wheels of cast iroiT. 
Spokes and rim of wheels of wood. 
Tires of wrought iron. 
Weight about 10 tons." 

On arrival at Bordentown it was transferred from 
the sloop on which it had been brought from Phila- 
delphia, by means of wagons, to the only piece of 
permanent track of the Camden and Amboy Railroad 
Company then completed, about three-quarters of a 
mile in length, and about one mile distant from Bor- 
dentown. The machinery was there put together, 
and a tender constructed from a whiskey hogshead 
placed on a small four-wheeled platform-car, which 
had been used by the contractor in the construction 
of the road. The connection between the pump of 
the locomotive and the tank was made by means of a 
leather hose fitted up by a shoemaker in Bordentown. 
The locomotive was first put in steam September 15th, 
and several trial trips were made before the first 
public trial on the 12th day of November, 1831, Isaac 
Dripps acting as engineer, Benjamin Higgiiis as fire- 
man, and R. L. Stevens as general instructor and con- 
ductor. The members of the New Jersey Legislature 
and a number of other prominent persons were among 
the guests present. 

The "John Bull" remained at Bordentown until 
the year 1833, when the Camden and Amboy Railroad 
Company began running their cars by steam-power, 
the road having been previously operated with horses. 
It was then placed on the road, doing the regular 
routine service, and continued in successful operation 
until 1866. 

By an act approved March 27, 1873, the lease and 
contract dated June 30, 1871, " between the Delaware 
and Raritan Canal Company, the Camden and Amboy 
Railroad and Transportation Company, and the New 
Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company, now 
merged into and known as ' The United New Jersey 
Railroad and Canal Company,' which companies, to- 
gether with the Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad 
Company, are the lessors, and the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company, which is lessee, be and the same is 
validated, ratified, and confirmed ; Provided," etc. 

The Burling-ton and Mount Holly Railroad and 
Transportation Company was incorporated by an 
act of the Legislature dated Feb. 11, 1848. The 
capital stock was one hundred thousand dollars, with 
liberty to increase it to one hundred and fifty thou- 
sand dollars, divided into shares of twenty-five dol- 
lars each. The road was lo run from the city of 
Burlington to the town of Mount Holly, the bed to 
be not more than seventy-five feet wide, and its con- 
struction to commence within two years, and to be 
completed and in use within five years from the 4th 



day of July next ensuing. The charge for trans- 
portation of passengers was limited to not more than 
five cents per mile each, and for merchandise not 
more than ten cents per mile per ton if carried in the 
" carriages" of said company. The road was declared 
a public highway, and free for the passage of any 
railroad-carriage thereon with passengers or prop- 
erty upon the payment of a toll of three cents per 
mile for each passenger, and three cents per ton per 
mile for all property, and three cents per mile for 
each empty carriage. The State reserved the right to 
purchase said road after the expiration of thirty-five 
years, upon tlie appraised value, the said valuation 
jiot to exceed the first cost of said road, with the ap- 
pendages thereof. 

As soon as completed the company was required to 
file in the.oflSce of the Secretary of State a statement 
of the cost of the road, and when the net proceeds 
amounted to six per centum per annum upon its costs, 
to pay to the State a tax of one-half of one per 
centum on the cost of said road annually. Sec. 18 
provided that no part of the capital stock or money 
shall be used for banking. 

The Burlington County Railroad Company.— 
By a supplementary act dated March 20, 1857, the 
name of the Burlington and Mount Holly Railroad 
and Transportation Company was changed to the 
above title, and the company was authorized to con- 
struct an extension of their road from Mount Holly 
to Pemberton, in said county, and to New Egypt, in 
Ocean County. The capital stock was increased to 
one hundred thousand dollars. 

The Mount Holly and Camden Railroad Com- 
pany was incorporated by an act dated March 4, 1836, 
but became void on expiration of time limited for 
completion of road. Another charter was granted by 
the Legislature, approved Feb. 11, 1848. The capital 
stock was one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, di- 
vided into shares of fifty dollars each. The road was 
to run from Mount Holly, and " to pass on a line, as 
direct as the nature of the country will admit, through 
or near the village of Moorestown, to some point on 
the Delaware River within the limits of Camden," 
the bed not to be more than sixty-six feet wide, with 
as many sets of tracks or rails as they may deem 
necessary, and to be completed in five years from the 
4th of July next ensuing. The charge for transpor- 
tation of passengers was limited to not more than five 
cents per mile for each, and to ten cents per ton per 
mile for every species of property. The road was de- 
clared a public highway, and free for the passage 
of any railroad-carriage thereon with passengers or 
property upon the payment of a toll of three cents 
per mile for each passenger, and three cents per ton 
per mile for all property, and three cents per mile for 
each empty carriage. The State imposed the same 
tax on this road as was exacted of the former roads 

The Camden, Moorestown, Hainesport and 

Mount Holly Horse-Car Railroad Company was 
incorporated by an act of the Legislature dated 
March 15, 1859. The capital stock was one hundred 
thousand dollars, with privilege to increase the same 
to three hundred thousand dollars, divided into 
shares of twenty-five dollars each. The road to run 
from some point easterly of Eighth Street in Cam- 
den, through the villages of Moorestown and Haines- 
port, to Mount Holly, and road-bed not to be more 
than fifty feet wide. The road was to be completed 
in five years from the 4th day of July next ensuing. 
Although this road was styled a " Horse-Car" rail- 
road, the company was empowered by its charter to 
purchase all the necessary engines, cars, etc., and 
was built and run as a steam road. The State im- 
posed the same tax on this road as was exacted of 
the other roads. 

The Camden and Burlington County Railroad 
Company. — By an act passed Feb. 6, 18G6, the 
Burlington County and the Camden, Moorestown, 
Hainesport and Mount Holly Horse-Car Railroad 
Companies were authorized to consolidate under the 
above name. The capital stock was three hundred 
thousand dollars, with the privilege of increasing the 
same to five hundred thousand dollars, divided into 
shares of twenty-five dollars each. The consolidated 
company was authorized to connect with the Camden 
and Amboy Railroad Comparty before reaching Cam- 
den, and to run their cars and trains ui>on the same 
upon such terms as may be agreed upon by the two 
companies. Full right and authority was given to 
use steam upon the road. The State reserved to itself 
the usual tax. 

The Vincentown Branch of the Burlington 
County Railroad was incorporated by an act dated 
March 15, 18G1. The capital stock was fifty thousand 
dollars, to be divided into shares of twenty-five dol- 
lars each. The road was to run from a point in the 
Burlington County Railroad at or near Charles 
Ewen's house to Vincentown, with the privilege of 
building branches to any of the marl beds in the 
vicinity, said branches not to exceed two miles in 
length, the road not to exceed sixty-six feet in width, 
and the branches not to exceed fifty feet. The road 
was to be commenced within five years, and com- 
pleted within ten years from the 4th of July next 
ensuing. It was empowered to demand for the trans- 
portation of passengers and merchandise not more 
than five cents per mile for each passenger, and ten 
cents per ton per mile for each ton of heavy mer- 
chandise, etc., but for dry-goods, packages, and ex- 
press freight the said company was allowed to charge 
such reasonable rates as they shall deem proper. 

By a supplementary act approved March 6, 1863, 
this road was authorized to consolidate with the Bur- 
lington County Railroad Company, under the name 
and title of the last-named road. The State reserved 
to itself the usual tax when the net proceeds shall 
amount to seven per cent, (the then legal interest of 



the State) per annum on its cost of construction. It 
was also provided that the Governor, the attorney- 
general, tlie chancellor, the justices of the Supreme 
Court, and the judges of the Court of Errors, and 
superintendent of public schools of the State, while 
traveling for the purpose of discharging the duties of 
their office, and members and officers of both houses 
of the Legislature during their sessions shall ride 
free on said road. 

The Pemberton and Hightstown Railroad Com- 
pany was incorporated by an act of the Legislature 
dated M;ireh 24, 18G4. The capital stock was five 
hundred thousand dollars, with liberty to increase it 
to one million dollars,' divided into shares of fifty 
dollars each. The road was to run from the borough 
of Pemberton, Burlington Co., to Hightstown, in 
Mercer County, connecting at Pemberton with the 
terminus of the Burlington County Railroad, and at 
Hightstown with the Camden and Amboy Railroad, 
passing en route the villages of Wjightstown, Cooks- 
town, New Egypt, Hornerstown, Fill more, Lnlaystown. 
The road-bed was not to exceed one hundred feet in 
width, and its construction to commence within three 
years, and to be completed within six years from the 4th 
day of July next ensuing; the charge for each pas- 
senger not to exceed four cents per mile, for freight 
not to exceed eight cents per ton per mile. The State 
reserved to itself the usual tax, as soon as the road or 
any part thereof shall be iu operation, on the cap- 
ital stock of said road, without the usual proviso in 
regard to the net proceeds amounting to six per centum 
per annum upon its cost of construction. The same 
State officers as were named in the charter of the 
Yincento\\^l road were allowed to ride free on this 

The Mount Holly, Lumberton and Medford 
Railroad Company was incorporated by an act dated 
April 2, ItiiiG. The capital stock was one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars, with liberty to increase 
the same to two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, 
divided into shares of fifty dollars each. The road 
was to run from Mount Holly to the village of Med- 
ford, passing through Lumberton, and not to exceed 
in width one hundred feet. Its construction was 
to commence within five years, and to be completed 
Avithin ten years irom the 4tli day of July next en- 
suing. The charge for trans])ortation was limited 
to not more than four cents per mile for passengers, 
or more than ten cents per ton per mile for any de- 
scription of property. The usual tax on the cost, 
equipment, and appendages of said road was pro- 
vided for, as also the right of the State, after the ex- 
piration of thirty-five years from completion, to take 
possession of the road upon appraisement, etc. 

The Columbus, Einkora and Springfield Hail- 
road Company was incorporated by an act of the 

1 The large amount of the cnpitftl stock for bo short a road was caused 
\<y the depreciation of the legal tcutlcr notes, a natural result of the 

Legislature dated April 2, 18G6. The capital stock 
was fifty thousand dollars, with liberty to increase it 
to one hundred thousand dollars, divided into shares 
of twenty-five dollars each. The road was to be laid 
"on the old bed of the 'Delaware and Atlantic Rail- 
road Company,' in the county of Burlingtois, begin- 
ning at low-water mark in the river Delaware at the 
mouth of Craft's Creek or its vicinity ; thence run- 
ning on the old bed or course of the said Delaware 
and Atlantic Railroad Company to the village of 
Columbus, with the privilege of extending the 
same to the intersection of the public road leading 
from said village of Columbus to Vincentown. The 
road-bed was to be not more than sixty-six feet wide, 
and the construction to be commenced within three 
years and completed in six years from the 4th of July 
next ensuing. The charge for transportation of pas- 
sengers was limited to not more than five cents per 
mile each, and for every species of property to not 
more than eight cents per ton per mile. The usual 
tax was imposed, and riding free of certain State 
officers provided for. 

The Long Branch and Seashore Railroad Com- 
pany was incorporated by an act of the Legislature 
approved March 20, 1863. The capital stock was 
three hundred thousand dollars, with liberty to in- 
crease it to eight hundred thousand dollars, divided 
into shares of one hundred dollars each. The road 
was to run from "a point on Sandy Hook, in the 
county of Monmouth, at or near the Horse-shoe run- 
ning through Long Branch ; thence through or near 
Squan village to a point on Tom's River, at or near 
Tom's River village, in the county of Ocean ; thence 
to Tuckerton, in the county of Burlington. The land 
taken for said road not to exceed one hundred feet 
in width, and its construction to commence within 
three years, and to be completed within seven years 
from the 4th day of July next ensuing. The charge 
for transportation of passengers was limited to not 
more than three cents per mile each, and for all de- 
scription of property not more thau six cents per mile 
per ton. 

By a supplementary act, dated Feb. IG, 1870, said 
road and the "New Jersey Southern Railroad Com- 
pany" were authorized, by and with the consent of 
two-thirds of the stockholders of said companies, to 
consolidate. The said railroads to be united by a 
branch or branches of either road at or ne;ir the 
village of Long Branch. This road ran to Pember- 
ton, and in 1878 the mortgage was foreclosed, and 
Isaac S. Buckelew, Esq., the present superintendent 
of the Amboy Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company, was appointed receiver. He sold it in 
May, 1879, after which it was reorganized as the 
Pemberton and Seashore Road, and leased to the 
United Railroads of New Jersey. The usual tax, 
"when the net proceeds shall amount to seven per 
centum per annum on its cost," was provided Ibr, 
the State reserving the right to take possession of the 



road after thirty-five years upon the payment of the 
appraised value of the same, and certain State officers 
to be allowed to ride free. 

The I^emberton and Hightstown road was leased 
to " the United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Com- 
pany" at an annual rental of six per centum upon the 
capital stock and seven per centum upon the com- 
pany's bonds, payable semi-annually. 

The Columbus, Kinkora and Springfield road was 
leased to the same company at a rental of thirty per 
cent, of the gross receipts. 

The Camden and Burlington County, the Mount 
Holly, Luniberton and Medford, the Vincentown 
Branch of the Burlington County Railroads were all 
leased to the United New Jersey Railroad and 
Canal Company at an annual rental of six per cent. 

The United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Com- 
pany was leased to the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany at an annual rental of ten per centum upon the 
capital stock and interest on its bonds free of all 

All the above enumerated roads are operated by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, as lessees of the 
United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company. 

The Pembcrton and Seashore Railroad is operated 
by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, at an an- 
nual rental of net receipts in excess of operating ex- 

From the thirty-third annual report of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company, for the year 1880, we 
learn that the loss to that company in operating the 
following roads for the year 1879 was as follows : 

Kcw York Division (Trenton and New York) and the Ani- 

lio.v Divieion (('anidun and Aniboj'i $743,749.14 

Pembej ton and lIi^llt^fo\vn 44,15(1.48 

Vincentown lirancli 2,:'.yi».'J0 

Colunilms, Kinkoiuund Si)ringfiel<l ',i,^2i>2j 

IVIonnt Holly, Lnnilieiloii and Mtdford I:!.91>i.-.i3 

Delaware and liarilau Canals '-lKj,ii7.99 

The Penilierton and Seashore Koad was rnn without loss. 
The Camden and Uinilnglon County and the Burlington 
and Mount Holly Boadti were ruu at a profit ut' $1,125.47 

Leaving a net loss of $1,090 ,9;i0.62 

Yet such is the enormous transportation on the 
numerous roads operated by the Pennsylvania Com- 
pany in the West, brought to them by the advantage 
of this terminus on New York Bay, that this loss is 
more than counterbalanced. 



Dr. Daniel Coxe. — Dr. Daniel Coxe, of London, 
the great proprietor of West Jersey, and Governor of 
that province from 1687 to 1690, resided at Burlington, 
where he built a dwelling-house and a pottery, prob- 
ably the first in the State. In 1691 he sold to the 
" West New Jersey Society," of London, with certain 

reservations of surveys in old Salem County, his 
twenty-two whole shares of propriety in West Jersey, 
and two hundred thousand acres contiguous to "West 
Jersey, two shares of propriety in East Jersey, three 
whole shares in Merrimac, New England, ten thou- 
sand acres in Pennsylvania, town lot" at Perth Amboy, 
Gloucester, and Egg Harbor, and his dwelling-house 
and pottery-house, with all the tools, in Burlington.' 

Isaac Collins and the New Jersey Gazette. 
— To counteract in some measure the influence of 
Rivington^ g Gazette, the organ of the British party in 
New York, which was very bitter in its denunciations 
of Governor Livingston, of New Jersey, a paper was 
commenced in December, 1780. printed by Isaac Col- 
lins, sometimes at Trenton and sometimes at Burling- 
ton, called the New Jersey Gazette. This paper was 
continued mostly through the war, and was essentially 
aided by the Governor, who contributed many articles 
which attracted much attention, and were of important 
service to the cause. Some of them were afterwards 
reprinted by Carey in his American Museum. Collins 
was a man of great prominence in the colony. He 
was appointed colonial printer in 1770. 

Elias Boudinot. — Elias Boudinot, of Huguenot 
descent, was born in Philadelphia, May 2, 1740. He 
studied law and became eminent in that profession. 
At an early period of the Revolution he was ap- 
pointed commissary-general of prisoners. He wiis a 
distinguished member of Congress during and after 
the Revolutionary war, and in 1782 was made presi- 
dent of that body. After the adoption of the Con- 
stitution he was elected a member of Congress from 
Pennsylvania, where he continued from 1789 to 1795. 
He then succeeded the celebrated David Rittenhouse 
as director of the United States Mint, which office 
he held but a few years, resigning and removing to 
Burlington. He was possessed of an ample fortune, 
made munificent donations to various charitable and 
theological institutions. He was well known to the 
religious community as the first president of the 
American Bible Society, which he made a particular 
object of his bounty. He published several books, 
and was devoted to natural history. The following 
is the inscription on his monument in St. Mary's 
yard : 

"Here lies the remains of the HonoraMe Elia« Boudinot, LL.D. Born 
on the 2d day of May, a.d. 1740. He died on the 24ih day of Oct., a.d. 
Ih21. His life was an e.\hibitiou of fervent piety, of nselul talMiit, and 
of extensive benevolence. liis death was the tiinniph of Chli^tian 
faith, the cousummatiou of %ope, the daw ti and the pledge of endless 

" ' To those who knew him not, no words can pniut ; 
And those who knew him, know all words are faint.' 

•"Mark the perfect man and behold the upright, for the end of that 
man is peace.' " 

William Bradford.—" Here lies the remains of 
William Bradford, attorney -general of the United 

' First Settlers in Newton Township, N. J. Judge John Clement, of 
HaddoufieM, p. 174. Sinnickson Chew, Camden, ls77. 



States under the Presidency of Washington, and pre- 
viously attorney-general of Pennsylvania and a judge 
of the Supreme Court of the State. In private life he 
had acquired the esteem of all his fellow-citizens. In 
professional attainments he was learned as a lawyer, 
and eloquent as an advocate. In the execution of his 
public offices he was vigilant, dignified, and impartial. 
Yet in the bloom of life, in the maturity of every 
faculty that could invigorate or embellish the human 
mind, in the prosecution of the most important ser- 
vices that a citizen could render to his country, in the | 
perfect enjoyment of the highest honors that public j 
confidence could bestow upon an individual, blessed ! 
in all the pleasures which a virtuous reflection could 
furnish from the past, and animated by all the incite- I 
ments which an honorable ambition could depict in i 
the future, he ceased to be mortal. A fever, produced | 
by a fatal assiduity in performing his official trust at 
a crisis interesting to the nation, suddenly terminated 
his public career, extinguished the splendor of his 
private prosperity, and on the 23d day of August, 
1795, in the fortieth year of his age, consigned him to 
the grave, — lamented, honored, and beloved. His 
widow erected this monument to his memory." 

Charles Lanman, in his " Biographical Annals of 
the Civil Government of the United States," p. 45, 
says William Bradford was born in Philadelphia, 
Sept. 14, 1755; graduated at Princeton with a high 
reputation for talents. He was engaged in the study 
of law at the outbreak of the Revolution, but he en- 
tered the army as major of brigade to Gen. Rober- 
deau ; he next commanded a company of regular 
troops under Col. Hampton ; he was then appointed 
deputy muster-master-general, with the rank of lieu- 
tenant-colonel, which office he held for two years, 
when he recommenced the study of law. In 1793 he 
published an " Inquiry how far the Punishment of 
Death is Necessary in Pennsylvania," and in the 
earlier periods of his life some of his poetical pro- 
ductions were published in the Philadelphia Maga- 

Mr. Bradford married the only daughter and child 
of Elias Boudinot. Alexander Hamilton had been a 
friend of the family of Mr. Boudinot in his boyhood, 
and the colleague of Mr. Bradford in the cabinet. 
The friendship between the widows of these two re- 
markable men continued to the end of their lives. 

William Franklik, Governor of New Jersey at 
the commencement of the Revolution, resided at 
Burlington, occupying during a considerable part of 
his time a house situated on the beautiful banks of the 
river, where he remained until 1774, when he removed 
to Perth Amboy. He was an illegitimate son of Dr. 
Benjamin Franklin, and was born about 1730. Upon 
the marriage of his father he was taken to his family, 
and brought up as if he had been born in wedlock. He 
was carefully educated, and at an early age was ap- 
l)uinted clerk of the House of Assembly of Pennsyl- 
vania. In 1756 he accomjjanied his father to Lon- 

don, became the parent of an illegitimate son, named 
William Temple Franklin, married Miss Elizabeth 
Downes, and was, through the influence of Lord 
Bute, appointed Governor of New Jersey. He re- 
mained loyal to his king during the Revolution ; was 
arrested by order of the Provincial Congress in 177G, 
exchanged in two years and five months, lost his wife, 
was president of the Board of Associated Royalists, 
returned to England in 1782, married an Irish lady, 
and died in 1813, aged about eighty-three. His father 
and his son espoused the cause of independence. He 
quarreled with his father, as did his son with him. 

GovERXOR Joseph Bloomfleld. — Joseph Bloom- 
field, a captain in the Revolutionary army, a brigadier- 
general in the war of 1812-14, and Governor of New 
Jersey from 1801 to 1812, married Miss Mary Mcll- 
vainc, a daughter of Dr. William Mcllvaine, of Bur- 
lington. He settled in that town, and made it his 
home when not absent on public service. He was 
mayor of the city several years, and lived in the 
style of a gentleman of fortune. In 1783 he was ap- 
pointed register of the Court of Admiralty, established 
by the State. In 1793 he was chosen one of the trus- 
tees of Princeton College, holding that office and ex 
officio president of the board as Governor until his 
decease. As general of militia lie led a brigade to 
near Pittsburgh to quell the Whiskej' Insurrection in 
1794. He was an active member and president of 
the '* New Jersey Society for the Abolition of 
Slavery." During the war with Great Britain he 
was with his brigade on tlie border of Canada, but, 
like many other officers of that army, he did not 
gather many military laurels. The war was a series 
of blunders, was poorly waged, and conducted in 
the beginning by old men who in their youth had 
been gallant soldiers. Yet it ended happily in a glo- 
rious victory that gained for us the respect of Europe. 
He was withdrawn, assigned to the command of a 
military district, with his headquarters at Philadel- 
phia. In 1818 he had the misfortune to lose his wife. 
In a few years he married again a lady who survived 
him. He was several times a Presidential Elector; 
was a member of the Congress of the United States 
from 1817 to 1821. He died Oct. 3, 1825, the inscrip- 
tion on his tomb recording simply the truths that he 
was "a soldier of the Revolution; late Governor of 
New Jersey ; a general in the army of the United 
States; he closed a life of probity, benevolence, and 
public service in the seventieth year of his age." 

James Kixsey. — James Kinsey was elected by 
joint meeting chief justice in November, 1789, re- 
elected in 1796, and held the office nearly fourteen 
years. He was the son of John Kinsey, who came 
from England to New Jersey in 1716. He was a 
member of Assembly from Middlesex, and Speaker of 
the House several years. He removed to Philadelphia, 
was a member and for many years Speaker of the 
Assembly of Pennsylvania. He was a Quaker, an 
eminent lawyer, and for the last seven years of his 

J'l ,„,, J 



life chief justice of that State. He died in May, 
1750, at Burlington, of an apoplectic fit. 

James Kinsey, who was a lawyer, married and set- 
tled in Burlington. In 1772 he was elected a member 
of Assembly from the city of Burlington, at that time 
entitled to two representatives. He took a prominent 
part in the business of the Legislature, an(^as the 
leader of the opposition to Governor Franklin. He 
was appointed one of the delegates to the Continental 
Congress at Philadelphia in September, 1774, but in 
November of the following year he resigned. In 
1777 the Legislature passed an act requiring counselors 
or attorneys to renounce allegiance to the king of 
Great Britain, and to " bear true faith and allegiance 
to the government established in this State," which 
oaths he declined to take, and was obliged to relin- 
quish his practice as a lawyer. It is probable his 
being a member of the Society of Friends had some- 
thing to do with his scruples about the oath. Not- 
withstanding this he retained Governor Livingston's 
friendship. Judge Elmer says of him, " He was well 
versed in the doctrines of the law, and of unspotted 
integrity, but he was not a man of high intellect." 
He died at Burlington in 1803, at about the age of 
seventy years. 

William Griffith. — William Griffith, the son of 
Dr. John Griffith, of Somerset County, was a judge of 
one of the Circuit Courts of the United States. He 
was born in 17G6, studied law under Elisha Boudinot, 
a brother of Elias Boudinot. He resided and married 
at Burlington, when he went there the county town, 
and for many years previous the capital of West Jer- 
sey. It remained a favorite residence of lawyers in 
good practice during the first quarter of the present 
century. In 1820 he was a prominent member of the 
House of Assembly, and took an active part in the re- 
vision of the laws of the State, made in that year. 
He was an active promoter of the abolition of. slavery, 
and a member of the society, which received its main 
support from the Friends of Burlington County. He 
acquired a large practice and a deservedly high repu- 
tation as an advocate. He was one of the few lawyers 
of the State who wrote and published for the benefit 
of the profession. In 1796 he published a treatise on 
the jurisdiction and proceedings of justices of the 
peace. It was a valuable book, and passed through 
three or four editions. In 1799 he published a series 
of essays over the signature of "Eumenes," exposing 
the defects of the State Constitution hastily adopted 
in 1776, and urged the election of a convention to re- 
vise it. About 1820 he prepared a work entitled the 
"Annual Register of the United States," which con- 
tained a very reliable account of the officers, laws, and 
regulations of each of the then twenty-four States. 
Four volumes were published. He also commenced 
a work called " Historical Notes of the American 
Colonies and Eevolution, from 1754 to 1775." It was 
never finished, but partly printed, and some copies 
were sold after his decease. In 1826 he was appointed 

clerk of the Supreme Court of the LTiiited States, but 
died at the residence of his son-in-law, Mr. Richard 
S. Coxe, in Washington City, on the 7th of June of 
that year, at the age of sixty years. 

Of Mr. Griffith, Henry Armitt Brown has said, 
" He was a most accomplished lawyer, and stood at 
the head of the bar. He was one of John Adams' 
' midnight judges.' " 

George Wood. — ''George Wood," says Judge 
Elmer, in his "Reminiscences of the Bench and Bar" 
(Collections of New Jersey Historical Society, vol. 
vii.), "was probably the ablest man New Jersey has 
produced. He was born in Burlington County, grad- 
uated at Princeton, studied law with Richard Stock- 
ton, and was admitted to tiie bar in 1812." After a 
few years' practice in New Brunswick he removed to 
New York, where he took rank among the leaders, 
and was equal, if not superior, to the best of them. 
He was engaged in the most important causes, not 
only in New York, but in other States. He died in 

Christopher Billop. — The eldest son of Chief 
Justice Thomas Farmer, of New Jersey, married the 
daughter of Gapt. Christopher Billop, of the British 
navy (who was probably a son of Christopher Billop, 
the commander of the British forces at New Castle, 
Del., during Maj. John Fenwick's time), who had 
succeeded in obtaining a patent for a large tract on 
Staten Island. Young Farmer, upon his wife's in- 
heriting this -estate, adopted her father's name, and 
as Christopher Billop became a very noted character 
during the Revolution. He commanded a corps of 
New York loyalists, and upon one occasion was taken 
prisoner by the Whigs, and confined in jail at Bur- 
lington. Elias Boudinot, then commissary of pris- 
oners, was constrained to treat him with great severity, 
in retaliation for the cruel treatment of two Whig 
officers who had fallen into the hands of the royal 
troops. Irons were put on his hands and feet; he 
was chained to the floor of a close room, and fed on 
bread and water. After the war the Billop estate 
was confiscated, and he went to the province of New 
Brunswick, where he became a prominent man, and 
died in 1827.' 

Garret Dorset Wall was born in the township 
of Middletown, in the county of Monmouth, March 
10, 1783. He was of English descent. The first of 
the family who came from England was Walter Wall, 
who, after living a short time in Massachusetts and 
on Long Island, settled in Monmouth County in the 
year 1657. 

The father of Gen. Wall was James Wall, the 
fourth in descent from W^alter Wall. He was an 
officer of the Monmouth militia during the Revolu- 
tionary war. At the battle of Monmouth he acted 
as one of Gen. Washington's guides, and in that en- 
gagement received the sword of a British officer whom 

. 1 Subiue's .\m?rican Lojalis'e, p. ICO. 



he captured with his own hand. James Wall died 
in 1792, leaving a widow and six children. Garret, 
then ten years of age, was sent to reside with his 
uncle, Dr. John G. Wall, of Woodbridge, Middlesex 
County. Upon the death of his uncle, in 1798, he re- 
moved to Trenton and entered the law-office of Gen. 
Jonathan Rhea, who was then clerk of the Supreme 
Court. He was admitted to the bar as an attorney in 
1804, licensed as counselor in 1807, and called to be 
a sergeant-at-law in 1820. 

Upon his admission to the bar Gen. Wall com- 
menced the practice of law in Trenton, and continued 
to reside there until the year 1828, when he removed 
to Burlington. 

Gen. AVall early took a high rank at the New Jer- 
sey bar, having been for years in the clerk's office of 
the Supreme Court, and a thorough student as well ; 
he became so familiar with the practice of the courts 
and with the sources from which it was derived, that 
upon all matters of practice he was ever considered 
an authority. 

In the year 1812 he was elected clerk of the Supreme 
Court, and held that position until the year 1817. 
During the war of 1812 he commanded the Phoenix 
Company of uniformed militia, which had been formed 
during the Revolution, and in which he for several 
years was an officer ; he was stationed at Sandy Hook 
in the force detailed for the protection of New York. 

In the years 1822 and 1827 he represented Hunter- 
don County in the General Assembly. In politics 
Gen. Wall had originally been a Federalist, but in 
1824, with many other leading members of that party, 
he supported Gen. Jackson for the Presidency, and it 
was mainly through his efforts, that the vote of New 
Jersey was given to Jackson in that year. In the 
year 1829, the Jackson men having control of both 
houses of the Legislature, Gen. Wall was elected by 
joint meeting Governor and chancellor. This honor- 
able position he felt constrained to decline. In his let- 
ter of declination he said, " I have not come to this 
conclusion without weighing the full force of my 
duties as a public man, and yielding to them a delib- 
erate consideration. But my obligations to my family, 
and the necessity of devoting a greater portion of my 
time to my private affiiirs than a diligent and faith- 
ful discharge of the high and honorable office of Gov- 
ernor would admit, demand of me this determination 
and compel me to throw myself upon the favorable 
interpretation of my fellow-citizens of the motives of 
my conduct." 

He accepted the office of district attorney of the 
United States, to which he was appointed by Gen. 
Jackson. Wliile holding this office he conducted 
the well-remembered prosecution against the Barne- 
gat wreckers, and effectually broke up the infamous 
system of land piracy, which had been a great re- 
proach to the inhabitants of the sea-coast of New 

In 1835 the term of Theodore Frelinghuysen in the 

Senate of the United States expired, and Gen. Wall 
was elected by the Democrats as his successor. He 
was an active and influential member of the United 
States Senate, and an ardent supporter of the admin- 
istrations of Jackson and Van Buren. A number of 
the speeches delivered by him during his term have 
been published, and are among the ablest to which 
that period of high excitement and keen controversy 
gave birth, among them his speeches upon the Inde- 
pendent Treasury bill, in 1838, on the Bankrupt bill, 
in 1840, and on the right of Petition and Abolition, 
in 1836. He was for three years chairman of the Ju- 
diciary Committee, for two years of the Library Com- 
mittee, and one year of the Militia Committee. 

Upon the expiration of his term in the Senate, the 
Whig party being in the majority in New Jersey, he 
was succeeded by Jacob W. Metteo, when he returned 
again to the active practice of his profession. 

In 1843 his health was greatly impaired by a stroke 
of paralysis ; yet, as has been said of him, " it was in- 
deed a striking proof of the indomitable energy of his 
character that upon his partial recovery he engaged 
in some important trials, and conducted them with 
almost his wonted skill and ability." 

In 1848 he accepted the position of judge of the 
Court of Errors and Appeals, tendered him by Gov- 
ernor Haines, and held this office at the time of his 
death, in November, 1850. 

Gen. Wall left two children, — Col. James W. Wall, 
of Burlington, and Matilda M., the wife of Governor 
Peter D. Vroom. 

James W. Wall, a son of Garret D. Wall, was born 
at Trenton in 1820. He graduated at Princeton Col- 
lege in 1839 ; studied law, and commenced practice 
in his native city. His first public position was that 
of commissioner of bankruptcy. In 1847 he removed 
to Burlington, and three years afterwards was elected 
mayor of that city. He devoted much attention to 
literary pursuits, and in 1854 visited Europe, and upon 
his return published a volume entitled "Foreign 
Etchings, or Visits to the Old World's Pleasant 
Places." In 1863 he was elected a senator in Con- 
gress for the unexpired term of John W. Thompson, 
deceased, but which seat was for a short time occu- 
pied by Richard S. Field. During the Rebellion he 
was imprisoned for a short time in Fort Lafayette. 
He died June 9, 1872. 

William Rossell, born in 1761, was a lawyer, and 
many years judge of the LTnited States District Court 
for New Jersey. He was also judge of the Supreme 
Court of New Jersey. Died at Mount Holly, June 
20, 1840. 

Ebenezer Tucker, born in Burlington County in 
1758, was a soldier of the Revolutionary war, and 
served at the battle of Long Inland. He filled many 
offices of distinction and trust, among them those of 
collector and postmaster of New Jersey. Was a 
member of Congress from New Jersey from 1825 to 
1829. He was also judge of the Court of Common 



Pleas, justice of the Court of Quarter Sessions, and 
judge of the Orphans' Court. He died at Tuckerton, 
N. J., Sept. 5, 1845. 

Judge Joshua Maddox Wallace, of Burlington, 
son of John Wallace, of Scotland, who emigrated 
to Rhode Island in 1742, was born in Philadelphia in 
1752. He graduated at the College of Philadelphia 
in 17G7, and then entered the counting-house of 
Archibald McCall, of that city. In 1773 he married 
Tace, the daughter of Col. William Bradford, and in 
1784 removed from his estate of Ellerslie, upon the 
Raritan, to Burlington. The same year he was ap- 
pointed by the Council and General Assembly judge 
of the pleas of Burlington County, and it is said of 
him, "He was very highly useful in administering 
justice, maintaining the police, relieving the distresses, 
and improving the morals of the common people." 
He was instrumental in establishing an academy of 
learning, and in bringing good teachers to the place. 
He was a trustee for more than twenty years of Prince- 
ton College, president of the trustees of the Burlington 
Academy, and president of the society in New Jersey 
for the suppression of vice and immorality. With 
his friend and near kinsman, the venerable Elias 
Boudinot, he took an early and active part in the 
formation of the American Bible Society, and was 
president of the convention which formed it. He was 
a member of the convention which, in 1787, ratified, 
in behalf of New Jersey, the Constitution of these 
United States. He represented the county of Bur- 
lington in the Assembly of the State, and died in 
May, 1819. 

Abraham Brown was born at Kecklesstown, Bur- 
lington Co., about the year 1780. He was educated 
at Burgess Allison's classical school at Bordentown. 
He studied law, and upon being admitted to the bar 
as an attorney in 1802 removed to Mount Holly, 
where he resided until his death. Soon after his re- 
moval there he was appointed surrogate of the county, 
which office he held by reappointment for a period 
of seventeen years. He was made counselor during 
the Sepiember term, 1811. He was a profound lawyer 
and a wise counselor, a man of integrity of character, 
and exercised a wide-spread influence in the county. 

Charles Kixsey, a son of Chief Justice Kinsey, 
was born in Burlington. He studied law with Judge 
William Griffith, of that town, and after being ad- 
mitted to the bar, 1804, opened his office there and 
continued to practice until he was appointed surro- 
gate of the county in 1833, which office he held for 
live years. After his term had expired he returned to 
his native town, where he continued the practice of 
his profession until his death. He was a well-read 
lawyer, a conscientious man, and was noted for the 
purity of his life. 

Hon. John C. Ten Eyck was born in Freehold, 
Monmouth Co., N. J., in March, 1814. Receiving 
a private classical education, he entered the office of 
the Hon. Joseph F. Randolph as a studeut of law, 

and was admitted to the bar as an attorney in 1835, 
and as counselor in 1838. He settled at first at Bur- 
lington, going into partnership with the Hon. Garret 
D. Wall, then a senator of the United States from 
New Jersey. In 1839 he was appointed prosecutor 
of the pleas for Burlington County, and held that 
office for ten years. When the convention called to 
revise the Constitution of New Jersey met in 1844 he 
took his seat as a delegate, and although one of the 
youngest members made his influence felt in the de- 
liberations of that body. He was elected to the 
United States Senate for the term commencing in 
1859. In 1873 he was appointed a member of the 
commission to revise the Constitution of the State, of 
which commission he was chosen chairman. When 
appointed prosecutor of the pleas he removed to 
Mount Holly, where he has since resided. 

Garret S. Cannon, son of the Rev. James Spen- 
cer and Catharine (Brevoort) Cannon, was born in 
Somerset County, N. J. His father, a distinguished 
minister, was for years Professor of Theology in the 
Dutch Reformed Theological Seminary of New Bruns- 
wick, and held for a long period the chair of meta- 
physics in Rutgers College. Union College conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He died 
in 1852, having filled the professorship of theology 
in the seminary for thirty years. 

Mr. Cannon, after leaving Rutgers College Gram- 
mar School, entered Rutgers College, from which he 
graduated, after a four years' course, in 1833, Upon 
leaving college he entered the office of B. R. Brown, 
Esq., at Mount Holly, and having completed his study 
of law was, in 1836, licensed as an attorney, and three 
years after as counselor. Locating at Bordentown, he 
has continued the practice of his profession there 
ever since. He was appointed prosecuting attorney 
of Burlington County by Governor Daniel Haines in 
1850, reappointed to the same office by Governor R. 
M. Price, and received a second reappointment at the 
hands of Governor Joel Parker in 1865. President 
Pierce honored him with the appointment of United 
States district attorney for the State in 1853, and 
President Buchanan reappointed him to the same 
office in 1857. In 1845 he was elected by the Demo- 
crats to the Lower House of the State Legislature. 
He is president of the Gas Company of Bordentown, 
and president of the Water-Works Company, and has 
been a director, as well as the attorney of the Borden- 
town Banking Company ever since its organization. 
He is an energetic, public-spirited man, and dis- 
charged the duties of all the offices he held in a 
fearless manner. He married, first, Hannah Kinsev, 
daughter of Charles Kinsey, of Burlington; second, 
Sarah, daughter of William Biddle, Esq., of Borden- 

Hon. John L. N. Stratton, son of Dr. John L. 
Stratton, a distinguished practitioner of Burlin^-ton 
County, was born in 1817, near Mount Holly. His 
early education was mainly obtained at the schools in 



Mount Holly, he afterwards attending college at 
Mendham, Morris Co., and graduating from Princeton 
in 1836. In the same year he entered the office of B. 
R. Brown, Esq., as a student of law, and in 1839 was 
licensed as attorney, and in 1842 as counselor. In 1858 
he was elected to Congress from the Second District 
on the Republican ticket. In 1860 his constituency 
returned him a second time to the National House. 
Upon his retirement from Congress he resumed his 
practice of the law. In 1875 he was chosen president 
of the Farmers' National Bank of Mount Holly. In 
1842 he married Caroline Newbold, a descendant of 
an old and influential family of Burlington County. 

Franklin Woolman, surveyor-general of West 
Jersey, was born in Burlington in 1814, in which city 
he has always resided. He is descended from a family 
which were among the oldest settlers, .the progenitor 
of the family in this country, John Woolman, who 
arrived at Burlington in 1681, locating a tract of land 
extending from Burlington to the Rancocas, & dis- 
tance of five miles, and comprising about eight thou- 
sand acres. Burr Woolman, who held the office of 
surveyor-general of West Jersey for thirty years, was 
the father of Franklin, and upon his death Franklin 
succeeded him to that oflice, which he has held ever 
since. He received a solid education, and studied 
with a view of inheriting his father's business, con- 
veyancing and surveying, into which in due time he 
was admitted. He has made an especial study of 
titles and matters connected with real estate in Bur- 
lington County, and has gained the reputation of being 
most thoroughly informed upon the subject. He is 
vice-president of Burlington Savings Institution, and 
is a director of the Burlington National Bank, and of 
the Burlington Library. He is a man of public 
spirit, and is deeply interested in all movements that 
tend to the advancement of the social and moral con- 
dition of the community. He married, in 1848, Jane, 
daughter of John Conrad, mayor of the old district 
of Northern Liberties, Philadelphia, and sister of 
Judge Conrad, mayor of Philadelphia. 

Hon. George M. Wright, of Bordentown, was 
the son of William L. and Lucy (Minor) Wright, of 
Rhode Island, and of English descent. His father 
was for many years a sea-captain, but the latter por- 
tion of his life was spent on a farm in Otsego County, 
N. Y., which he owned and cultivated, and which is 
now in the possession of George. George received a 
good solid education in Rhode Island and at a select 
school at Hartwick, and at twenty-one years of age 
went to New Y'ork to make his way in the world. 
Being a close observer and giving all his attention to 
whatever he undertook, he was successful in his vari- 
ous enterprises. In 1851 he was the agent for George 
W. Aspinwall's line of steamers, which position he 
held until the death of that gentleman in 1853. In 
1851 he removed to New Brunswick, where he resided 
for three years, when he made Bordentown his perma- 
nent home. He was mavor of Bordentown from 1858 

to 1860. From 1864 to 1867 he was State senator from 
Burlington County. He was for many years connected 
with the Pennsylvania Steam Towing and Transporta- 
tion Company, and for twelve years filled the post of 
inspector and collector for the Delaware and Raritan 
Canal at Bordentown. He is a director of the Bor- 
dentown Banking Company, and of the Steam Tow- 
ing Company. He was elected by joint ballot of the 
Legislature State treasurer in February, 1875, and at 
each succeeding expiration of his term has been re- 
elected to the same position. He is a man of indus- 
trious habits, sterling honesty, and unimpeachable 
character. In 1848 he married Jane M. Bradley, of 
Richmond County, N. Y. 

Hon. John Howard Pugh, son of Elijah and Let- 
tice (Barnard) Pugh, was born in Chester County, Pa., 
in 1827. The founder of the family in this country, 
Daniel Pugh, immigrated from Wales to Pennsylva- 
nia in the early part of the eighteenth century. 
Having received a thorough academic education, he 
was for some three years associated with Professor 
Wickersham as assistant in conducting the academy 
at Marietta. Relinquishing his position in the acad- 
emy he began the study of medicine, and graduated 
from the University of Pennsylvania in 1852. He 
commenced practice at Bristol, Bucks Co., Pa., but 
after traveling a year in the regions of Lake Supei i Dr, 
he settled in the spring of 1854 in Burlington, where 
he has since resided. During the war for the Union 
he was a zealous supporter of the Federal govern- 
ment, laboring with voice and pen to secure its tri- 
umphs, and giving a practical proof of his loyalty by 
attending without compensation at the United States 
General Hospital at Beverly. Dr. Pugh, though 
coming into Burlington an entire stranger, by his 
skill, strong traits of personal character, and prepos- 
sessing manners, soon won for himself a high position 
in his profession and the social circle; and such was 
the confidence of his fellow-citizens in him, that in 
1876 he received the nomination of the Republicans 
of the Second Congressional District for Congress, 
to which he was elected by a handsome majority. 
Having served with credit to himself and satisfaction 
to his constituency, he was unanimously renominated 
for a second term in 1878. At this time the "Green- 
backers" held the balance of power in very many 
districts, and in the Second District, having nomi- 
nated the doctor's opponent, they carried the field. 
He has been for thirteen years president of the Me- 
chanics' National Bank of Burlington. 

Frederick Voorhees, son of Peter and Jane 
(Schenck) Voorhees, was born in Somerset County, 
N. J. Receiving an excellent education, he entered 
Princeton College in 1853, from Avliich he graduated 
in 1856. He studied law with his brother, Peter L. 
Voorhees, at Camden, and in 1859 was licensed an 
attorney-at-law. In the fall of that year he removed 
to Mount Holly, and took charge of the law practice 
of the Hon. John C. Ten Eyck, who had been elected 




United States senator. In 1865 he opened an office 
of his own, and now enjoys an extensive and valuable 

Chakles Elvin Hendrickson, son of Jacob and 
Mary M. Hendrickson, was born in New Egypt, 
Ocean Co., in 1843. Attending the academy of 
George D. Horner, A.M., in his native town, he 
graduated from Princeton College at the age of 
twenty, took charge of an academy at Pemberton, 
and one year after began the study of law in the 
office of the Hon. Abraham Browning, at Camden. 
Fiuishing his legal studies under Garret S. Cannon, 
Esq., of Bordentown, he was admitted to the bar in 
18G6. Soon afterwards he settled at Mount Holly, 
and in 1870 was appointed by Governor Randolph 
prosecutor of pleas, and in 1875 reappointed by Gov- 
ernor Bedle. In 1868 he was elected to the Assem- 
bly, and in 1869 was admitted as counselor-at-law. 
He is a prominent member of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, a Christian alike in practice and profes- 
sion. He was elected a lay delegate to the General 
Conference that met at Baltimore in May, 1876, the 
bishops of which Conference appointed him one of 
the committee of fifteen to revise the hymn-book of 
the church. He is president of the board of trustees 
of Pennington Seminary. 

Judge Clayton A. Black, son of Hon. John 
Black, was born at Columbus, Sept. 27, 1839. Ten 
years afterwards his father removed to a farm on the 
outskirts of the village, which for many years had 
been in the family, and in 1861 gave up the manage- 
ment of it to Clayton, who still resides upon it. In 
1864, Clayton A., with Peter E. Harvey, obtained a 
charter to construct a railroad on what was known 
as the old bed of the Delaware and the Atlantic Rail- 
road (now the Kinkora and Jobstown road), and 
upon its completion in 1872 he was elected one of the 
directors, and upon the death of his father, who was 
president of the road, he was elected vice-president of 
it. The judge is now a director of the Mercer County 
Mutual Fire Insurance Company, of the Mount Holly 
National Bank, and the Bordentown Turnpike Com- 
pany. He has been repeatedly pressed by his friends 
to contest for political honors, but being deeply inter- 
ested in farming was unwilling to accept office until 
Governor McClellan appointed him judge of the court 
of Common Pleas in 1878. He is very popular among 
his host of friends, and as his taste naturally leads him 
to enjoy the " sports of the field," there are a number 
of laws upon the statute books for the protection of 
game that were drawn by him. 

Gen. John Stockton Irick, son of William and 
Margaret (Stockton) Irick, was born on the old home- 
stead in South Hampton township in 1811. His edu- 
cation was completed at the academical institute of 
John Gummerie at Burlington, and at the age of 
twenty had commenced farming on his own account. 
In 1847 he was elected by the Whigs a member of the 
State Assembly, and was re-elected to that position 

for two succeeding years. He never again permitted 
his name to be put in nomination for a public office. 
Turning his attention to btisiness enterprises, he was 
mainly the creator of the Vincentown National Bank, 
of which he was elected president in 1864 ; he was 
one of the chief movers for the building of the Cam- 
den and Burlington County Railroad, and the Vincen- 
town Branch of this line was almost wholly his work. 
The St. Mary's River Timber Company and the 
Vincentown Marl Company were likewise mainly 
created by his effi)rt. He is a director of the Morris 
Canal Company. During the late war he served on 
the staff of Governor Olden, being master of military 
transportation. He married, in 1832, Emeline S. 
Bishop, of Burlington County. 

Hon. Samuel A. Dobbins, son of Samuel and 
Elizabeth (Scroggy) Dobbins, was born in South 
Hampton township in 1814. He received a good 
education, and in 1836 married Damaris Harker, and 
commenced farming. In 1854 he was elected by the 
Whigs sheriff of Burlington County, and annually 
thereafter until the usual three years had elapsed. 
In 1858 he was elected by the Republicans to the 
Assembly, and re-elected three times successively. In 
1872 he was elected to represent the Second District 
in Congress, and was re-elected in 1874. For nearly 
twenty years he has been a trustee of the Pennington 
Seminary, and for ten years president of the board. 
He was one of the corporators, and since its organi- 
zation a member of the board of directors of the 
Union National Bank, of Mount Holly. 

Hon. Henry J. Irick, son of Gen. J. S. Irick, was 
born in 1833. He was educated at the Treemount 
Seminary, Morristown, and at the Freehold Institute. 
After leaving the institute he engaged in agricultural 
pursuits until 1863, having married in 1862, Harriet 
R. Clement, of Camden. In 1862, 1863, and 1864 he 
was elected to the Assembly, and in 1870, 1871, and 
1872 he was elected State senator. He is director, 
secretary, and treasurer of the Vincentown Railroad 
Company, and secretary and treasurer of the Vincen- 
town Marl Company. 

EwAN Merritt, son of Charles and Keziah ISIer- 
ritt, was born in Springfield township, Burlington 
County, March 24, 1823. His education was obtained 
by hard study and indefatigable exertions, and chiefly 
at academies in Burlington County, though for two 
years he attended Madison University, Hamilton, N. 
Y., but did not complete the course and graduate. 
His future career proved this education to have been 
solid and lasting. Afterward the College of New 
Jersey conferred upon him the honorary^ degree of 
Master of Arts. 

He studied law with Hon. Joshua S. Thompson, at 
Swedesboro', and subsequently with Hon. John L. 
N. Stratton,at Mount Holly, and was admitted to the 
bar as an attorney in October, 1850, and as a coun- 
selor in June, 1854. 

In June, 1853, he married Catharine C, daughter 



of John Kempton, by whom he had three children, 
all now deceased. His widow still survives him. 

Mr. Merritt was a fine-looking man of large phy- 
sique, and inclined to corpulency ; he was possessed 
of great bodily strength, without which he could not 
60 signally have triumphed at the bar. With his 
physical strength was united great mental power, or, 
as another has said of him, extraordinary mental en- 
dowments, and he had not long been engaged in the 
practice of his profession before his ability was recog- 
nized by all. He had remarkable powers of memory, 
was a man of good judgment and of undoubted in- 
tegrity in all business relations, a jurist of great legal 
attainments, an able advocate, a genial friend. 

Somewhat early in life Mr. Merritt became afflicted 
with gout, the attacks of which grew more frequent 
and violent as the years passed, until he finally suc- 
cumbed to its ravages, and departed this life Oct. 6, 
1874, at the age of fifty-one years, lamented by the 
■whole community. 

At a meeting of the bench and bar of the county, 
held shortly after his decease, for the purpose of 
giving expression to the loss they had sustained, 
Judge Carr made the following remarks : " I knew 
Ewan Merritt intimately almost from the time he en- 
tered the office of Mr. Stratton as a law student until 
his death, and in all my intercourse with him I found 
him a strictly honorable and upright man. He was 
in every sense of the word a good and useful citizen. 
Especially was he conspicuous for usefulness in local 
affairs. Whenever matters were at issue touching the 
public weal he was always prompt and energetic in 
defense of what he conceived to be for the true in- 
terest of the people, giving bold expression to those 
views which the occasion seemed to demand without 
regard to his own personal popularity or private ad- 
vantage. In this respect particularly will his loss 
be severely felt by his fellow-citizens. He was also 
courageous in exposing individual selfishness when 
arrayed in opposition to the general welfare, and in 
rebuking injustice to the weak and unprotected, the 
widow and the orphan. 

" At such times he would use no mild and delicate 
language in denouncing the offender. I haveseen men 
shrink away from him abashed under the effect of his 
withering invective. Mr. Merritt was not only a truly 
upright and conscientious man, but he was in every 
sense of the term an honest lawyer. His counsel 
could always be relied on, and he ever avoided in- 
volving his clients in needless and endless litigation." 
The speaker then related an incident coming under 
his own notice in Mr. Merritt's office, to illustrate his 
frank and honest dealing as a lawyer and the integ- 
rity of the man. " In his practice before this court, I 
speak not only for myself, but, I think, for my asso- 
ciates on the bench, in saying that when a question of 
law was raised and Mr. Merritt presented his views 
the court were as much influenced to decide in his 
favor by their knowledge of his character as by the 

characteristic ability with which his ideas were en- 
forced. They believed that he would not, for the sake 
of success, misinterpret the law or misstate the facts. 
He was one of the most faithful men to his clients 
that I ever knew. Even pain and- sickness of the 
most serious character would not prevent him from 
following up his case and sitting upon the bench. I 
have frequently seen him, racked with bodily torture, 
working with all his zeal and energy to secure justice 
to those who had engaged him to defend their cause. 

" His character as a man was beyond reproach. He 
was devoted to duty. He was a generous, warm- 
hearted friend. All who knew him honored and 
respected him. When I look at that familiar chair 
and see that he is no longer in his accustomed place, 
I know that the community and this court have met 
with a great loss ; that one has been taken away who 
will always be missed ; that a strong mind has gone, 
a noble man fallen. When I looked upon him clothed 
in the habiliments of the tomb, I was forcibly struck 
with the firmness of his countenance in death, indica- 
tive of his strength of character in life. As I saw his 
remains deposited in their last resting-place, in the 
beautiful St. Andrew's ground, I wondered could this 
be the last of such a man, and looking up to the 
bright blue sky, ' immortality was brought to light,' 
and I knew that though this was ' the last of earth,' 
his great soul still lives, lives where good deeds and 
pure lives are rewarded forever. We cannot all of us 
make the mark that Ewan Merritt has made, we can- 
not leave behind us the record that he has left, but 
we have his life and example before us, and if we do 
our duty fully, faithfully, as I feel that he has done, 
we may hope, when our last hour comes and we are 
called to follow him, that our lives have not been 
spent in vain and that the world may say it is well 
that we have lived." 

A motion was subsequently made to spread upon 
the minutes of the Circuit Court the resolutions 
adopted at the meeting referred to, and Judge Wood- 
hull, in granting the motion, said he wished to be 
understood as doing so not as a mere matter of form. 
Mr. Merritt was a gentleman of great ability and in- 
tegrity ; in short, he was no common man. He never 
took pride in misleading the court, but was always 
careful to express to them any doubt he might him- 
self entertain with regard to a legal principle, though 
he thereby detracted from the strength of his own 
case. This was one of his most striking character- 
istics. His death was a great loss to the bar and to 
the court; and his own intercourse with the deceased 
having been of a very pleasant character he felt that 
his death involved a personal bereavement. 

Hox. Mahlon Hutchinson was born in the city 
of Philadelphia, on the 10th day of May, 1823. His 
father was Randel Hutchinson, Jr., and his mother 
Miss Mary Keeler, both natives of Pennsylvania. On 
the paternal side he is of Welsh origin, and on the 
maternal of German descent. 





Mablon Hutchinson received a thorough academic 
education at the select classical school of Rev. Dr. 
Hamill, at Lawrenceville, N. J., and having been 
fitted for college at that institution entered the sopho- 
more class of the College of New Jersey, at Prince- 
ton, in 1840. In 1841, having determined to adopt 
the law as a profession, he entered the office of Hon. 
Henry W. Green, since chancellor of the State, as a 
student, and remained with him until he had com- 
pleted the prescribed course of reading. He was 
licensed as an attorney-at-law and solicitor in chan- 
cery in 1845, and as a counselor-at-law in 1854. After 
his admission to the bar Mr. Hutchinson located in 
the practice of his professioji at Bordentown, where 
he is still actively engaged in the performance of the 
duties of an extensive and valuable practice. As a 
lawyer he is painstaking and careful in the investiga- 
tion and treatment of his causes, faithful t6 the inter- 
ests of his clients, and noted for his exactitude and 
attention to details. Order, method, and system seem 
to be the prevailing characteristics of his mind, and 
in handling a large number of estates in the capacity 
of executor, administrator, or guardian he has mani- 
fested singular care and exactness, and proven him- 
self a safe and reliable financial manager. 

Mr. Hutchinson was formerly a member of the Old- 
Line Whig party, and has latterly acted with its lineal 
successor, the Republican party. While taking a deep 
interest in national, State, and local politics, he has 
never been an aspirant after political position, and 
has accepted but few of the emoluments of public 
office. In 1853 he was elected on the Whig ticket a 
member of the Lower House of the State Legislature, 
representing the First District of Burlington County, 
that being the first year the district system was adopted 
iu that county. He performed the part of a faithful 
and earnest coadjutor in the important work of leg- 
islation for two years, serving efficiently on such com- 
mittees as the Judiciary, the Educational, and on the 
Insane Asylum, and in 1855 declined a renomiuation 
and retired to private life. In 1860 he was appointed 
by Governor Olden prosecutor of the pleas for Bur- 
lington County, and filled that office in a capable 
manner for five years. 

Mr. Hutchinson has always taken a deep interest in 
local affairs, and been a cheerful and liberal con- 
tributor to the various worthy objects of his day. He 
has served as a member of the public school board 
for a number of years, and as president of the board 
of trustees of the Bordentown Female College for a 
long time. He has been a member of the board of 
directors of the Bordentown Banking Company for 
nearly a quarter of a century, and is also a director 
of the First National Bank of Trenton, and of the 
West Jersey and Atlantic Railway Company. He 
has been interested in railroad construction in New 
Jersey for the past twenty-five years, and was one of the 
most active promoters of the Pemberton and Hights- 
towu line. In church affiliations he is of the Presby- 

terian persuasion, and elder in the First Presbyterian 
Church of Bordentown, and a modest and unostenta- 
tious supporter of various evangelical and Christian 
institutions. He was married on Feb. 23, 1818, to 
Miss Amy N., daughter of Caleb Shreeve, of Burling- 
ton County, and has one son, John P. Hutchinson, a 
member of the bar, residing at Georgetown, N. J., 
where he is also in agricultural pursuits. 


William Trent, Nov. 23,1723. 
Cliaiies ReaJ, Feb. 20, 1764. 

Eichnrd Stockton (decliued), Aug. 

James Kinsey, Nov. 20, 1789. 


Danie! Coxe, Nov. 5,1700. Francis Hupkinson (declined), 
Daniel Coxe, Aug. 1, 1734. Sept. 4, 1770. 

Cliarles Read, JIarcIi 28, 1749. William Roesell, Nov. 1, 1804. 
Richard Stockton, Feb. 28, 1774. 

Alexander Griffith, 1714. Joseph Bloomfield, June 13, 1783. 


Bnwes Read, Sept. 0, 177G. 
Garret D. Wall, Nov. 5, 1812. 

Zachariah Rossel, Nov. 0, 1817, 


Among the judges of this court from 1776 to the 
present time we find the names of the following : 

Joseph Borden, appointed Sept. 11, 177C; reaT>pointed Sept. 28, 1781. 

Peter Talloinn, appointed Oct. 31, 1778; reappointed Ang. 31, 1789. 

Isaac Cow gill, appointed Oct. 31,1787; reappointed Oct. 29, 1702, and 
Oct. 3, 1797. 

Tlionias Fennimore, appointed Nov. 27. 1769; reappointed 1801. 

Daniel Newbuld. appointed March 3, 1797. 

Newlierry dinting, appointed Nov. 12, 1801. 

Caleb Shreve, appointed Nov. 23, 1801. 

Thomas Adams, appointed Nov. 23, 1801; reappointed Nov. 25, 1803, 
Nov. 2, 1811, Oct 28, 181C, Oct. 25, 1821, etc. 

David Wright, appointed Nov. 3, 1803. 

Isaac Carli-sle, a; pointed Nov. 3, 1803; reappointed Nor. 25, 180C. 

Thomas Fennimore, Jr., appointed Nov. 3, 1803; reappointed Nov. 22, 
1808, Nov. 3, 1813. 

Daniel Ivins, appointed Nov. 4, 1803 ; reappointed Nov. 22, 1808, Feb. 
19, 1S13. 

William Wood, appoiated Nov. 22, 1808; reappointed Feb. 19, 1813, 
Oct. 13, 1S18. 

William Gaskill, appointed Feb. 19, 1813. 

Alexander Shreve, appointed Feb. 19, 1813. 

Anthony F. Taylor, appointed Nov. 3, 1803. Warren, appointed Nov. 3,1813; reappointed Oct. 28, 1825. 

Phineas S. Bunting, appointed Jan. 24,1833; reappointed Nov. 9, 
. Gershom Mott, appointed Oct. 31, 1833. 

Samuel S. Bunting, appointed Feb. 28, 1838. 

Isaac Hilliard, appointed Jan. 25, 1839. 

John W. Fennimore, appointed Oct, 27, 1843; reappointed Feb. 19, 
1857, March 5, 1802. 

Samuel Black, nppointe<l April 1, 1843. 

Oliver U. P. Emley, appointed March 2, 1847. 

Thomas Milner, appointed Feb. 28, 1849. 

Edward Taylor, appointed March C, 1850. 

David Steward, appointed Feb. 4, 1853. 

Thomas Bennett, appointed March 11, 18G3. 

George Black, appointed March 11, 1868. 

Clayton Lippincott, appointed March 25, 1869. 

Joseph L. Morton, appointed Feb. 20, 1872. 

Joseph Carr, Jr., appointed Feb. 13, 1873. 

William Parrj', appointed Feb. 25, 1874. 

Clayton A. Black, appointed March 21, 1878. 

William Parry, appointed Feb. C, 1879. 


Ja?pph Bloomfii'ld, November Terin, 1702. 
Joseph Mdlvaine, Noreiiiber Term, 181J8. 
Garret D. WhII, November Term, liJiO. 
George Wood, May Term, 1828. 

James Kioscy, May Term, 1704. 
James Kinsey. Blay Term, 11'M. 
Garret D. Wall, Septeinl>er Term, 1807. 
Abraham Brown, September Term, ISll. 
George Wood, November Term, 1815. 
John C. Ten Eyx-k, May Teria, 1838. 
Garret S. Caiiuoii, September Terni, 1S30. 
John L. N. Stratton, November Term, 1844. 
Charles P. Stratton, November Term, 1854. 
Malilon Hutchiiisoii, February Term, 1854. 
Frederick Voorliees, June Term, T862. 
Henry Muffct, November Teim, 18G7. 
Charles E. Ueudrickson, November Term, 18G9. 
James N. Stratton, June Term, 1871. 
Cliarles Ewan Merrttt, November Term, 1874. 
Alfred Flanders, Febniary Term, 1875. 
Walter A. Barrows, February Term, 1877. 
Joseph H. Ga^kill, February Term, 1877. 
Martin L. Haines, November Term, 1877. 
Franklin B. Levis, February Term, 18S1. 
John C. Ten Eyck, Jiuie Term, 1881. 


Abraham Brnwii, 5Iay Term, 1S02. 
Garret D. Wall, May Term, 1S04. 
Charles Kinsey, NoTember Term, 18W. 
George Wood, Noveukber Ternk, 1812. 
Bowes Reed Brown, November Term, 1827. 
William N. Wood, Novemlier Terra, 1828. 
Edward Wood, Novembej- Tei m, 182^. 
John K. Slack, September Term, 18:50. 
Jolin C. Ten Eyck, May Term, 18X5. 
Craig Moffett, May Ttrn, 1830. 
Garret S. Cannon, September Term, 183C. 
John L. N. Stratton, September Term, 1839. 
Philip r. Slack, May Term, 1811. 
James W. Wall, September Term, 1811. 
MabloD Hutchinson, Jr., May Term, 1845^ 
Edgar N. Back. January Teroi, 1847. 
Charles Ewan Merritt, October Term, 1850. 
Fninklin B. Levis, June Tern>, 185&. 
Alden C. Scovel, November Tenn, 1856. 
Philip S. Scovel, February Term, 1857. 
Frederick Voorijees, June Term, 1859. 
W. Biidd Deacon, June Term, 1859, 
Caleb D. Shreve, November Term, 1861. 
Walter S. Oliphant, June Term, 18C2. 
Anthony Woodward, June Term, 1862. 
Benjamin D. Sbreve, Noveiuber Term, 1862. 
Henry Moffet, November Term, 1804. 
Charles K Hendrickaon, November Term, ItCS. 
Edward D. Deacon, February Term, 1807. 
George T. Werts, November Term, 18C7. 
James Newbold Stratton, June Term, 18GS. 
Michael T. Newbold, June Term, 1868. 
John P. Hutchinson, June Term, 1872. 
J. Turner Blakeley, June Term, 1874. 
.John P. Lockwood, November Term, 1875. 
Mark K. Sooy, febrnary Term, 1877. 
Allen H. Gangewer, February Term, 1879. 
William P. McMichael, Jr., June Term, 187». 
Jerome B.Grigg, June Tern\, 18S0. 
James P. Logan, June Term, 1880. 
Charles C. Black, June Term, 1881. 
Howard F'landers, June Term, 1881. 
Kisdon B. Hankiuson, June Term, 1881. 
Howard C. Levis, June Term, 1881. 
Benjamin F. U. Slireve, June Term, 1881. 
Jacob C. Hendrickson, November Term, 1881. 
Robert S. Oaskill, February Term, 1882. 
Samuel W. Beldcn, June Term, 1882. 



The Quakers, who were the early, settlers of West 
Jersey, brought in their company physicians of edu- 
cation, who came with their associates to settle the 
new lands and improve their fortunes. To the latter 
purpose they gave themselves assiduously. At this 
period there were many doctors who took part in 
public affairs and in land speculations. As with the 
clergy, who supplemented their revenues by practicing 
medicine, so the doctors gave attention, as opportu- 
nities offered, to merchandise, farming, and other 
remunerative pursuits. 

In the most sparsely settled regions the sick were 
largely cared for by women. Kalm, in his travels, 
published in 1748, says, " An old Swede remembered 
that his mother cured many people of dropsy by a 
decoction of the root of sas.safras in water, but she 
used at the same time to cup the patient on the feet." 
Even as late as 1796, Winterbottom, in his " History of 
America," says, "It is remarkable that in Cape May 
County no regular physician has ever found support. 
Medicine has been administered by women, except 
in extraordinary cases." Smith, in his " History of 
New Jersey," p. 326, says, " Few physicians among 
us are eminent for their skill. Quacks abound like the 
locusts in Egypt, and too many have recommended 
themselves to a full practice and profitable subsist- 
ence. This is the less to be wondered at, as the pro- 
fession is under no kind of regulation. Any man at 
his pleasure sets up for physician, apothecary, or 

The early occupants of the provinces,^ when corre- 
sponding with their friends in " Old England," uni- 
formly expressed their delight with the climate of 
the country and its salubrity. Notwithstanding their 
confidence in the healthfulness of their new home, 
they were not unmindful that sickness and plague 
might visit them in judgment. Towards the close 
of the year 1680 the people were greatly alarmed by 
the appearance of a " Dreadfull Comett Starr, which 
was visible in broad daylight, with a very fiery Tail 
or Streamer." It was accepted universally as an 
omen of " Dreadftill Punishments." 

Kalm, in his travels, published in 1748, says of Rac- 
coon (a settlement of Swedes in Gloucester County), 
that the disease called by the English, fever and ague, 
was more common than any other. It prevailed the 
last of August and continued till spring. It raged 
over a great part of the country during some years, 
and in others "scarcely a single person was taken 
ill." Its cause was deemed by the physicians to be 
obscure. By some it was charged to " the peculiar 

1 This and the following article are extracted mostly from "History 
of Medicine in New Jersey, and of its Medical Men, from the Settlement 
of the Province to a. D. 1800." By Stephen Wickes, A.M., M.D., New- 
ark, N. J. Martin R. Deuuis & Co., 1879. 


qualities of the air." Others, and the most of them, 
asserted that it was generated by putrid and standing 
water, as they observed that those residing "near 
morasses and swamps, or where stagnant and stink- 
ing water is met with," were affected every year. It 
was most prevalent when the heat of the sun caused *, 
evaporation and filled "the air with noxious vapors." j 
Diet was also charged with causing the disease, in 
the use of fruits, melons, etc.; teas, rum, and other 
ardent spirits, an J "largely the loss of odoriferous 
plants, with which the woods were filled at the arrival 
of the Europeans, but which the cattle have extir- 
pated. These occasioned a pleasant scent to rise in 
the woods every morning and evening. It is not un- 
reasonable to think that this corrected the noxious 
effluvia from putrefying substances." "Brimstone 
and vinegar every night upon going to bed and in 
the morning before getting up, and three or four 
times in the interval, drinking some warm liquid to 
wash it down," was a remedy much in use. 

The foregoing observations are recorded by Peter 
Kalm, a professor in the University of Arbo, in 
Swedish Finland, who was sent by his government 
to this and other countries to make scientific and 
general observations in 1747-49. He further records 
that pleurisy in Raccoon " is a disease which the 
people are subject to." In 1728 it swept away many 
at Penn's Neck. Almost all the Swedes there died 
of it, though they were not numerous. "It rested, 
as it were," till 1748, and then " made dreadful havoc, 
and every week six or ten of the old people died." 
It was so violent that those attacked seldom lived 
more than two or three days; very few recovered. 
The physicians did not know " what to make of it," 
nor how to treat it. As to its cause, an old English 
surgeon, who lived then in Raccoon, gave the follow- 
ing reason : "The inhabitants drink great quantities 
of punch and other strong liquors in summer when it 
is very hot ; by that means the veins in the diaphragm 
contract and the blood grows thick. . . . When the 
people during the changeable weather are in the open 
air they commonly get the disease." 

One of the earliest pestilential diseases in America 
of which we have any record was the smallpox, which 
wasted the Indians just before the landing of the Pil- 
grims at Plymouth. Some years after, in 1633, it was 
again fatal among the Indians. Upon the permanent 
settlement of West Jersey, in 1677, endeavors were 
made to excite the hostility of the natives against the 
English by insinuations that the latter sold them the 
smallpox in their match-coats. The distemper was 
among them, and in a company who came together to 
consult about it and its origin one of their chiefs said, — 

"In my grandfather's time the smallpox came, 
and now in my time the smallpox has come." Then 
stretching forth his hands towards the skies, said, 
" It came from thence." To this the rest assented ' 

1 Smith's IliEtory of New Jersey. 

The Europeans were, nevertheless, the instrumental 
cause of the spread of smallpox and the venereal dis- 
eases among the native inhabitants of America.^ 

The winter of 1641 was very severe, and was fol- 
lowed by a very sickjy summer. The mortality on 
the Delaware River among the settlers in West Jer- 
sey, who had recently emigrated from the New Haven 
colony, was so great that it broke up the settlement.' 
A catarrh appeared in 1647 over the whole country, 
and in 1767 diseases among horses in New England 
and New Jersey.* 

In 1735, in the month of May, during a wet, cold 
season, began ' in New Hampshire a disease among 
children called the "throat distemper," of a most 
malignant kind, and by far the most fatal at that 
period known in this country. It became epidemic. 
Of the first forty cases none recovered. The disease 
was infectious, but its spread was independent of that 
element. It extended its ravages through Connec- 
ticut, and reached New York and New Jersey. In 
Zenger's Weekly, New York, Feb. 9, 1735-36, is the 
following notice: ^^ Throat Distemper. — We are in- 
formed that at Crosswicks [all the country for many 
miles around at that time was called by that name], 
in West Jersey, divers persons have died lately with 
a distemper in the throat, and that that Distemper 
prevails there. We are therefore desired to publish 
the following remedy," etc. 

In 1798 the yellow fever, which had appeared in 
Philadelpliia and New York in 1699, 1741, and 1762, 
again visited those cities and other places in mortal 
form and in extensive ravages, which continued dur- 
ing a succession of years. It prevailed to some ex- 
tent on the shores of the Delaware in New Jersey, 
where it seemed to find its origin.* Dr. Lummis, of 
Woodbury, N. J., in a letter to a physician of Phila- 
delphia, Dec. 4, 1798, thus writes : 

"... I visited several persons affected with tlie bilious yellow fever 
who had no possible opportunity of deriving their disease fioni any 
foreign source. ... I have no hesitatiun in believing their disease to 
liave been the offspring of local causes. The majority of those cases 
have occurred in families living on farms situated on the Jersey shore of 
the Delaware. 


" The peculiar di'^position of these exhalations to produce disease and 
death was around early in the season, by the mortality which prevailed 
among the fowls and cats in this neighborhood. I am not alone in hav- 
ing seen cases of yellow fever which cannot be traced to contagion, simi- 
lar facts having been witnessed this season by other physicians in various 
parts of New Jersey." ' 

Medical writers in New Jersey began their literary 
efforts in the modest form of communications to the 
journals of their day and by pamphlets containing 
their observations upon particular forms of diseases. 
The Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, a practitioner of the 

3 Webster. 


* Bush's Inquiries. 

* Webster on Pestilence. * Rush. 

' Account of the Malignant Fever lately prevalent in the City of New 
York, by James Hardie, A.M. New York, 1709. 



healing art in Elizabethtown, N. J.,' was the first to 
notice in printed form the character of the "Throat 
Distemper." This notice is found in Zoiger's Weekly 
Journal, New York, Feb. 16, 1735-36. He wrote his 
observations on the same disease in a letter to a 
" Friend in Boston" in 1738-39. It was published in 
pamplilet in 1740. Dr. Wickes in his valuable book 
says, " No reader of the paper will doubt that the dis- 
ease which he describes was the diphtheria of our own 

Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, who resided near Trenton 
in 1740, wrote an essay on the "Iliac Passion," and 
in 1745 on the West India " Dry Gripes." 

Princeton College, founded in 1746, graduated num- 
bers of American youth who became distinguished as 
statesmen and learned in law, theology, and a limited 
few in medicine. A positive advance in medicine in 
New Jersey may be dated from the French and In- 
dian war, 1758-66. The colonial physicians, who were 
commissioned as surgeons and surgeon's mates, being 
brought into association with the British officers, were 
led to know their inferiority, and were stimulated to 
improve tlieir opportunities of practice and of inter- 
course with their more cultivated compeers. 

The stimulus to medical progress incident to the 
conquest of Canada was speedily followed in New 
Jersey by a measure still more potent in its influence, 
the organization in 1766 of a medical society for the 
province. This was the first society of the kind in 
the colonies (though not the first association of Ameri- 
can physicians for mutual improvement), and the 
basis upon which it was founded is honorable to the 
scientific aims and high-toned ethical sentiments of 
its founders. 

District Medical Society.— Joseph Parrish,M.D., 
of Philadelphia, in his " Historical Address," deliv- 
ered at the "Semi-Centennial Anniversary of the 
District Medical Society for the County of Burling- 
ton, June 17, 1879," which, with the " Address of 
Welcome," delivered by Dr. R. H. Page, of Colum- 
bus, was subsequently published in pamphlet with a 
handsome engraving of the venerable Charles Ellis, 
M.D., states, — 

"Tlio law regulating the practice of ' physic and surgery' in New 
3o\sty nt the conimeucement of this century required that a license 
should be olit:iiiied from the State Meilicul Society, whether the Rpjili- 
cants had diplomas from medical schools or not, and imposed a penalty 
of twenty-five dollais for every prescription given hy a non-licentiate; 
Hnd unless such license was properly recorded, either in the office of the 
county cleik or of the chief justice of the State, no fees could bo le- 
gally demanded for professional services. 

"The year previous to the organization of the society (1828) an in- 
cident occurred which demonstrated the eRiciency of this law, and led 
to the union of the few physicians then in the county for their own 
protection. The scene was laid in the little town of Columhus, at that 
time known as Black Horse. The parties immediately concerned were 
Dr. Asahel Page and Prince Murat, a relative ' (nephew) "of Joseph 
Bonaparte, then residing as ex-king of Spain at his beautiful seat in 

1 A leading member of the Synod of New York, he "gave being and 
shape to the deliberations that resulted in the creation of the College of 
Kew Jersey" (Princeton). He was chosen its first president; died Oct. 
7, 1747. 

Bordentown. The prince and the doctor were both fond of horses, and 
each kept several trained for the course. They were to have a race 
through the street of Columbus, which had been well advertised. Tlie 
prize was to be one of the racers The prince and the doctor appeared 
in due time, and the race was accomplijhed in the presence of a goodly 
crowd. The prince came off the winner, and demanded his prize. The 
doctor said there had been fo\il jilay and refused to suriendcr his steed. 
The prince was angry, and declared in a menacing manner that he 
would not pay the doctor's bill for prof<-ssional services. Suit was 
brought by the doctor to lecovcr the amount of his bill. The Hon. Gar- 
rett D. Wall, late of tliis city, was one of the counselors. The rase was 
tried, and the doctor non-suited, the evidf-nce in the trial showing th.-it, 
though he had passed an examination and had received a license, he had 
neglected to comply with the provision of the law which required the 
filing of his certificate in the office of the Chief Justice of the State. 
Hence the loss of his case. 

*' The story of this race and trial created considerable excitement, and 
the discovery was made that there were but few anlhorized medical 
licentiates in the county. I>rs Nathan W. Cole, of this city, and John 
L. Stratton, of Blount Holly, were two of the number. There were, how- 
ever, three younger men, fresh from the halls of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, with their diplomas, who took advantage of the occasion and 
proceeded immediately to Freehold for the puriKise of an examination 
before the censors which, having passed, certificates were furnished and 
legally registered; so there was added to the list <jf regular licentiates 
the names of Charles Ellis, of Uurlington, Benjamin H. Stratton, of 
Mount Holly, and John C. Davis, of Pemberton. These, «ilh their 
seniors already named, coustiluted the legal number for a distiict medi- 
cal society, and on the .30th of April, 1?29, they met at the house of Grif- 
fith Owen, in Mount Holly, to consider the situation. 

"At this meeting tliey agreed to ask the State Society for authority 
to organize according to the provisions of the law. On the 12tli of the 
following month authority was formally granted, and in one week after, 
being the 13th of May, these five gentlemen again met and took the 
preliminary stefis that were uecessaiy to effect their organization. They 
agreed up m their cflicers, and ajiiioinled Drs. B. H. Stratton, Kills, and 
Davis to 'draft rules and regulations for their government,' and to 
report on the third Tuesday of June, just fifty years ago this day. 

" At that time they met at the house of Stacy B. Campion, in Mount 
Holly, adopted their cojistitution, appended their signatures, and each 
paid two dollars into the treasury ; the officers being Dr. Cole, president ; 
Dr. Ellis, secretary; and Dr. John L, Stiattnn, treasurer; the latter 
being authorized to procure suitable books for the society. 

"The business done at the meetings during the first ten years, as far 
as the minulesshow, was chiefly to perfect the organization and increase 
the number of members. The society w.-is never without funds to jiay 
the expenses of delegates to the State Medical Society, who were ap- 
pointed every year, and «ho never failed to go ami report. There was 
also money enough to pay for diiuiei and horsefued on the days of meet- 
ings. Sometimes the bills did not exceed the sum of two or three dol- 
lars, and at the November meeting, 18:i2, in a jiaroxysm of generosity, 
it was resolved that at ejich stated meeting 'the tavern-keeper shall be 
ensured a minimum consideration of five dollars, and that this amount 
the funds of the Boc;ety shall be responsible.' 

"All thi-ough the first decade it is evident that in whatever other 
respect the memlierg may have differed, they were a positive unit in one 
thing, — they meant to secure the co-o])eration of each other in counter- 
acting if not in suppressing charlatanism. An article of the constitu- 
tion, the urgent call upon brother practitioners, and the publication of 
the law on the subject furnish abundant evidence of this. 

"Quackery, as understood by this society, means all boastful preten- 
sions to knowledge or skill that is not possessed, all undignified means 
of attracting public attention or securing biisiuess; in fact, every de- 
parture from the line of professional probity." 

In matters that concern the public weal, such as 
temperate living, sanitary reform, the care of the poor 
and the insane, the society has always taken an active 

As early as 1831, Dr. William S. Coxe, of Burling- 
ton, introduced the following resolution : 

" Iie$ohcd, That we are convinced that the use of distilled liquors as 
a drink is always unnecessary to persons in good health, and injurious 
generally in proportion to the amount consumed ; that they Increase the 
liability to disease, and render them less amenable to medical treatment ; 



that they are much less frequently indispcDBablein the practice of med- 
icine thftii has heretofore been supposed ; and when the necessity occurs, 
it lias, in a majority of cases, originated in a pre-existing habit of using 

" Heiohed, That we deem it our duty to discountenance, by precept 
nnd exiiniple, the consumption of ardent ppirits by men in health, and 
to abstiiin from their exliil'iiion as medicine when less dangerons stim- 
uhihts can be conveuiently substituted and may be expected to prove 
equally efficacious." 

This resolution was considered so important, in- 
volving such a wide scope of domestic and social 
habits as well as of professional practice, that it was 
laid over for six months. "When the society met 
again, however, Dr. Cole offered the following resolu- 
tion, which was adopted : 

"lieeolvz-d, That tlie propositions submitted by Dr. Coxe at the hist 
meeting of this society for the consideration of its members be adopted, 
and that we individually pledge ourselves to use all proper influence in 
the support and practice of temperate habits." 

The society thus committed itself over fifty years 
ago on the great question which to-day, more perhaps 
than any other, occupies the public mind. It gave 
utterance to no uncertain or indifferent statement, but 
defined with distinct minuteness its position. 

In 1848 the Xew Jersey Medical Reporter was organ- 
ized and conducted by one of the members, as the 
first effort at medical journalism in the State. It soon 
came into favorable notice, its subscription list in- 
creased rapidly, and, on the recommendation of the 
society, the State Medical Society adopted it as the 
medium for publishing its transactions, and as an in- 
dorsement of its authority furnished the imprint of 
its seal for the title-page. 

"To preserve the names and to commemorate the deeds of all worthy 
physicians in the county of Burlington, New Jersey, since its first set- 
tlement, in the year one thousand ^x hundred and seventy-seven (1G77), 
and to continue a perpetual memorial of all who may hereafter connect 
themselves with our Society, I li;iTe prepared this book and dedicated it 
to the District Medical Society of the county as a token of iraterual 

"Joseph Parrish, 

" HUtorian. 

" BuKLixGTON, N. J., January , 1880. 

" For the facts connected with physicians previous to the year 1800, 
I am chiefly indebted to the valuable work of Dr. Wick es, entitled 'His- 
tory of Medicine and Medical Men in New Jersey.'" 

1677. Daniel Wills, a practitioner in chemis- 
try, with a variety of medical books and surgical in- 
struments, came to America in the ship "Kent," 
landing at Chygoes Island, on the Delaware River, in 
1677, where now stands the city of Burlington. He 
was one of the commissioners sent over by the Eng- 
lish proprietors with authority to purchase and settle 
lands. Under this grant they purchased and laid out 
the city of Burlington. Of his birthplace there is 
no record, but that he was a man of considerable 
attainments and of great industry and energy there is 
abundant evidence. He had business in Barbadoes, 
and during a visit there he died on March 26, 1689, 
and was buried in the burying-ground of the Society 
of Friends, of which he was an accredited member. 
There is no record of his age. His descendants, some 
of whom are living atand near Rancocas, in this county, 

have in their possession a number of articles which 
were used by him in the practice of his profession. 

1677. John Gosling probably came to America 
prior to this date, as he is one of the signers of " The 
Concessions and Agreements of the Proprietors, Free- 
holders, and Inhabitants of the Province of West 
Jersey, in America," dated March 3, 1676; but as 
Burlington was not laid out till 1677, he could not 
have resided there before the latter date. As a citi- 
zen of Burlington, he is described as a " merchant and 
physician." His birthplace is not known. He mar- 
ried Mary Budd, in 1685, and left one child, a boy, 
named John. 

Dr. Gosling also had business in Barbadoes, exe- 
cuted his will in 1685, and left for the island, where 
he died, being buried in the Friends' burying-place. 

The name was originally Jocelyn, an Anglo-Nor- 
man Christian name. 

1683. Robert Diknsdale came to America with 
William Penn in 1683. He located a large tract 
of land near Mount Holly, where he built a com- 
modious brick house and resided. Married, the sec- 
ond time, Sarah, daughter of Francis Collins. In 
1688 he returned to England, and died there in 1718. 
He was once imprisoned in England for practicing 
medicine without a bishop's license. He was also 
the proprietor of some popular nostrums, and wrote a 
book with the following title: "Robert Dirnsdale's 
Advice: How to use his medicine (in the several dis- 
tempers within mentioned), as also where they are 
to be had, with their prices, which he chiefly designed 
for his old friends and acquaintances, who earnestly 
desired it of him before he left England, and to them 
they are chiefly commended. London : Printed and 
Sold by John Bringhurst, at the sign of the Book 
and Three Black birds, in Leaden Hall, Mutton 
Market. 4to. 1684." 

1699. Francois Gandonett, born in France in 
1664 ; lived in Bristol, Pa., and in Burlington, N. J., 
and practiced his profession. Died June 8, 1725; 
buried in the graveyard of St. James' Church, Bristol, 
of which church he was a warden. 

1700. Samuel Marmion, born in England, 1650, 
came to America in 1700 ; lived first at New Castle, 
Del., then in Philadelphia, and afterwards in Bur- 
lington, his daughter having married Col. Peter Bard 
of the latter place. Died March 20, 1734, aged eighty 
years. His remains and those of his wife and son-in- 
law lie in the churchyard of St. Mary's, Burlington. 

1724. John Rodman, born in Barbadoes, May 
14, 1679; twice married, — first wife, Margaret Ross; 
second, Mary, daughter of William Willett, of Flush- 
ing, L. I.; lived for a time in Philadc]])hia, and also 
in Boston, and about 1724 settled in Burlington and 
practiced medicine. An active and useful member 
of the Society of Friends ; a member of the board of 
aldermen of the city, and in 1738 was a member of 
His Majesty's Council for the province of New Jer- 
sey, which office he held until his death, July 13, 



1756. He was a practitioner in Burlington thirty-two 

1738. Joseph Browx, inn-keeper and doctor of 
Bordentown ; birthplace unknown. In the old town- 
ship book of Chesterfield there occurs the following 
item : " At a township-meeting in 1738, 4 shillings to 
Mr. Brown for ye cure of a poor woman ; £1 Is. 8(/. 
to Joseph Brown for ye trouble he had with a man 
who dyed at his house." 

1745. Dr. Baker. Probably the first physician in 
Tuckerton. There is, however, no record of his birth 
or death. Of his marriage to the sister of Hon. 
Ebenezer Tucker, M.C., for whom the town is named, 
there is, however, evidence, but dates are wanting. 

1745. Thomas Shaw was a practicing physician 
in Burlington in 1745 ; for how long before is not 
known. He was a vestryman of St. Mary's Church 
at that time, and died in 1750. 

1752. Alexander Ross, born in Scotland, 1713, 
graduated at the University of Edinburgh, and soon 
after emigrated to America. Settled in Bristol, Pa., 
and became a student of medicine under Dr. De 
Normandie, of that town. First practiced in Bur- 
lington, and moved to Mount Holly in 1752. He 
had an extensive practice, and rode a black mare, 
with saddle-bags stuffed with medicines. He was 
surgeon in the war of the Revolution. He died May 
10, 1780, aged sixty-seven years. His widow mar- 
ried Zachariah Rossel, of Mount Holly. 

1755. Alexander Moore, practiced in Borden- 
town ; born 1712; died and was buried in Borden- 
town in 1781, having been engaged in practice during 
his residence there, and being sixty-nine years old. 
The following extract from the Chesterfield township 
records shows that he was recognized as a worthy 
physician: "At a town-meeting held this 13th day 
of October, 1755, at the house of Godfrey Beck, con- 
cerning one Mathias Ostendine, and by miijority of 
voats it was a Greed that the overseer of ye poor 
should Imploy Doctor Moor to Cure him the Best 
manner he could, and to pay him out of The money 
that is to be Raised for the yous of ye Poor." 

1761. Stacy Budd, son of Thomas, born in 1740, 
studied medicine under Dr. Alexander Ross, of Bur- 
lington, and his step-father. Dr. Thomas Say, of Phila- 
delphia. In 17G2 he married Sarah, daughter of J. 
Munro, an extensive land-owner of Mount Holly. 
Practiced one year in Moorestown, but returned again 
to his former home, and remained there till his death, 
Feb. 13, 1804. Being a Friend, he was buried in the 
graveyard of the society in Mount Holly. He had 
ten children, one of whom, Sarah, married Gen. Sam- 
uel Read, father of our late fellow-member. Dr. Zach- 
ariah Read. Dr. Budd was highly esteemed as a 
physician, and was especially kind to the poor. His 
rides towards the sea-coast extended as far as forty 
miles. 4 

1765. Ralph Assheton, eldest son of Ralph As- 
sheton, Esq., and Susanna Rodman, his wife. The 

doctor was probably born in Philadelphia, and was 
between twenty-eight and twenty-nine years of age 
when he practiced in Burlington County. The family 
was among the most prominent and influential of the 
colonial aristocracy of Pennsylvania. They were re- 
lated to William Penn, in whose letters reference is 
sometimes made to " Cousin Assheton." The doctor 
died 4th of January, 1774, and was probably buried 
in a family vault of Christ Church burying-ground, 
Philadelphia. His house in this county was thus ad- 
vertised for sale in the Pcnnsi/lcania Gazette of Sept. 
26, 1765 : 

"To be sold at public venduo, on Tliursday, the 24tli of October next, 
between tlie hours of three and five in the ufternoon, on the premises, 
a lionse and lot of ground situated in Kingsbury, Nottingham Town- 
ship, Burlington County, on the public road between Trenton Bridge 
and the Ferry, containing in breadth CO feet and in depth 181 feet; the 
House almost new and neatly finished; the Lot inclosed with a good 
board fence; there is a good garden and well in the yard, and, on the 
lot adjoining a good new stable and coach house, belonging to the houi>e. 
The purchaser may have a lease of the lot on which the stable stands, 
])ay, viz. : Thirty Shillings per annum. Half the purchase money to be 
paid immediately, six months credit will be given for the remainder. 
Any person inclining to purchase before the day of sale, may know the 
terms by applying to Dr. Ralph Assheton on the premises 

" N. B. — .\s the Doctor proposes returning to Pliiladelphla in a few 
\veek8, he de:^ires those indebted to make immediate payment.*, and those 
who have any demands to bring in their accounts for settlement." 

1766. John Ross, son of Alexander, was born at 
Mount Holly, March 2, 1752, and was probably pre- 
pared for the practice of medicine by his father. The 
war of the Revolution commencing. Dr. Ross at once 
entered the service as captain in the Third New Jer- 
sey Regiment, his commission bearing date Feb. 9, 
1776. In 1779 he was commissioned major of the 
Second Regiment, and was afterwards promoted to 
brigade major and inspector of the Jersey Brigade. 
He was wounded, but continued in the .service till the 
close of the war. He was also appointed lieutenant- 
colonel of militia. Second Regiment, Dec. 18, 1782. 
During the administration of Washington, in 1792, 
he received the appointment of inspector of the 
revenue for Burlington County, N. J. He was a 
member of the Society of the Cincinnati from its 

1771. Jonathan Smith came to America with 
four brothers and one sister from Yorkshire, England. 
Settled in Burlington, and engaged in the practice of 
medicine. The date of his settlement is not known, 
but that he died in 1772 is evident from the following 
notice in the Pennsylvania Packet a7id General Adver- 
tiser in March of that year: 

" Last Wednesday, departed this life, after a tedious 
illness, at Burlington, Dr. Jonathan Smith, a gentle- 
man descended from one of the most respectable 
families in this province, and much esteemed for his 
singular benevolence and humanity." 

1771. Jonathan Odell, son of Jonathan and 
Temperance Odell, of Connecticut Farms, was born in 
Newark, N. J., Sept. 25, 1737 ; graduated at Princeton 
College, 1754; educated for a physician, and after- 
wards served as surgeon in the British army. While 



stationed in the West Indies he left the army and 
studied for the ministry in England, and was ordained 
as a priest in 1767. Stationed as rector of St. Mary's 
Church, in Burlington, 1771, and May 6, 1772, married 
Ann De Cou, of Burlington. He resided there nine 
years, and his salary as a minister being insufficient 
for his support, he added to the duties of the pastorate 
those of a practicing physician. He was elected a 
member of the State Medical Society in 1774, and also 
a member of the American Philosophical Society. 
Being a Tory, he escaped from Burlington when the 
colonial troops occupied it, and sought refuge in New 
York, then held by the British. While in Burlington, 
in 1776, he was ordered to confine himself on parole 
to the east side of the Delaware, within a circuit of 
eight miles of the court-house of Burlington. At the 
close of the war he settled in the province of New 
Brunswick, where he occupied influential civil posi- 
tions, and afterwards moved to New York. He died 
at Frederickton, New Brunswick, Nov. 25, 1818, aged 
eighty-one years. He wrote political poetry with 
ease, and some of his effusions were published. 

1772. Daniel Bddd, son of David, educated 
at Princeton, but did not take the honors of the col- 
lege. He studied medicine in Philadelphia, and it is 
believed graduated at the University of Edinburgh. 
Returning to this country, practiced medicine in 
Pemberton and Mount Holly, and became a member 
of the State Society in 1772. He afterwards removed 
to the State of New York. During the Revolution 
he joined the Continental army as surgeon. He was 
at the crossing of the Delaware and at Valley Forge. 
Was for some time a prisoner in the camp of the 
British and Indians. The doctor was exceedingly 
popular as a physician, and the life of convivial 
society. He died of disease of the liver at Schoharie, 
in New York, and the monumentjil inscription in the 
Lutheran churchyard of that town is as follows: 

"In Memory of DocT. Daniel Bcdd, who died March 15th Anno 
Domini 1815, aged 04 years. 

" His langnishing head is at rest 
Its aching and tliiuking is o'er 
His still immovable breast 
Is heiived with affliction no more. 

" Know though, oh stranger to the fame 
Of this mucli-Ioved, much-honored name 
For none who knew him, need be tuld 
A warmer heart death ne'er made cold. 

" In memory of Rkbecca Lawyer, wife of Doct. Daniel Bndd, who 
departed tliis life January 9tli, 1824, aged 71 years." 

1777. Daniel Bancroft was born in Westfield, 
Mass., Nov. 2, 1746 ; appeared before the Council of 
Safety in New Jersey, April 22, 1777, took the re- 
quired oath, and was dismissed. He had been con- 
fined as a suspected spy. He remained for a time in 
Burlington. In 1782 he settled in Wilmington, Del., 
where he was engaged with his brother in commercial 
pursuits. He died of apoplexy while at a dinner 
party at the residence of John Vaughn, Esq., of Phil- 
adelphia, in 1796. 

1783. John Baptiste Carone Brognard was 
born about 1761 in France. At the age of eighteen 
he entered the French military service as a volunteer, 
and was appointed a sergeant in a corps of grenadiers. 
During the Revolutionary war he came to America 
with his corps. Previous' to entering the service in 
his native land he had studied medicine, and was 
near the time of his graduation, and medical men be- 
ing in demand he was detailed to surgeon's duty in the 
medical staff of the Duke de Laugan, in which ser- 
vice he continued until the end of the war. 

Determining to settle in America, he procured a 
"Military Discharge" by the payment of three hun- 
dred pounds, and immediately devoted himself to the 
pursuit of his profession in civil life. He first settled 
in Burlington, where he married Sarah Smith, but 
soon after removed to Columbus, in the same county, 
where he became distinguished as a physician and 
surgeon, acquiring a large and profitable practice, and 
possessing a very large share of the confidence of the 

He died April 17,1823, aged about sixty-two years, 
and his remains were buried in the Friends' burial- 
place at Mansfield. 

1784. Daniel De Benneville descended from 
George de Benneville, a French nobleman of Nor- 
mandy, France. His father, George, was left an or- 
phan in early life, and was committed to the care of 
Queen Annie, who had charge of the first eleven 
years of his boyhood. In 1745 he came to America, 
residing at Olney, Bucks Co., Pa., where was a colony 
of Huguenots. Dr. Daniel, his son, was born at Olney, 
Nov. 12, 1753. After receiving an education under 
the care of his father, he began the study of medicine, 
but the date of his entering upon its practice is not 
known. He joined the army as a junior surgeon of 
the flying hospital, and on July 3, 1781, as surgeon 
of the Thirteenth Regiment of Infantry, Continental 
army. He was remarkable for his skill as a surgeon, 
and distinguished for his warm-hearted sympathy for 
the sick and wounded. In personal appearance he 
resembled Andrew Jackson, M'hose friend he was. 
After the war he married Elizabeth Coats, and settled in 
Moorestown, Burlington County. His marriage union 
was unhappy, and he failed to secure the respect of 
the community. At the age of seventy-five, he died 
at his brother's house, and was buried in the family 

1786. Samuel Treat was born Jan. 13, 1739, 
and married Agnes Hollingshead, Oct. 13, 1774. He 
" served as an apprentice to Dr. John Redman, of 
Philadelphia, for nearly four years, during which 
time he was constantly employed in the practice of 
physic and surgery," for which lie received a cer- 
tificate, the original of which is still preserved by 
his descendants, bearing date Sept. 12, 1765. Prac- 
ticed in Burlington from 1786 to 1795; built the 
house now occupied by the family of the late Wil- 
liam R. Allen ; removed to Oxford, N, Y,, to spend 



the remnant of his days with a married daughter, 
and died April 9, 1814. 

Medical certificate to Mr. Samuel Treat, 1765 : 

" Philadelphia. 
"This is to certify to nil viiiom it mny concern that Mr. Sinil. Treat 
hatli eerveil a< im .'ii>pi entire V< me fuj nearly four years, diiriug wliicli 
time he was coustunlly employed in the practice of Physic and Surgery, 
under my care, not only in my private business, hut in the Pennsylvania 
}luspit,Tl, in which character he always behaved with groat Fidelity and 
Industry. In testimony of which I have hereuntt) set my band this 
first day of September, One thousand Seven hundred and Sixty-five. 

"John Repman." 
" We, whose names are underwritten, do certify that Mr. Samuel 
Treat hath diligently attended the practice of Physic and Surgery in 
the Pennsylvania Uospitul for several years. 

"Thomas Cadwaladee. 
"Pjiineas Bond. 
"Tho Bond. 
" Wm. Siiippen. 
" C. Evans." 
"This is toCeitify that Samuel Treat hath attended a course of Ana- 
tODiical Lectnrts with the greatest diligence and assiduity. 

" Wm. Shippen, Jr." 

1786. John H. Stokes was born at Moorestown, 
Burlington County, in 1764; preliminary education 
good; commenced medical studies witli Dr. Thomas 
Park, of Philadelphia, and attended lectures at the 
University of Pennsylvania; licensed to practice in 
New Jersey in 1786; settled in his native town, and con- 
tinued his professional pursuits in the same place 
during the remainder of his life. He was a thorough 
physician for the time in which he lived, a courteous, 
Christian gentleman, and for thirty years held the con- 
fidence and affection of the community. He died at 
the age of fifty-two, October, 1817. He early adopted 
Jenner's discovery of vaccination, and to prove to the 
incredulous his faith in its prophylactic power, after 
obtaining vaccine pustule on the person of his own 
infant daughter, he exposed her to the smallpox by 
placing her in bed with a patient infected with the 

1786. Edward Taylor, born in Upper Freehold, 
Monmouth County, May 27, 1762, graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1783 ; studied medicine with Dr. James Newell, 
ofMonmouth, and finished his studies at the University 
of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1786. He commenced 
the practice at Pemberton ; joined the State Medical 
Society in 1787. He was a man of culture and refine- 
ment, quick perception and sound judgment. He 
did not remain long at Pemberton, preferring his 
native home, where he remained a useful and honor- 
able Cliristian gentleman till the close of his life, on 
the 2d of May, 1835. -^ 

A. W. Taylor, M.D., the son of Rev. Rufus Taylor 
and Esther W. Taylor, was born in Slirewsbury, Mon- 
mouth Co., N. J., on March 31, 1845, this place 
being on the stage-route from New York to Long 
Branch via steamers from New York to Red Bank, 
this being at that time the only public way of reach- 
ing Long Branch, which is now the objective-point 
of several railway and steamboat lines. 

About 1852 he moved to Manchester, Mass., a little 
village on Cape Ann, then small and unimportant, 

the inhabitants being engaged in cod-fishing on the 
banks of Newfoundland in the summer, and in the 
winter going to school or making shoes and furniture. 
This place is now quite a summer resort, and is down 
in the guide-books as Manchester-by-the-Sea. 


In 1858 he moved to Hightstown, N. J., and was 
there prepared for Princeton College by the late 
Charles A. Walters, entering that institution in the 
second session of the freshman year, in the spring of 
1863, graduating in the summer of, and in the class 
of, 1866. His college course was not marked by any 
special incidents more than usually happen to col- 

After graduating at Princeton, he taught a public 
school in Harmony District, Monmouth County, and 
afterwards a select school in Oxford, Chester Co., Pa., 
and many of his former pupils now fill positions of 
honor and trust in public life. The Oxford school 
was given up to return to Princeton and enter as a 
medical student the office of James H. Wickofl", M.D., 
the leading physician of the place, by whom he was 
prepared for further medical study in the Medical 
Department of the University of Pennsylvania, then 
located where the new post-office building now stands, 
at Ninth and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia. 

He.was selected by a majority of his classmates as 
president of the class, and in this capacity had much 
to do with class politics (the only time he ever entered 
the political arena, and then without his knowledge 
or consent). As president he had the perfect confi- 
dence of his class, and smoothed the various diflTer- 



ences between class parties, and was selected as pre- 
sentation orator to deliver on commencement-day at 
the Academy of Music to the trustees of the univer- 
sity a portrait in oil by Waugh of Prof. H. H.Smith, 
and which now hangs in the University Museum, 
bj' the side of those of the many eminent men who 
had filled the professor's chair. 

After graduating, in a few weeks' time he located in 
Beverly, Burlington Co., N. J., in the spring of 1871, 
and soon acquired a good practice, and there he 

By the death and removal of others he is now the 
oldest resident M.D. in the place, and may honestly 
claim that title so honored by the public, " The old 
doctor." His practice is good and paying, and having 
gained forty pounds in flesh since coming to Beverly, 
he feels that he can recommend the town for its 

He has been president of the Burlington County 
Medical Society, is now its secretary, and also the 
secretary of the Beverly board of trade, the medical 
member of the board of health, senior warden of the 
Masonic lodge, and has also a well-established and 
widely-known drug-store, and is medical examiner 
for several life insurance companies. 

lu 1873 he married Emma L., daughter of Theodore 
C. Herbert, United States navy. They have been 
blessed with four children (ail boys), two of whom 
live, and two have passed over to the better land. 

1787. David Greexmax was licensed to practice 
medicine in New Jersey in 1787, and was admitted to 
membershi]) in the State Society the same year. All 
that is known of him is that he died of yellow fever 
in Burlington ; and as the first epidemic of the fever 
occurred in 1793, the presumption is that the doctor 
was young when he died and left no family or pro- 
fessional record. 

1787. Lewis Morgan was born about the year 
1757, but where is not known. He was admitted to 
practice in 1787, and that year joined the State Med- 
ical Society. He first settled in Somerset County and 
then in Burlington, where it is supposed he remained 
until about the year 1803, when he moved to Rah- 
Avay and remained until his death, on Jan. 12. 1821, 
in the sixty-fourth year of his age. The following 
anecdote is told of him : 

" For a short time there was a Dr. Rodgers in the 
town, who was a competitor in practice, whom Dr. 
Morgan very much disliked. During a freshet in the 
Delaware, Dr. Rodgers attempted to cross the bridge 
at the creek, which was overflowed with water. Not 
being aware that the centre of the bridge was gone, 
horse, sulky, rider and all went in together. Tlie 
horse was used to swimming, and the doctor held his 
place in the sulky, heading his horse down stream. 
The whole town gathered on the bank to see the doc- 
tor drown. Among the spectators was Dr. Morgan, 
who, seeing the situation, ordered his horse and sulky 

nd followed the river road to see the result. About 

a mile below, Dr. Rodgers brought his horse to the 
bank, and came out sitting in his sulky all right. His 
horse was very much exhausted and he was very wet. 
Dr. Morgan, pitying his condition, invited him to sit 
on the foot-rest of his sulky, that he might take him 
home quickly, as his horse was fresh. Rodgers re- 
plied, 'No, sir; I had a hard ride, but I'll go 

back the way I came before I'll sit at your feet.' " 

1787. John A. De Normandie was born at Bris- 
tol, Pa., July, 1713. By a long line of ancestor:^ he 
belonged to the " high nobility of France." He re- 
moved to Burlington about 1787. He wrote a history 
of his travels and a history of the origin and progress 
of the political dissensions of Geneva, from whence 
his ancestors had emigrated to America. He was a 
man of learning and science, was a member of the 
American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia in 
1768. He wrote two papers, which were published in 
the transactions of the society, entitled "An Analysis 
of the Chalybeate Water of Bristol, Pa." 

Before the Burlington Society for the Promotion of 
Agriculture and Domestic Manufactures, of which he 
was president, he read a paper entitled " Hints for 
Ascertaifiing the Properties of Plaster of Paris." He 
read an address before the American Museum of 1792 
(title not known), and was a prominent member of the 
New Jersey Medical Society, to which he was elected 
in 1790. 

The family of Bords, of Burlington, with which he 
was intimately related, having removed to Hyde Park, 
N. Y., Dr. De Normandie retired from active life, 
and died in the hospitable home of the Bords at the 
age of ninety, after ten years of imbecility. 

1787. Benjamin Say Budd, son of Stacy Budd, 
of Mount Holly, was born Jan. 26, 1769. Studied 
medicine with his uncle, Dr. Benjamin Say. of Phila- 
delphia. Entered into partnership witli his father 
at Mount Holly, and enjoyed a large and excellent 
practice, and was very popular. His manners were 
gentle and attractive, and his personal appearance 
striking. His hair was worn long behind and held 
up by a comb. He was genial and fond of a joke. 
Died Nov. 9, 1833. 

1787. William McIlvaine was born in Phila- 
delphia, July 18, 1750. At sixteen years of age he 
was sent to Scotland to perfect his education, and re- 
ceived his medical degree at the University of Edin- 
burgh. Returning to America, settled in Bristol, Pa., 
about 1773. After some years he removed to Phila- 
delphia, where he practiced medicine until 1793, and 
on the appearance of the yellow fever in that year 
he sent his family to Burlington for refuge, while he, 
true to his calling, remained at his post of duty. He 
contracted the fever in Philadelphia, was nursed by 
a faithful black servant, and recovered without his 
family knowing of his illness. He then joined them 
in Burlington, and became a practitioner there for 
the remainder of his life. 

In 1794 he was elected a trustee of Burlington 



Academy. During tlie war of the Revolution he was 
surgeon in Col. Read's regiment. His portrait was 
taken at Burlington in 1798, and is said to be an ad- 
mirable likeness, and is preserved with others in the 
library of the New England Historico-Genealogical 
Society in Boston. He died at Burlington, Sept. 16, 

1795. Edward vShippek was born Dec. 11, 1758, 
in Philadelphia. Studied medicine with Dr. Bond, 
and afterwards completed his studies in London and 
Paris. In 1795 he removed to Burlington and entered 
into partnership with Dr. Mcllvaine, his brother-in- 
law. He was a large man, with a hearty manner, 
fond of horses and agriculture, and had an excellent 
practice. A picture of him, taken in London as a 
student, represented him as a handsome youth with 
powdered hair, lilac-colored coat, and gold-laced 
waistcoat. He died suddenly Oct. 22, 1809. 

1796. John Blackwood was born July 28, 1772, 
at Blackwoodtown, Gloucester Co., N. J. Commenced 
practice in Haddonfield, his father giving a horse 
and sulky and bidding him seek his fortune. He was 
successful, and left quite a fortune for the time in 
which he lived. He removed to Mount Holly in 
1796, and lived there the remainder of his life. In 
addition to his professional duties, he served as post- 
master of Mount Holly, and was also judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas and of the Orphans' Court 
at Mount Holly. He was buried iu the Friends' 
burying-ground adjoining his residence. 

1797. Ephraim Staxdish Sawyer was born in 
Massachusetts in 1774. Educated at Harvard ; mar- 
ried in 1797. Settled first at Absecom, Atlantic Co., 
but soon removed to Tuckerton, Burlington Co., 
where he spent the remainder of his life. Practiced 
about thirty years, and died in the fifty-fifth year of 
his age, Oct. 11, 1829. Buried at Tuckerton. His 
widow lived until 1857, and departed this life in her 
eightieth year. 

1806. Samuel Tucker, son of the Hon. Ebenezer 
Tucker, M.C., of Tuckerton, was born at Tuckerton, 
Burlington County. There are no records of his 
birth, studies, or death. He was reputed to have 
been an imposing, handsome man of popular man- 
ners, who did a good practice in Burlington, and was 
cotemporary with Dr. Cole. The name of Samuel 
Tucker, of New Jersey, is found in the catalogue of 
the alumni of the Medical Department of the Uni- 
v'ersity of Pennsylvania as having graduated in 1806, 
and for this reason I have placed that date with the 
name. The title of his thesis is "Medical Effect of 
Bodily Labor in Chronic Diseases." 

1814. Francis Brognard, son of Dr. John Brog- 
nard, of Columbus, was an intelligent physician, and 
author of some published medical essays. He did not 
attend to much practice, and became insane early in 
life. He died young. 

1829. Nathan W. Cole's name stands first on the 
roll of members of the County Medical Society, and 

was one of the original charter members. He came 
to Burlington as a young man, and was employed as 
a teacher in the academy, which stood on the site 
now occupied by St. Mary's Church. He studied 
medicine, probably without a private preceptor, and 
attended lectures at the L^niversity of Pennsylvania, 
but did not graduate there. At that period it was re- 
quired of every one desiring to practice medicine in 
New Jersey to obtain a license from the State Medi- 
cal Society, for which a fee was required, and hence 
many did not obtain a degree from the university on 
account of the additional expense. Dr. Cole,Jiaving 
been for some years recognized as a respectable prac- 
titioner of Burlington, was granted a complimentary 
degree by the faculty of the university in tlie year 
1829. He remained in Burlington, and did a large 
practice during the remainder of his life. It is 
probable that he commenced practice somewhere 
about 1803. At the May meeting of the society in 
1832 he delivered the first address that was formally 
presented at any of its meetings, the subject being 
" The Importance of Medical Science." He was ap- 
pointed delegate to attend the American ]\Iedical As- 
sociation in 1846, having also served for several years 
as censor for this district. 

1800. John Leake Stratton, the second of the 
charter members, was an exemplary and useful mem- 
ber of the society, and a prominent and influential 
practitioner of the county. He was born in Deer- 
field, Cumberland Co., N. J., Feb. 23, 1777. His 
father was a farmer of moderate means, and could do 
no more for his four sons than give them such an 
education as the country at that time afforded. John 
L. managed to obtain a fair English education, and 
also some knowledge of Latin. He commenced study- 
ing medicine on the 12th of May, 1797, under the 
preceptorship of his cousin. Dr. James Stratton, of 
Swedesboro', Gloucester Co., N. J. He attended 
the required courses of lectures at the University of 
Pennsylvania, and on the 17th of March, 1800, was 
licensed to practice in the State, and on the 17th of 
the following month settled in Mount Holly, where 
Dr. Stacy Budd and his son, Benjamin Say Budd, 
were both engaged in practice. On May 5, 1803, he 
married Ann, daughter of Dr. James Stratton, and 
had two children, Benjamin Harris and James, the 
latter of whom died at an early age. His wife died 
in 1810. In 1816 he married Ann, daughter of Dan- 
iel Newbold, the issue of which marriage was James 
N. L., now the senior member of the Burlington 
County bar, and an able lawyer. 

Having become discouraged in Mount Holly, he 
moved to Burlington on the 27th of November, 1806, 
and formed a partnership with Dr. A. W. Cole, but 
returned to Mount Holly again on the 27th of Au- 
gust, 1807, where he continued to practice until his 
death, Aug. 18, 1845. By a note in his journal it 
appears that he drove to New Brunswick in June, 
1808, to attend a meeting of the State Medical So- 





ciety, at which there were present twenty-five mem- 
bers. He was elected treasurer of the County Society 
at its first meeting in 1829, and was re-elected each 
year until failing health induced him to withdraw 
from active service. The last meeting of which there 
is a record of his re-election was in May, 1840. He 
was one of the censors appointed by the State Society 
for this district in 1830. 

1827. Benjamix Harris Stratton, son of John 
L. by his second marriage, was born in Mount Holly, 
N. J., Feb. 6, 1804. He was prepared for college, 
and entered at Princeton as a student, graduating 
from there (the College of New Jersey) in 1823. He 
studied medicine witli his father, and graduated at 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1827. The subject 
of his thesis was one of which he frequently spoke at 
the meetings of the society, viz. : " Puerperal Convul- 
sions," and in the management of which he was re- 
puted to be very successful. He practiced in part- 
nership with his father during the life of the latter. 
He was one of a committee to draft the first constitu- 
tion of the County Society in 1829, being one of the 
charter members, and was also one of the board of 
censors for this district, with his father. 

The minutes do not inform us when the elder Dr. 
Stratton retired from the treasurership, or when the 
son was first elected treasurer, as there seems to have 
been an intermission of several years, during which 
no records were preserved. At the annual meeting 
in 1848, Dr. B. H. Stratton was elected treasurer, 
though it is probable that he was elected at an earlier 
date. He served as treasurer until July 14, 1874, 
when the following preamble and resolution were 
unanimously passed: 

" miereat, Our venerable and respected member, Dr. B. H. Stratton, 
who participated in tlip formation of tliis society in 1829, and who has 
served as ite treasurer thirtj'-oue years, feels sorely the anunyauce of his 
oflficiiil duties; therefore 

" ResoUed, Tliat he be hereby elected an honorary member of this 
society, and that the office of treasurer be thereby declared vaCaut." 

Up to this date the two Strattons were the only 
treasurers of the society. 

There does not appear to be any evidence of Dr. 
Stratton writing or publishing essays, but that he was 
a careful clinical observer, a safe and successful prac- 
titioner, and an enthusiastic devotee of his profession 
there can be no doubt. His professional brethren 
and the people among whom he labored unite in bear- 
ing this testimony. He Avas married in May, 1830, 
at Georgetown, D. C, to Emeline, daughter of Sam- 
uel and Lydia N. Whitall. He left two daughters, — 
Anna, wife of Charles A. Kingsbury, a dentist of 
Philadelphia, and Mary Virginia Mano. His widow 
still survives and resides at Mount Holly. 

1828. Charles Ellis was born in Burlington on 
the 27th of September, 1801. His father was Charles 
Ellis, a prominent and successful merchant of Bur- 
lington, who was highly esteemed for his integrity and 
high business qualities. The son, Dr. Charles, was 


educated at the Burlington Academy, and commenced 
the study of medicine in the office of Dr. A. W. Cole 
in 1825. 

He attended three courses of medical lectures at 
the University of P«nnsylvania, taking his degree in 
the year 1828. Thesubject of his thesis was "Bubonc- 
cele," for the concise andcomprehensivestylc of which 
he was complimented by Professor Gibson, who occu- 
pied the surgical chair. Dr. Ellis was first married, 
March 16, 1830, to Elizabeth Lloyd, who died Feb. 9, 
1868. He was married a second time, July 14, 1869, 
to Elizabeth Biles, of Burlington, and both he and 
his estimable wife are living at this date, 1879. Dr. 
Ellis was one of the five charter members, and was 
the first secretary of the society, which ofiice he held 
for ten consecutive years. He also belonged to the 
first board of censors for this district, and was fre- 
quently appointed as delegate to the State Society. 

He retired from active practice about the year 
1845, and, enjoying a competency, has since that 
period not been so frequent in attending the meet- 
ings of the society, in which he has for many years 
held an honorary membership, and has always been 
esteemed for his modest dignity of deportment to- 
wards his medical brethren. At the semi-centennial 
anniversary of the society, held in Burlington, June 
17, 1879, he was chosen to preside at the public meet-- 
ing, which he did with acceptanc'e to the society, and 
to the assembly of citizens who favored the society 
with their presence on the occasion. At that time 
the society presented him with a handsomely en- 
grossed and framed certificate in commemoration of 
his services to the society, and as a token of their 
esteem and regard. As an evidence of his appreci- 
ation of this sincere expression of respect from the 
society, he immediately caused the certificate to be 
placed in a conspicuous position in his own parlor. 
As a further evidence of regard by his professional 
associates, his picture was handsomely phototypcd, 
and placed as a frontispiece in the published " His- 
torical Address" which was delivered at the semi- 
centennial celebration, copies of which were distrib- 
uted not only to the members of the society and 
invited guests but to numerous citizens. 

1826. John Cox Davis was the son of Dr. Davis, 
of Cranberry, of this State. But little is known of 
the family beyond the following facts: 

The elder Dr. Davis had a handsome estate in 
Cranberry, where he lived and practiced medicine. 
He was married clandestinely to Miss Coxe, of Bur- 
lington township. The issue from this marriage were 
several children, all of whom, except John, moved 
to the State of New York, near Cooperstown, where 
was located a portion of the estate. 

Dr. John settled in Pemberton soon after his grad- 
uation, in 1826. He was a private student of Dr. 
Joseph Parrish, of Philadelpliia, and was regarded 
as an acute observer and good student. He wrote a 
thesis on "Ophthalmia." He was never married. His 


liabits were free and convivial, and though he suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a fair share of practice, his mode 
of life was not calculated to insure the permanent 
confidence of the community, and his career was 
closed very early in his professional life. 

William Smith Coxe, eldest son of William 
Coxe and Rachel (Smith), born at Burlington, April 
16, 1790. Educated at Princeton College, studied 
medicine in Philadelphia under Dr. Philip Syng 
Physick, and graduated J\I.D. at the University of 
Pennsylvania in the year 1811. 

Whether he settled in Burlington immediately is 
not known, but he was elected a member of the 
County Society in 1830. On the day of his election 
he offered a resolution requiring a circular letter to 
be addressed to every physician in the county, inform- 
ing of the provisions of the law regulating the prac- 
tice of physic and surgery in the State, and urging 
compliance therewith. It was adopted. In 1831 he 
offered the following resolutions, which at a subse- 
quent meeting were adopted : 

" Refoh-ed, That we are convinced that the nso of distilled liijnors as 
a ili'iiiU in nlwiiys iiiineceseai.v to persons in good health, and injniioiie 
genenilly in proporlinn to the amount consunud; that thoy iiicrea'^e 
the liability to d seases, and i ender them lefs amenable to ni( dical treat- 
ment ; that Ihcy are nHiuh less fieqiicntly ind sptnsable in the juaclice 
of medicine than lias heietoforc been f\ip|)osed, and when the nel■es^ily 
ocrnrs it has, in the majoiity of i ases, oiiginated in a preexisting 
<jf tising them. 

" /ffso/ie'/. That we deem it our duty to discountenance, by pi etept 
and e.\auiple. the consumiption of aident spiiits by nieu in health, and 
to abstain from their exhibition as medicine when less dangerous stim- 
ulants can be conveniently eubstitiited, and may be exi)etled to prove 
equally efficacious/' 

He was active in measures to perfect the organiza- 
tion of the society, and served on a committee to revise 
the Constitution in 1832. He was one of the delegates 
in the same year to the State Society, and served as 
the first vice-president of the society (county). His 
name does not appear on the minutes after 1832. 
Before removing to Burlington, after his graduation, 
he practiced for a few years in Philadelphia. He 
returned to Philadelphia in 1832, and died there in 

Rockefeller Daekin came from Ohio about the 
year 1825. Before leaving home it is said that he 
read medicine for one year in the office of a private 
preceptor. Of his parentage and birth nothing is 
known by the historian. He entered Philadelphia 
Irom the West with a drove of cattle, assisting in 
driving them all the way from Ohio. It is believed 
that he selected that method of reaching Philadelphia 
for economical reasons, as there is no evidence that he 
was engaged in the business of cattle-raising at home, 
or that he had any pecuniary interest in the drove. 
He was a singular genius. Soon after reaching Phila- 
delphia he presented himself as a medical student to 
Dr. Joseph Parrish, of that city, telling his story of 
travel as a drover, much to the entertainment of his 
selected preceptor. 

He graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 

1827, the subject of his thesis being "Vitality," a 
subject with which he was supposed to be practically 
and personally familiar, as he was evidently a man of 
unusual bodily vigor and activity. He settled in 
Columbus, in this county, and commenced practice 
immediately after his graduation. He joined the 
County Society in 1830, and continued a member 
during his residence at Columbus. He was a dele- 
gate to the State Society in 1832, but does not seem to 
have been a very active member. He read a paper on 
one occasion, the singular title of which must even at 
that day have awakened' the curiosity of his asso- 
ciates, to wit: "On the application of similar medi- 
cines to similar tissues, be they located externally or 
internally." When and where he died is not known. 

Joseph H. Stokes was born June, 1808, at Morris- 
town, N. J. His father. Dr. John Stokes, died in 
1817, but under the excellent care of a judicious 
mother he early developed strong traits of character. 
He received his preliminary ,educatiou at Samuel 
Gummere's school in Burlington, which at that time 
was a noted seat of learning. After finishing his 
course, he spent two years in Marshall's drug-store 
in Philadelphia before entering the office of Dr. J. J. 
Spencer as a medical student. He afterwards en- 
tered the University of Pennsylvania, and in due 
time graduated. He commenced practice among his 
father's old constituenc}', beginning a career of suc- 
cessful labor which was kept up unremittingly for 
tliirly-five years, doing in that time an immense 
amount of practice, and at the same time exhibiting 
good business qualifications, which enabled him to 
acquire a handsome fortune. He was for many years 
a director of the State Bank of Camden. 

In February, 1872, he died at the age of sixty-three 

Charles Francis Lott was born at Princeton, 
N. J., in 1781. He was educated in New Brunswick, 
and studied medicine with Dr. Moses Scott. He at- 
tended medical lectures in Philadelphia two or three 
winters, and obtained his diploma as a physician and 
surgeon in 1803, and settled at New Mills (now Pem- 
berton) about 1806 or 1807, and pursued the practice 
of medicine in Burlington County for more than 
thirty years. He served as assistant surgeon, with 
rank of captain, in Maj. Reed's regiment of New Jer- 
sey militia during the war of 1812, and was honor- 
ably discharged. He married Edith Newbold Limb, 
daughter of Jacob Lamb, of Burlington County, in 
1809. Eight children were born to them, six sons 
and two daughters. His practice was quite exten- 
sive, and embraced the different furnaces in Speed- 
well, Hanover, and Batsto, also the county almshouse 
for many years. In 1835 he removed to Trenton, 
Mercer County, where he remained two years. In 
1837 he emigrated with his family to the West, set- 
tling in the city of St. Louis, Mo., where he prac- 
ticed for several years. He then returned East and 
lived for a time in Philadelphia, where he married, 



the second time, a widow, Mrs. Bula, in 1848. Soon 
after his marriage he removed to Bethlehem, Pa., 
where a daughter, Annie, was born. Removing 
thence he went to Quakertown, Bucks Co., Pa., where 
he purchased property and made a permanent home. 
He was a temperate man in every respect, and en- 
joyed excellent health until a year before his death. 
He died of paralysis, July 8, 1866, in the sixty-sixth 
year of his age, and was buried in the Moravian Cem- 
etery at Bethlehem, Pa. 

Andrews Eckard Budd was born at Wood- 
bury, N. J., July 18, 1816. His father and mother 
were natives of Prussia, and came to America when 
quite young and settled in New Jersey. He attended 
the High School at Woodbury, and was instructed in 
Latin by Rev. Mr. Blythe, then pastor of the Presby- 
terian Church of that place. 

At the age of eighteen he commenced teaching 
school at his native place, prosecuting studies in 
higher English, Mathematics, and Latin. At the 
age of twenty-one he placed himself under the in- 
structions of Dr. Egbert, of Manayunk, Pa., as pre- 
ceptor in the study of medicine, and after attending 
two full courses of lectures at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, he graduated in the spring of 1842, the 
title of his thesis being " Prolapsus Uteri." On the 
23d of April, 1842, he began the practice of medicine 
in Vincentown, Burlington Co., and remained there 
about two years and eight months. From thence he 
removed to Medford (same county), and followed his 
profession eighteen years. In 1863 he removed to 
Mount Holly, the county-seat. Dec. 22, 1858, he 
married Harriet Louisa Payson, daughter of Asa 
Payson, of Woodstock, Conn., and had two children. 

J. W. C. Evans was born in Philadelphia in 1809, 
where he resided and was educated during the early 
part of his life. He read medicine with Professor 
John Eberle, of Jefferson Medical College, and at- 
tended lectures and graduated at that institution 
IMarch 29, 1829. Some time after he located at Pem- 
berton, N. J., where he practiced his profession. 
In 1839 he married Martha D. Gibbs, daughter of 
Joseph Gibbs, who resided near Pemberton. Dr. 
Evans served in the House of Assembly four terms 
(from 1845 to 1848) ; was elected Speaker in 1847. 

On Thursday, March 20, 1845, he made one of the 
^ '^'^ speeches ever delivered in the House on 

i', .1. " Asylum bill. He occupied an important 

por' I in the Treasury Department at Washing- 
ton iiich he held for about eight years before his 
deain, which occurred June 5, 1860, and was buried 
in the Friends' burial-ground at the Mount Holly 
Meeting-House, near Pemberton, otherwise called 
"Lower Springfield Meeting-House." 

Dr. Alexander Elwell, son of Charles and 
Phcebe Bishop EUvell, was born at Pittsgrove, Salem 
Co., N. J., Aug. 22, 1824. He was educated at the 
" Bridgeton High School" at Bridgeton, N. J., and at 
Pennington Seminary, Pennington, N. J. 

He began the study of medicine Dec. 19, 1843, with 
Thomas R. Clement, M.D., as preceptor. Matricu- 
lated at the University of Pennsylvania the following 
October, and received the degree of Doctor of Medi- 
cine April 7, 1847, the subject of his thesis "Mental 

In 1847 he located at Vincentown, this county, 
where he continues to practice. He married Lydia 
B. Rogers, of Mount Holly, Feb. 12, 1851. Published 
in New Jersey Medical Reporter, vol. vi. p. 169, a case 
of "Occlusion of the Vagina;" also "What is It?" 
in Country Practitioner, vol. i. p. 169. He lias had 
among other notable cases one of " ovarian dropsy," 
from which he drew at twenty-six tappings (covering 
a period of six years) one hogshead, one barrel, six- 
teen gallons, and three quarts (actual measurement) 
of a viscid fluid. He also had a case of "cancer of 
stomach and pylorus," both of which were published 
in the New Jersey Medical Reporter. He has operated 
five times for "strangulated hernia." Removed from 
the bladder of a man at post-mortem a stone re- 
sembling in all particulars a peach-blow potato, even 
in color, indentations, etc., weighing one-half pound 
minus half-drachm. It is now (1882) in possession of 
Dr. Thomas Morton, of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Richard H. Page, son of Thomas and Eliza- 
beth Page, was born Sept. 28, 1828, at Cross-Roads, 
Burlington Co., N. J. Was educated at Pennington 
Seminary, Pennington, N. J., and studied medicine 
under Dr. A. E. Budd, of Mount Holly, and Dr. 
Samuel G. Morton, of Philadelphia; graduated at the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1S50, subject of thesis 
"Menstruation." A few months after graduation he 
located at Columbus, this county, where he has since 
resided following the practice of his profession. On 
the 6th of March, 1856, he married Elizabeth F., 
only daughter of Moses Wills, of Columbus. They 
have had four children, — one son and three daughters. 
In 1851 he became a member of the Burlington 
County Medical Society, and served as delegate to the 
State Medical Society and the North American 
Medical Association. He has during his career per- 
formed the usual operations incident to a country 
practice, one of them amputation, and several of them 
operations for strangulated hernia. 

AVilliam L. Martin was born at West Marl- 
borough, Chester Co., Pa. His parents, Thomas and 
Esther L. Martin, were natives of Chester County, 
whose ancestors were members of the Society of 
Friends, and emigrated to this country from the Brit- 
ish Isles during the period of our colonial history. 

William L. attended school near his father's house 
until his fourteenth year, when he was sent to Union- 
ville Academy, Chester County. Leaving this insti- 
tution he returned home, and disliking a farmer's 
life, he engaged in teaching school. This occupation 
not proving congenial, he placed himself under the 
instruction of Dr. Andrew Murphey, who practiced 
some ten miles distant, agreeing to pay, in addition 



to his board, fifty dollars annually for the use of the 
office. He was afforded unusual facilities for study- 
ing at the bedside of the sick, having the attendance 
upon the poor of the neighborhood assigned him by 
the doctor. No drug-store being near at hand, Dr. 
Murphey compounded and dispensed his own medi- 
cines, and young Martin had the additional advan- 
tage of assisting at tiiis work. The following fall he 
matriculated at Jefferson Medical College, and at- 
tended three courses of lectures. In the spring of 
1852, after having studied nearly four years, he grad- 

After receiving his diploma he rode through Penn- 
sylvania, Delaware, and Maryland seeking a place to 
locate. April 26, 1852, he came to Rancocas, Burling- 
ton County, where he has since remained and practiced 
medicine. Soon after his arrival he obtained a cer- 
tificate from the State Medical Society, and in 1853 
joined the Burlington County Medical Society. In 
1862 he married Lucy, daughter of Ezra and Phebe 
Haines, of Rancocas. 

Tracy E. Waller was born Aug. 28, 1816, at 
Windsor, his father being an officer in the English 
army, and connected with a family of great antiquity 
and distinction in England ; his mother was the 
daughter of Col. John Franklin, a noted historian 
of Wyoming, Pa., and she a heroine described in 
Charles Miner's famous book. 

After practicing some years in Philadelphia, he 
moved to Florence, this county, in 1856, and re- 
mained there until 1861-62. In 1865 he removed 
back to Philadelphia, and remained there four years. 
In 1866 or 1867 the faculty .of "Jefferson" had 
nearly completed arrangements for his occupancy of 
a chair in that college, which he frustrated by some 
act of his own. 

Later he returned to Florence, and remained there 
until 1872, when he again removed to Philadelphia 
and practiced one year. He then located at Colum- 
bus, practicing at Columbus, Beverly, and Burlington. 
He resided at Columbus for several years. During 
the war he served as a surgeon United States Volun- 
teers, unattached, in the West and Southwest. He 
enjoyed a high reputation for his skill and success 
in the treatment of cases in this State, but it was in 
Philadelphia that he effected some remarkable cures 
and acquired higher rank than in Burlington County. 
As a medical writer, he was a man of considerable 
note among his fellow-men, some of his articles and 
treatises being well received in England. He had 
fine poetical talents, and many of his efforts in this 
line as well as miscellaneous prose compositions se- 
cured recognition on account of their literary excel- 
lence. He died at Linwood, Pa., Nov. 20, 1872. 

Theopuilus Towxsend Price was born May 21, 
1828, on the family estate at Town Bank, on the shore 
of Delaware Bay, in Cape May County. He was the 
seventh son of John and Kezia Price, and the great- 
grandchild of William Price, who was captain in the 

service of the colonies during the Revolutionary war. 
Theophilus received his early education at the com- 
mon school ; later he attended the Cold Spring Acad- 
emy, since discontinued. He began the study of 
medicine in 1850 with Dr. V. M. D. Marcy, of Cold 
Spring, which he pursued three years, graduating 
after attending two full courses of lectures in the 
Pennsylvania Medical College; thesis, "Animal 
Heat." In April, 1853, he located at Tuckerton, 
Burlington County, and commenced the practice of 
medicine. In November, 1854, he married Eliza 
Pharo, youngest daughter of Timothy Pharo, of 
Tuckerton. In July, 1863, he offered his services to 
the government as volunteer surgeon, and was as- 
signed to duty at Chestnut Hill Hospital. In 1868 
he was elected to the New Jersey Legislature. In 
1870 he was instrumental with others in building the 
Tuckerton Railroad, and has held the position of di- 
rector and secretary of the company since, and for 
several years was local treasurer. He was also one 
of the directors of the Medford Bank for many years. 
In 1867 he was baptized at Tuckerton, and became a 
member of the Baptist Church at Cape Island, N. J. 
In 1877 he wrote a history of the New Jersey coast, 
which was published during the same year. July, 
1879, he received from Sherman the appointment of 
surgeon of the marine hospital service at Tuckerton, 
which position he still holds. He is also a member 
of the Historical Society of New Jersey. 

Eugene Schumo, son of Thomas and Rebecca 
Powell Schumo, was born in Woodbury, N. J., and 
graduated at the Pennsylvania Medical College in 
1859. Subject of thesis, "Alcohol." His medical 
preceptor was Professor D. Gilbert. He commenced 
practice in Philadelphia, where he remained for about 
six months; removed thence to Mount Holly, N. J. ; 
was commissioned assistant surgeon Second Regiment 
New Jersey Volunteers, and served as such ; removed 
to Newton, N. J., and from thence to Layton, N. J., 
where he still resides, following his practice. 

Lewis P. Jemisox, A.M., was born near Princeton, 
N. J., June 10, 1832. His father, Isaiah Jemison, a 
farmer, and his mother, Elizabeth (Major) Jemison, 
were both natives of New Jersey. His early education 
was received at the select school of George W. Scliank 
in Princeton. Entered College of New Jersey at 
Princeton in 1849, and graduated in 1853. 

After leaving college he became principal of the 
public school in Princeton one year. The two follow- 
ing years had charge of the classical department of 
the Haverstraw Mountain Institute at Havcrstraw, 
Rockland Co., N. Y. Afterward studied medicine in 
the office of Prof. J. Stillwell Schank, LL.D., now 
Professor of Chemistry in the College of New Jersey 
at Princeton. Attended the regular courses of lec- 
tures in the University of Pennsylvania, and received 
his diploma in 1858; subject of thesis, "Irritable 
Uterus." He then located at Hightstown, N. J., re- 
maining there for two years. In 1860 removed to 


Bordentown, N. J., where he has since resided and 
followed the practice of his profession. 

He has been a member of the Burlington Medical 
Society since 18G4, and was its president during 1870. 
Is United States examining surgeon for applicants I 
for pensions. 1 

He has been twice married. His first wife was j 
Martha D. Allison, of New York, whom he married 
in 1859; she died April 4, 1860. In January, 1863, 
he married Rebecca S. Wrag, of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Stanley G. Clark was born near the city of 
Kingston, in the province of Ontario. His father was 
William H. Clark, a general merchant, holding one 
or two local offices under the Canadian government, 
such as colonel of militia, postmaster, issuer of mar- 
riage licenses, coroner, etc. Stanley G. was educated 
at Newburgh Academy, in said province, and at the 
age of twenty-two, on his return to Canada after a 
year's residence in San Francisco, Cal., commenced 
the study of medicine under Dr. John Grant, at 
present (1880) surgeon to St. Mary's Hospital, Vir- 
ginia City, Nev. After due course of study he grad- 
uated at the University of the City of New York in 
1868; subject of thesis, ''Medical Diagnosis." 

During the late Rebellion, while still a student, he 
was afforded special opportunity for study, dissection, 
etc., while in charge of one of the wards of Quarter- 
master's Hospital at Washington, D. C, going thence 
to North Carolina, where he acted for a few months 
as clerk in Quartermaster's Department. 

Shortly alter obtaining his diploma he married a 
Miss French, of Burlington County, and located at 
Tuckerton, where he remained for about three years, 
and again went to California, and practiced medicine 
for one year at San Pablo, twelve miles from San 
Francisco, where he remained for a short time. Hav- 
ing left his wife East, he returned to Tuckerton, N. J., 
and again resumed his practice, and is now one of 
the prominent physicians of the southern part of the 

Charles Adams Barker, only son of Charles M. 
and Lydia A. Barker, was born Nov. 5, 1847, at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. His early education was received in the 
public and private schools of Philadelphia. After two 
years of private study and apprenticeship in a retail 
drug-store, matriculated at Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia, under the preceptorship of Henry 
Geiger, M.D. He graduated in March, 1867 ; subject 
of thesis, " Emetics." After graduating be practiced 
for a time at South Camden, N. J. ; removed from 
there to Philadelphia. In 1872 he moved to Florence, 
Burlington Co., N. J., and succeeded Dr. Tracy E. 

Early in 1876 he removed to Burlington, N. J., and 
succeeded Dr. D. B. Vanslyke. After five months' 
sojourn in Burlington, again moved to Philadelphia. 
Late in 1876 he returned to Florence. In August, 
1879, removed to Woodland, St. Joseph Co., Ind. 

JosiAH Reeve, son of Josiah R. and Maria S. Reeve, 

was born at Locust Shade, near Med ford, N. J., Nov. 
28, 1842 ; was educated at Westtown Boarding-School 
and at Samuel J. Gummere's school, in Burlington. 
N. J. ; commenced the study of medicine at the age 
of eighteen, under his uncle, Dr. Henry P. Ely, a 
skillful physician of ISIedford, and graduated at the 
University of Pennsylvania in March, 1863, at the 
age of twenty years and four months; subject of thesis, 
"Typhoid Pneumonia;" was elected the following 
month one of the resident physicians to the Philadel- 
phia Hospital for one year. After leaving the hospital 
he immediately commenced the practice of medicine 
with his uncle. Dr. Ely, in Medford, where he has since 
remained, continuing in partnership with Dr. Ely 
until the death of the latter, Jan. 9, 1873. 

In 1870 he married Jennetta E., daughter of John 
R. Johnson, of Germantown. 

Daniel G. Van Mater, son of Gilbert H. and 
Sarah H. Van Mater, was born at Holmdel, Mon- 
mouth Co., N. J., June 27, 1852 ; was educated at 
Glenwood Institute, Mattawan, Monmouth Co., N. J., 
and Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. 

His medical preceptor was J. G. Shackleton. He 
graduated at Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New 
York City, in 1875, — subject, "Gangrene," — and set- 
tled at Columbus, Burlington Co., N. J. 

William C. Parry was Warminster, Bucks 
Co., Pa., May 17, 1849. He received a connnon-school 
education in the neighborhood, and attended Friends' 
Central School, at Fifteenth and Race Streets, Phila- 
delphia, and attended lectures at Jefferson Medical 
College, and graduated in March, 1872, and com- 
menced the practice of medicine at Eddington, Bucks 
Co., Pa., where he remained three years; removed 
thence to Mount Holly, this county, where he still 
resides, following his profession. 

William H. Shepp, son of David and Catherine 
Shepp, natives of Pennsylvania. William was born 
in Philadelphia, Aug. 20, 1850; was educated in the 
public and private schools of that city. In 1871 he 
removed to Bordentown, N. J. In the spring of 1874 
he commenced the study of medicine under the 
directions of Dr. H. H. Longstreet, of Bordentown, 
and in the fall of the same year entered the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, graduating from that institution 
March, 1878; subject of thesis, "The Therapeutic 
value of Eucalyptus Globulus." Immediately after 
graduating became associated with his preceptor. Dr. 
Longstreet, in practice at Bordentown, N. J. 

Francis Ashhurst, fifth son of Lewis R. and Mary 
Ashhurst, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 5, 1844. He 
studied medicine with Dr. Joseph Carson, and grad- 
uated at the University of Pennsylvania in March, 
1867 ; subject of thesis, " Rubeola." 

In December, 1867, was elected one of the resident 
physicians to the Episcopal Hospital at Piiiladelphia. 
In December, 1869, he married Sarah D., daughter of 
William N. Lacey, and great-granddaughter of Gen. 
John Lacey, of Burlington County. He removed to 



Mount Holly, May, 1874, and began the practice of 
medicine; was for three years previous demonstrator 
of anatomy in Philadelphia School of Anatomy and 
physician to the Lincoln Institution of that city. 

The following sketch is abstracted from " The Bio- 
graphical Encyclopa'dia of New Jersey of the Nine- 
teenth Century," 1877: 

Joseph Parrish, M.D., of Burlington, son of the 
noted Dr. Joseph Parrish, of Philadelphia, was born 
in that city in 1818. After receiving a liberal educa- 
tion he studied medicine at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and graduated in 1844. He married Lydia 
Gaskill, the daughter of a leading citizen of Burling- 
ton, and began practice in that city. Soon after he 
started The New Jersey Medical Reporter, and so ably 
did he conduct it that the journal attracted the atten- 
tion of the profession throughout the country, and the 
New Jersey Medical Society recognized it as their or- 
gan. TEe Reporter is still in existence, being pub- 
lished from Philadelphia. In 1853, Dr. Parrish was 
•waited upon by a committee of the faculty of the 
Philadelphia College of Medicine, and invited to ac- 
cept the chair of obstetrics and diseases of women 
and children. At first hesitating, he accepted the call 
and removed to that city the following year. Under 
the heavy claims of his professorship and a large pri- 
vate practice his health gave way. Resigning the 
chair, he spent the winter in Alabama, and then sailed 
for Europe. He passed some time in Rome, and paid 
frequent visits to the hospitals and asylums, in the 
management of one of which he observed a painful 
carelessness and inhumanity. Expostulating with 
the authorities of the insane department of one of 
these for the harshness and severity of their dis- 
cipline, he was referred to the prefect of charities, 
and by him to the pope himself. The doctor drew 
up an urgent appeal to His Holiness, which elicited 
from the pope a reply to the effect that he " was 
graciously indebted to the young American for his 
kindly and judicious interest." Soon after a com- 
mission was appointed to examine the hospitals, 
and as a consequence the glaring abuses of power 
upon the helpless inmates of the asylums appealed 
against by Dr. Parrish were entirely corrected. 
Upon his return to Philadelphia he was induced to 
take charge of an institution for the training of idiots, 
lately organized by Bishop Potter, and located in a 
rented property at Germantown. Under his able ad- 
ministration its value was speedily recognized by both 
the people and the Legislature, and large private con- 
tributions and liberal appropriations followed. The 
Legislatures of New Jersey and Delaware and the 
City Councils of Philadelphia, under his influence, 
voted grants in consideration of the reception and 
treatment of a given number of children from their 
respective localities. 

The institution having been removed tj Media and 
firmly established, Dr. Parrish felt his services to be 
demanded by his country, and in 18G3 resigned his 

charge. He at once entered the Sanitary Commission, 
and was appointed an inspector of camps and hos- 
pitals around Washingten ; was subsequently dele- 
gated to visit the principal towns of Pennsylvania, 
hold public meetings, and organize aid societies, and 
so successful was he that he was requested by the 
board to visit the loyal Governors and Legislatures, 
and endeavor to unify and concentrate the work of 
this valuable auxiliary to the government. Subse- 
quently, under authority of President Lincoln, he 
made a tour of the numerous Union camps and hos- 
pitals of the South and West, and distributed with 
great discretion the supplies of the people through 
the authority of the government. For months he 
was at White House and City Point, distributing whole 
cargoes of clothing, ice, and hospital stores. After 
the close of the war, being strongly interested in the 
condition of the newly-emancipated slaves, he, ac- 
companied by his wife, made a tour of inspection of 
schools throughout the Southern States in connection 
with the Freedman's Commission. Returning to 
Philadelphia he turned his attention to a subject 
which for many years had occupied his mind, the 
nature and cure of inebriety. He organized the Penn- 
sylvania Sanitarium for the Cure of Inebriates, loca- 
ting it at Media, and becoming the president of the 
board. In 1870 he called a convention of physicians 
interested in similar institutions to be held in New 
York, and the American Association for the Cure of 
Inebriates was then formed. He is at present presi- 
dent of the association. In 1872 he and Dr. Dodge were 
appointed to appear before a committee of the House 
of Commons of England and give their experience 
in the treatment of inebriety. A full stenographic 
report of their testimony was taken and published 
by the British government, and the committee made 
a unanimous report adopting the recommendations 
of the delegates. Soon after his return from Eng- 
land he was appointed to negotiate a treaty with the 
warlike Indians north of Texas, but declined the 
commission. At the request of the trustees of Mary- 
land Inebriate Asylum at Baltimore, he devoted a 
part of his time to the management of that institution. 
During all these years of active work he has not been 
unmindful of the promulgation of his theory in a 
wider sphere. By able contributions to the public 
press and to the medical literature of the country he 
has attracted large attention to the scientific treat- 
ment of idiocy and inebriety, and has secured for 
himself the position of an authority on these subjects. 
In October, 1875, he returned to Burlington, intend- 
ing to devote himself to medical literature, but he 
rapidly fell into an extensive practice which he could 
not well avoid. 

Zachariah Read, M.D. — The Read family are of 
Scotch and Welsh extraction, the progenitor in this 
country having been Joseph Read, who landed in 
Philadelphia about 1732, where he studied, was made 
sergeant-at-law, and having located in Burlington, 

'<:?<!^C^-^'-0^ , 




subsequently removed to Mount Holly, N. J., where 
he died in 1814. His son, Gen. Samuel J., was born 
in Mount Holly, was a prominent member of the legal 
fraternity of the county, and died in 1836 at the age 
of sixty-five. He was at the time of his death the 
oldest representative of the bar. 

His third son, Zachariah, was born Sept. 19, 1808, 
in Mount Holly, where his early life was spent. He 
pursuded his studies and graduated at Basking Ridge, 
and subsequently entered the drug-store of Caleb Ash, 
of Philadelphia. Having determined to adopt the 
profession of medicine, he became a student in the 
office of Dr. Joseph Parrish, Sr., and graduated from 
the Medical Department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1830. He soon after established himself 
in practice at Mount Holly, his native place, where he 
continued his professional labors for a period of over 
Ibrty years. 

Dr. Read was a member of the New Jersey State 
Medical Society, and also of the medical society of 
the count}'. He was twice married, — first, to Miss 
Martha C. Shairas, and a second time to Miss Eliza- 
beth G. Wurts. Two daughters survive the first, and 
a son and daughter the second marriage. 

Dr. Read attained a distinguished success in his 
profession. He was especially skillful in critical cases 
of surgery, while his rapid and correct diagnosis and 
general kindlj' bearing towards his patients made his 
presence ever welcome in the sick chamber. 

At a meeting of the District Medical Society of the 
County of Burlington, at which Dr. Read was unable 
from feeble health to be present, the following tribute 
was paid to him : "Asa cloud poised on the verge 
of the horizon, balancing itself in the evening vapor, 
unconsciously waits to be dispelled that the glory 
behind it may become visible, so the flimsy shadows 
that envelop the physical being of our friend, Dr. 
Read, and conceal the nobleness and gentleness of his 
real nature, are only lingering for a space that they 
may be scattered at last to reveal the true but hidden 
man as he shall appear in the atmosphere of celestial 
skies in the companionship of those who have gone 

Dr.Read was the first president of the Old Bene- 
ficial Society of Mount Holly, organized in 1838. He 
was an active member of St. Andrew's Protestant 
Episcopal Church, and for many years one of its 
vestrymen. The death of Dr. Read occurred at his 
home in Mount Holly, on the 29th of July, 1879, in 
the seventy-second year of his age. 

Richard S. Braddock, M.D., physician and sur- 
geon of Medford, Burlington Co., N. J., is son of 
William, and grandson of William Braddock, and 
was born in Medford, Dec. 3, 1853. 

His preparatory education was obtained at the Pen- 
nington Seminary, from which he was graduated in 
1872. He read medicine with Dr. N. Newlin Stokes, 
of Moorestown, N. J., attended lectures, and was 
graduated from the Jefferson Medical College, Phila- 

delphia, in 1875. Dr. Braddock the same year began 
the practice of his profession at Medford, where, by 
his skillful treatment of disease and ready diagnosis 
of cases, he has the confidence of a large circle of 
friends, and has there continued a successful practice 
since. He takes special interest in surgery and gyne- 
cology, is a student of his profession, and well read 
in the best medical literature of the day. 

He was united in marriage in 1877 to Miss Emma 
T. Antrim. Their only child is one son, R. Chelton 

His father, second son of William Braddock, has 
spent his erftire life in Medford township, a farmer 
and lumber merchant, married Mary J. Garwood, who 
bore him eight children, as follows : Hannah G. (de- 
ceased), Mary Anna (deceased), Charles S. (deceased), 
Emma J., wife of Samuel Stackhouse, Adelaide, 
Clara, Dr. Richard S., and Lillian (deceased). 

Joseph Warrington, M.D., a lineal descendant 
from Henry Warrington, was born in Chester town- 
ship, Burlington Co., N. J., Sept. 1, 1805. His boy- 
hood was spent on the farm of his father, and his 
early education obtained in the Westfield common 
school, and the AVesttown Friends' boarding-school, 
where he was prepared, and for several terms there- 
after was a teache?. He read medicine with Dr. 
Jonathan J. Spencer, of Moorestown, N. J., attended 
lectures at the University of Pennsylvania, from 
which he was graduated in 1828, and at once settled 
in the practice of his profession in Philadelphia. Dr. 
Warrington's skillful treatment of disease, his quick 
perception and ready and correct diagnosis of cases, 
made his progress rapid to the front rank in the pro- 
fession in general practice; and he was so favorably 
received, and his services so much in demand, that 
after years of constant work his overtaxed mind and 
body demanded rest, and accordingly in 1854, tipon 
the advice of his medical counsel, he retired as far as 
possible from professional duties, settled on his fi\rm 
in Chester, where until a few years since he engaged 
in agricultural pursuits with all the energy and ability 
that he had been accustomed to exercise in the prac- 
tice of medicine. He largely gave up any kind of 
business in 1875, and settled in Moorestown, where he 
resides in 1882. 

No more brilliant record of successful practice in 
medicine can be noted than that of Dr. Warrington's 
in that city, and many of the institutions established 
by him are still in existence to show his forethought, 
his study of the public demand, and the influence 
that he there exerted. He was one of the founders 
of the Philadelphia County Medical Society, and of 
the State Medical Society of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, and he was delegated by the Philadelphia 
Medical Society one of its representatives to organize 
the American Medical Association at a meeting called 
for that purpose in New York City. He was an ac- 
tive member of the old Philadelphia Medical Society, 
and read important papers at its meetings, among 



wliicli were one on "Coesarean Section," and one on 
" Embryotomy," and lie is also a fellow of the Col- 
lege of Physicians of Philadelphia. Dr. Warrington 
Avas the founder of an obstetric institute in the city — 
now called the " Lying-in and Nurse Society" — in 
1839, the home of which is located at Eleventh and 
Cherry Streets, and he was one of the original char- 
ter members of the Philadelphia "Lying-in Charity" 
in 1832, in which he established a lectureship. Inde- 
fatigable in his efforts, liberal with his means, talent, 
and labor. Dr. Warrington had seemingly just reached 
the pinnacle of fame in his profession when ill health, 
caused by overwork both night and day, compelled 
him to relinquish the labor he so much loved, and to 
which he gave the vigor of his early manhood. 

He was united in marriage, Oct. 23, 1833, to Mary 
L., daughter of Lindzey and Beulah (Lippincott) 
Nicholson. She was born Aug. 15, 1812. Their 
children are Joseph, Mrs. Mary E. W. Stokes, Susan 
Nicholson, and Anna Beulah Warrington. Mrs. 
Warrington's maternal grandfather, John Lippin- 
cott, was a brother of Dr. Warrington's maternal 
grandfather, Thomas Lippincott. The family of War- 
rington has been identified with the Society of Friends 
since their first settlement in America. Henry, son of 
John and Hannah Warrington, was born in England 
in 1687, and came to Philadelphia in 1700, with his 
sister and mother, both of whom remained there. 
Ilejiry subsequently settled in Chester township. New 
Jersey, where he owned some four hundred acres of 
land, which has been the family homestead since. 
His first wife, Eliziibeth Austin, whom he married in 
1719, bore him children, — Ruth, born in 1720; John, 
1722 ; May, 1723 ; and Thomas, in 1725. His second 
wife, Elizabeth Bishop, whom he married in 1728, 
bore him children, — Joseph and Benjamin (twins), 
born in 1730; Sarah, 1732; Hannah, 1734; Rudell, 
1737; Elizabeth, 1739; and Esther, 1742. Of the first 
children, Thomas settled on Pensaukin Creek, and 
the property has been in the hands of his descendants 
since. Joseph was grandfather of Dr. Warrington ; 
succeeded to the original homestead in Chester, where 
he spent his life a farmer. He was born Feb. 20, 
1730, and died April 24, 1803. His wife, Rebecca* 
Walton, of Byberry, Pa., bore him children, — Benja- 
min, Henry, and three daughters who died young. 

Benjamin, born April 28, 1774, resided on the home- 
stead most of his life, and died in Moorestown. Henry, 
father of Dr. Warrington, devoted his life to agricul- 
tural pursuits on a part of the homestead, and died 
in 1851, aged seventy-four years. His wife, Anna, 
-daughter of Thomas L)]ii)incott, died in 184G, aged 
sixty-four years. Their children are Dr. Joseph, Re- 
becca, wife of George M. Haverstick, of Moorestown ; 
Lydia, wife of Clarkson Sheppard, of Media, Pa., who 
lias spent most of his life a minister of the Society of 
Friends at Greenwich, N. J. ; Seth, born Dec. 21, 1816, 
a farmer on a part of the old homestead, retired and 
resides in Moorestown; Henry, deceased, and Anna 

(twins), the latter the widow of Joseph Hooton, of 
Moorestown ; William, died at the age of nineteen ; 
and Rachel, unmarried, died in 1860. 

George Haines. — One Richard Haines, from 
" Aynoe on ye Hill," England, left for the colonies of 
America, in company with his wife Margaret, during 
the years 1681 or 1682. The voyage, which was 
long and tedious, resulted in the death of Richard. 
Joseph, the fifth son of Mr. and Mrs. Haines, was 
born in mid-ocean. The widow with her children 
landed at Burlington, N. J., and subsequently mar- 
ried Henry Bircham. John, the eldest child of Rich- 
ard Haines, had two years before sailed for America, 
and was dwelling in a cave at Rancocas, on the Ran- 
cocas River. He married Esther Bourton, and be- 
came the parent of fourteen children. Jonathan, the 
third son, married Mary Matlack, to whom seven 
children were born. Jonathan, the first child, mar- 
ried Hannah Sharp, and was the grandfather of the 
subject of this biographical sketch. 

Among these six children was Nehemiah, the fifth 
child and fourth son, who married Abigail, daughter 
of Noah Haines and Hannah Thorn. Among their 
eight children was George, the fifth son, whose birth 
occurred June 13, 1798, nearly two miles north of the 
village of Medford, on the farm originally purchased 
by John Haines, and for which a deed has never since 
been given. George remained at the home of his 
parents until a period following the death of his 
father, and later became a member of the household 
of Noah and Charles Haines, of Camden. At the 
age of eighteen he entered the oSlce of Dr. Parrish, of 
Philadelphia, and began the study of medicine, hav- 
ing graduated in 1821 from the University of Penn- 
sylvania. After two years spent in the hospitals of 
Philadelphia he removed to Medford and began the 
practice of his profession. 

He was married on the 17th of February, 1825, to 
Miss Sarah, daughter of Zebedee and Priscilla Moore 
Wills. Their children were nine in number, the fol- 
lowing of whom survive : George, who married Mary, 
daughter of James Gardner and his wife, Ann Powell 
Gardner, and who are the parents of five children; 
Richard, whose wife was Sarah, daughter of Levi and 
Mary Haines Troth, and who have two sons; Pru- 
dence E., who resides with her brother James, the 
youngest of the family, at Medford. 

Dr. Haines was for more than half a century a suc- 
cessful practitioner. He was a member of the New 
Jersey State Medical Society, and actively interested 
in all matters pertaining to his profession. He was a 
man of poetic tastes, and himself a poet of no mean 
ability. He was also a fluent speaker, and delivered 
many discourses in the cause of temperance. The 
doctor was a member of the Upper Evesham 
Monthly Meeting. He was in politics a Republican, 
but not an active politician. His death occurred in 
April, 1877, in the seventy-ninth year of his age. 

Fraxklix Gauntt. — Encouraged by extraor- 

:';'r ■- \*- 



dinary privileges as skilled artisans, the ancestors 
of Peter Gauutt came from Ghent to Lincolnshire, 
England. Peter and his wife Hannali, sore with op- 
pression and persecution in England, sought liberty 
of conscience in the province of Massachusetts Bay 
about 1650. Hananiah and Israel, sons of Peter, em- 
braced the Quaker faith, and with other co-religion- 
ists removed from Sandwich and settled on Long 
Island, and thence to Shrewsbury. There the first 
Quaker meeting in New Jersey was organized. Israel 
settled on a large tract of land there. Hananiah 
took up in 1G85 a tract of five hundred acres in 
Springfield, near Jobstown, which remained in the 
family until the death of Mr. Gauntt (and is now the 
property of the Lorillards), leaving a large family of 
children. Descendants of these progenitors of the 
family in New Jersey have been found patriotic and 
representative in professional and business pursuits. 
One Charles Gauntt served in the United States navy 
■with the rank of captain during the war of 1812, and 
was on the brig " Wasp" when it captured the British 
shij) "Frolic," which mounted four guns more. He 
also served in the South Pacific during the war for 
the independence of the Spanish colonies, and in the 
Grecian archipelago against the Greek pirates. His 
sons, Charles Stockton Gauntt, M.D., and Ireland 
Gauntt, reside in Philadelphia. 

Another descendant, Elisha Gauntt, uncle of Dr. 
Gauntt, born in 1800, was twice a member of the 
Legislature, and resided on the old homestead. Ann 
Gauntt, wife of Hananiah Gauutt, was a most distin- 
guished female Quaker minister in New Jersey, Long 
Island, and Pennsylvania from 172S to 177G, and also 
a doctress. The family of Gauntt have been inter- 
married with the most prominent families in New 
Jersey, and have been generally strict adherents to 
the Quaker faith. 

Uz Gauntt, grandfather of our subject, a direct de- 
scendant from Hananiah, in turn possessed the family 
homestead in Springfield, where he spent his life. He 
married in 1790 Sarah, daughter of Benjamin Jones, 
who bore him children, — Samuel, Benjamin, Israel, 
Hannah, Elisha, Lewis, and Jefferson. Of these, Ben- 
jamin, father of Dr. Gauntt, resided in Burlington, was 
most of his active life engaged in the stage business 
from New York to Philadelphia, and from Burlington 
to Mount Holly. He died in 18G4. His wife, Susan, 
daughter of John Stokes, of Rancocas, bore him chil- 
dren who survive, — Dr. Franklin, Capt. Charles Stokes, 
of Burlington, assistant to the superintendent of trans- 
portation of the Pennsylvania Railroad ; Benjamin Uz, 
a dentist in Philadelphia; Nathan Cole, of Philadel- 
phia; and Mrs. Ann Maria Reeves. 

Dr. Franklin Gauntt, eldest son of Benjamin 
Gauntt, was born in Burlington, N. J., July 19, 1823, 
where he received an academical education during 
his minority. He read medicine with Drs. Nathan 
"NV. Cole and Joseph Parrish, of Burlington, attended 
lectures, and Avas graduated at the University of 

Pennsylvania in 1847, and the same year received a 
license to practice medicine from the State Medical 
Society of New Jersey. He began practice in Bur- 
lington, where he has continued uninterruptedly since. 
Soon after he settled here, being invited by Bishop 
Doane, he delivered a series of lectures on chemistry 
in St. Mary's Hall, the course lasting three years. 
These lectures had much to do in at once bringing 
his name publicly and favorably before the people, 
and in due course of time inducting him into a large 
practice. Upon their completion Dr. Gauntt was 
appointed by the bishop, physician in Burlington 
College at St. Mary's Hall. 

Dr. Gauntt is a thorough student of the science, 
theory, and practice of medicine and surgery, and 
keeps in advance of the profession generally. He is 
an advocate of the prevention of disease by removing 
the cause, and is constantly making researches in this 
direction. He has been identified with the State 
Medical Society and the Burlington County Medical 
Society since 1847, and officially connected with the 
latter as president, vice-president, and secretary, he- 
fore which he has read the following valuable papers : 
"Pulmonary Consumption is a Zymotic and Conta- 
gious Disease, the Germs and Predisposition are 
Transmissible" (1872); "Miasmatic, Remittent, and 
Yellow Fevers are the Results of Ferments pro- 
duced by the Sporules of Cryptogamia?, and are 
Preventable" (1878). In the winter of 1869-70 he 
prepared and delivered a course of lectures on 
the "Philosophy of Life" before the "Reading- 
Room Association" of Burlington, illustrating his 
ideas by specimens from the lowest to the highest in 
natural history. For the depth of research, ability, 
and interest manifested in the discussion of these top- 
ics, and his advanced ideas in developing new thought. 
Dr. Gauntt received favorable comment upon the 
subject-matter of his papers and lectures from some 
of the most learned men of the day. He ranks among 
the most skjllful surgeons in the State ; is surgeon of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company located at Bur- 
lington, and served conspicuously in that capacity 
at the time of the memorable railroad disaster at 
Burlington in 1855. On Nov. 18, 1861, he wa.s 
appointed by Governor Olden surgeon Third Regi- 
ment Burlington Brigade Militia, and served in the 
United States hospital at Beverly during the war. 
Upon the invitation of Governor Parker, he en- 
tered his name for volunteer service in cases of emer- 
gency in the United States army, and had his first 
call on June 1, 1864. He was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Randolph on June 14, 1870, major and 
surgeon, Second Brigade National Guards State 
of New Jersey, and he was appointed lieutenant-col- 
onel, staff Second Brigade National Guards, Feb. 29, 
1876, by Governor Bedle, and he was also appointed 
by Governor McClellan a member of the State Board 
of Health, State of New Jersey, June 28, 1880. 

Dr. Gauntt has been identified with the city locally 



as city physician, member and president of the Com- 
mon Council for several years, and vestryman of St. 
Mary's Church, of which he is the senior warden. 
He has taken a deep interest in all that pertains to 
the welfare of the city and the health and prosperity 
of its citizens, was influential in establishing an ade- 
quate fire department, and obtaining the first hose- 
carriage and steam-engine for its use, and proper 
drainage and water supply for the public health. 

In 1880 he was chosen by the State Board of Health 
a delegate to the International Medical Association, 
at London, England, but home professional duties 
prevented his attending, and in 187G he was one of 
the Democratic Presidential electors to cast his vote 
at Trenton for Samuel J. Tilden. 

Dr. Gauntt married in 1849, Mrs. Jane R. MofTett, 
daughter of Samuel Allen, of Philadelphia. Their 
children are Elizabeth S., wife of Samuel E. Lippin- 
cott, Burlington ; Caroline G., wife of Samuel W. 
Jones ; Franklin Allen and William Croswell Doane 

Charles Ellis, M.D. — Rowland Ellis came to 
Burlington in 1714, being sent here from England as 
a teacher by the "Society for tiie Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Lands." He was assistant minister 
and teacher under Rev. John Talbot, the first rector 
of the Episcopal Churcli in Burlington, and his name 
is closely identified with the early history of the 
church, school, and city. He was clerk of the city 
for forty years. His son Daniel was an influential 
citizen, and spent his life mostly a public man of Bur- 
lington City and county; was clerk of the city for 
thirty-five years, surveyor, sheriff, and judge. 

Charles, son of Daniel, also resided in Burlington 
during his life, and although not identified publicly 
so largely with its local affairs, he was a prominent 
and influential citizen. He was appointed Indian 
Commissioner to treat with the Indians, and held 
several public offices at home, being on several occa- 
sions a member of the board of chosen freeholders. 
Two of his sons, Daniel H. and Jacob, are prominent 
citizens of Freehold, N. J., where they have spent 
most of their active lives. 

The second son. Dr. Charles Ellis, subject of this 
sketch, was born in Burlington, N. J., Sept. 27, 1801. 
He was educated in the public schools of his native 
city, read medicine with the eminent physician. Dr. 
N. W. Cole, of Burlington, and attended lectures, and 
was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 
1827. He practiced his profession in Burlington from 
the time of his graduation until 1844, when on ac- 
count of the ill health of his wife he reluctantly re- 
tired from professional duty, and spent much time 
traveling and away from the city. 

Dr. Ellis was one of the five charter members of 
the District Medical Society for Burlington County, 
founded on June 17, 1829, and was called to preside 
over that body at its semi-centennial meeting, held 
at the city of Burlington, June 17, 1879, being then 

the only surviving charter member. He is known by 
his medical associates as representative in his profes- 
sion, possessed of sterling integrity in all the rela- 
tions of life, high-minded and honorable. He has 
always avoided display and ostentation, and has led 
a quiet and even life. A man of fixed purpose and 
strong force of character, Dr. Ellis is not only repre- 
sentative in his profession but as a citizen of his na- 
tive city. He has been identified with the church of 
his ancestors nearly all his life (St. Mary's), and offi- 
cially connected with it for many years as warden 
and vestryman, and he has been a supporter of the 
Library Association and the other worthy objects of 
the city. 

His first wife, Elizabeth Loyd, died in 18G8. His 
second wife, whom he married in July, 18G9, is Eliza- 
beth Anna, daughter of Belcher Byles, of Boston, 
Mass., granddaughter of Dr. Mather Byles. who was 
the son of the celebrated wit, Dr. Mather Byles, A.M., 
V.D.M., of that city. The latter was the son of Rev. 
Josiah Byles, the progenitor of the family here from 

Rev. Josiah Byles married a daughter of Richard 
Mather, the progenitor of the Mather family in Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

Dr. Henry H. Longstreet was born in Mon- 
mouth County, N. J., Jan. 11, 1819. His parents 
were Hendrick and Mary (Holmes) Longstreet, both 
natives of New Jersey, the former being through life 
a successful and enterprising farmer. Dr. Longstreet 
received his earlier education at a select school in the 
village of Middlctown Point, now known as Matta- 
wan, N. J., and finished his academic course at the 
seminary at Lenox, Mass. Having determined to 
pursue the study of medicine, he became a student 
under Dr. Robert W. Cooke, of Holmdcl, and subse- 
quent! j' enjoyed the same relation to that distin- 
guished physician and writer. Dr. John B. Beck, Pro- 
fessor of Materia Medica and Jurisprudence in the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, 
and author of "Beck's Medical Jurisprudence" and 
other standard works. At that institution Dr. Long- 
street attended several courses of lectures, and in 1842 
the degree of Doctor of Medicine was conferred upon 
him by the same. He immediately located in the 
pursuit of his puofession at Bordentown, where he 
has since continued in uninterrupted and successful 
practice. As a physician, he stands in the front rank 
of his profession, and probably no other in the State 
is more widely and favorably known. In practice he 
is the uncompromising foe of everything savoring of 
empiricism, and devotes all of his energies toward the 
elevation of the standard of his profession. 

Possessed of a well-stored and analytical mind, his 
judgments are matured and generally correct, and his 
advice and counsel are frequently sought after by his 
professional friends and acquaintances. With ample 
facilities for study, possessed of one of the largest and 
best selected libraries in the State, he is at this period 



of his career a careful student of his profession, thor- 
oughly familiar with the most recent and most im- 
proved methods of medical and surgical practice, and 
in the enjoyment of a large and remunerative busi- 
ness. His reputation is not alone confined to the 
locality in which he has passed so many years of his 
life, but extends into the adjoining counties and 
States. He is a member of the American Medical 
Association, of the State Medical Society, to which 
he has often been a delegate, and of the District Med- 
ical Society of Burlington County, of which he has 
served as president several terms. He has been 
closely identified with the growth and development 
of Bordentown for over forty years, and is recognized 
as one of its most active, public-spirited, and valuable 
citizens. He is a director and president of the Bor- 
dentown Banking Company, a director of the Borden- 
town Gas Company, of the Water Company, and of 
the Vincentown Marl Company. He is also presi- 
dent of that useful and popular local institution, the 
board of health. 

A man of decided views upon every subject com- 
manding his attention, bold and fearless in the ex- 
pression of his opinions, he yet numbers among his 
acquaintances many warm friends, to whom he is 
thoroughly devoted, and who learn to appreciate the 
real worth and character of the man. He lives in an 
unostentatious and quiet way, contributing liberally 
from the fortune which he has acquired by faithful 
labor in his profession to the support of all worthy 
objects. He takes a warm interest in local and na- 
tional politics, but avoids the acceptance of public 

He was married in 1848 to Hannah Ann Taylor, of 
New Jersey, who died in 1857. His present wife, to 
whom he was united in 18G9, is Elizabeth, daughter 
of the late Joseph Newbold, an old merchant of 
"Wrightstown, N. J. His son, Joseph Holmes Long- 
street, is engaged in the manufacture of electrical ap- 
paratus in New York City ; Miss Mary Longstreet, a 
daughter, resides at home. 

Complete Roll of Members of the District Medi- 
cal Society of Burlington County. — The members 
at the date of organization were as follows : 

1829. Nathan W. Cole, John Leake Stratton, 
Charles Ellis, John Cox Davis, Benjamin H. Strat- 

The following is a list of members who have joined 
since : 

1830. William S. Cox. 

Asahel C. Page. 

Eockefeller Dakin. 

Hugh H. Iligl ee. 

Samuel Woolston. 

Cliarles Bidgway. 

John H. Stokos. 

Jonathan J. Spencer. 

Jolin Chapman. 

Edward L. Dubarry. 
183.3. Charles F. Lott. 

James I'. Coleman. 

ZiicbariaU Read. 

183C. John Perdue. 

Alexander Brown 

1844. Joseph Parrish. 

1845. Is.Tac S. Haines. 
Andrew E. Budd. 

1847. George S. Duer. 
Job Haines. 
Franklin G.iuntt. 

1848. Samuel C. Thornton. 
John H. Stokes. 
Joseph H. Cook. 

H. 11. Longstreet. 
J. W. C. Evans. 


Anron Keid. 


George S. Shively. 

Isaac P. Coleman. 


Eugene Schumo. 

Alexander Elwell. 

Ahner Woodward. 

Geoige Haiuea. 


Ellis P. Towns.M.d. 

Isaiah S. Keevos 

Lewis P. .leuiison. 


David B. Trimble. 


William Woolsey. 

Edwin A. Heintzleman." 

F. B. Lippincott. 

Williams. Challis. 

John W. Webb. 


Irene D. YoiinK. 


Richard E. Brown. 

Samuel W. Butler. 

Lewis L. Sharp. 

li. H. Page. 


Enoch Ho|ling<head. 


William L. Martin. 

David B. Vauslyke. 

W. H. W„riliington. 


Alfred C. Stakes. 

William Bryan. 

Joseph II. Horner. 


James J. Wright. 


S. B. Irwin. 


Samuel C. Thornton, Jr. 

John H. Firr)ian. 

George Goodell. 


A. W. Taylor. 

E. R. Deiiby. 

PhineasK. W. Hilliard. 

J. Howard Pugh. 

Ledyard Van Rensselaer 

T. E. Waller. 


Stanley G. Clark. 

Fj. tJ. Woolston. 

Charles A. Baker. 

L. Bailey. 

Isaiah Reeves. 

William Cook. 


D. G. Van JIater. 

T. T. Price. 

W. C. Parry. 

James Bean. 

A. II. Paterson. 


William Grigg. 

H. M. Harvey. 


S. D. Harvey. 


William II. Shipps. 


N. Newlin Stokes. 

Walter E. Hall. 

Joseph Warrington. 


Frank Ashhurst. 

Joseph Shreve, M.D., of Burlington, N. J., was 
born at Longacoming, Gloucester Co., N. J. (now 
Berlin, Camden County), Sept. 24, 1822. He is the 
eldest son of Samuel Shreve, a prominent merchant 
and farmer of that place, and grandson of Joseph 
Shreve, of Mansfield township. 

Dr. Shreve acquired a common-school education in 
his native place, and was afterward engaged for sev- 
eral years in mercantile and agricultural pursuits. 

He married in 1844, Catherine Ridgeway, daughter 
of John Olden Glover, of Mount Ephraim, N. J., 
granddaughter of John Thorn Glover, and great- 
granddaughter of John Glover, who was born'at 
Bristol, Pa., Feb. 8, 1729, and whose father, Richard 
Glover, came from England in the early part of the 
eighteenth century. 

The above, John Thorn Glover, married, May 13, 
1784, Elizabeth Ridgeway, a daughter of James and 
Catherine Olden, of Princeton, N. J. Elizabeth 
Ridgeway left one child, Catherine, by her first mar- 
riage in 1777 to William Ridgeway, who became the 
wife of Josiah White, who was born in 1781 in Mount 
Holly, married in 1805, and was the projector of the 
enterprise to dam the Schuylkill River at Philadel- 
phia, and one of the men who introduced the use 
of Lehigh coal into that city. 

The children of Dr. Shreve by this marriage are 
Martha (wife of George W. Weatch, of lone City, 
Nev.), Walter Olden (deceased), Anna Glover, 
Joseph Newbold, John Glover, Ephraim Glover, and 
Charlotte Newbold Shreve (deceased). 

For many years after his marriage Dr. Shreve made 
the study of medicine one of his chief pursuits, and 
by observation in his own family and by his own 
practical sagacity he became satisfied that something 
beyond the regular practice of allopathy was neces- 



sary to reach many of " the ills that human flesh is 
heir to," and accordingly turned his attention to 
homoeopathy, giving it a candid, impartial examina- 
tion. Here he found a wide and interesting field for 
study, and became convinced of its superior theory, 
practice, and results, and that it is the system best 
adapted to cure the maladies of mankind. He tliere- 
fore continued to study and practice it in his own 
family for several years with great success. After- 
ward, at the solicitation and by the advice of many 
of his friends, and especially of Dr. Bowman H. 
Shivers, of Haddonfield, N. J., he was induced to 
enter the Philadelphia University of Medicine and 
Surgery in 1864. In 1866 he was graduated from that 
institution, and was afterward matriculated at and 
graduated from the Hahnemann Medical College of 
Philadelphia. He began the practice of his profes- 
sion in his native place, removed to Haddonfield, 
N. J., in 1871, where he remained until 1875, when he 
settled in Burlington, where he enjoys a large and in- 
creasing practice and the confidence of many of its 
representative families. 

Dr. Shreve is a member of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy, of the New Jersey State Homceo- 
pathic Society, and of the West Jersey District Ho- 
moeopathic Society. He is recognized as a skillful 
physician, and well read in his profession. His lib- 
eral views entertained towards those who differ with 
him in the theory and practice of medicine, his care 
of and devotion to his patients, and his safe and ju- 
dicious counsel have made him favorably known in 
the profession, and given him rank among the first 
practitioners of medicine in the county. 

Caleb Shreve, the progenitor of the family in New 
Jersey, came from England to Long Island in 1670, 
thence to Shrewsbury, N. J., and afterwards settled 
in Mansfield township, Burlington County, where the 
home of the Slireves has been since, a period of two 
hundred years. Caleb Shreve dated his will April 5, 
1735, at Mansfield, where he resided. Of his large 
family of children, Caleb, fourth child, died in Spring- 
field township in 1746. His son Caleb married Abi- 
gail Antrim, by whom he had children, and left a will 
dated 1786. His son Joseph married Sarah Taylor, 
and resided in Mansfield township. His son Samuel 
was father of Dr. Shreve, removed to Berlin or Long- 
acoming in 1816, to Evesham in 1839, and after a few 
years returned to Berlin, where he died in 1869, and 
was buried at Mount Laurel. His wife Ann, daughter 
of Samuel and Elizabeth Haines, bore him children 
who survive, — ^Martha N., wife of Ezra Stokes, of Ber- 
lin, Dr. Joseph, and Samuel H., a farmer of Evesham 

Dr. Shreve has in his possession a cane handed 
down from one generation to another of the Joseph 
Shreves, the original owner being Joseph, the son of 
Caleb, the progenitor of the family. 

The cane is made of white-oak, with a silver head 
topped with a Spanish half-dollar dated 1742, witli 

two pillars, each surmounted by a crown and having 
a scroll on each pillar, with the words plus on one and 
ultra on the other, between a crown resting on two 
hemispheres resting on water bearing an inscription 
around the edge, ultra que unum, ^\dth the letter M 
mounted by the letter O between two stars. 

H. B. Hall, j\I.D., homoeopathic physician of 
Riverton, Burlington Co., N. J., was born in Bridge- 
ton, N. J., March 12, 1851. His father, Ellis Bentley 
Hall, born in Bucks County, Pa., April 8, 1816, was 
graduated at Madison College, and ordained a minis- 


' rf '^''!y% '"'^ ' 



ter of the Baptist Church, but owing to failing health 
i he was compelled to relinquish ministerial work, and 
i subsequently read medicine and was graduated at the 
University of Pennsylvania. For a time afterwards 
j he practiced his profession in Camden, N. J., as an 
allopathic physician. A student of his profession, he 
j read of and meditated upon the new theory and prac- 
tice of medicine then being developed and attracting 
the attention of only a few of the more thoughtful 
j medical men of the day. He accordingly took up 
the study of homoeopathy, and was graduated in 1849 
from the Homoeopathic Medical College, being the first 
[ regular graduated allopathic physician in the world 
who had graduated in the new school of medicine. 

Dr. Ellis Bentley Hall continued the practice of 
medicine successfully until his death, which occurred 
July 10, 1875, at Beverly, N. J. He was an active 
politician, one of the prime movers in the anti-slavery 
movement in New Jersey, and was often tendered po- 
litical place. Dr. Hall was an influential member of 
the church, a supporter of all worthy objects, and 



one of the founders of the Classical and Scientific 
Institute at Hightstown. His widow, formerly Han- 
nah L. Harris, survives and lives with her son, Dr. 
H. B. Hall, of Riverton. 

Dr. H. B. Hall was educated at Freehold and Hi^i^hts- 
town, N. J., read medicine with his father, and entered 
the Homoeopathic Medical College of Pennsylvania in 
the fall of 1866, from which he was graduated Feb. 27, 
1869. He began the practice of his profession in Bev- 
erly, N. J., the following March, where he remained 
until 1871. For the following four years Dr. Hall trav- 
eled extensively and added much to his knowledge of 
the theory and practice of medicine. In 1875 he re- 
turned and settled at Riverton, where he was soon in- 
ducted into a large practice, which has rapidly in- 
creased since. His acknowledged skill in physics and 
surgery, his ready diagnosis of disease and care of his 
patients have given him rank among the first physi- 
cians in the county. He is a member of the West 
Jersey Homoeopathic Society, a member of the society 
of Odd-Fellows and Masons, and he is secretary of the 
Building and Loan Association of Riverton. He 
married, in 1882, Rebecca, daughter of John Peoples, 
of Wilmington, Del. 



The Burlington Gazette. — The Burlington Gazette 
is justly entitled to be called the pioneer newspaper 
of the city in which it is published and after which 
it takes its name. Although several attempts were 
made to establish a paper in Burlington previous to 
the publication of the Gazette, none were successful. 
In the early part of 1777, nearly a century after the 
settlement of the town, the first newspaper was issued 
in the place. It was called the New Jersey Gazette, 
and was removed to Trenton after two or three num- 
bers had been published, and is now edited and 
owned by Col. John L. Murphy. 

The first number of the Burlington Gazette was is- 
sued Dec. 16, 1835, the publisher being Joseph L. 
Powell, who came from Monmouth County to Bur- 
lington at an early age. He learned the art of print- 
ing under David AUinson, embarked in business and 
carried on quite a large trade, employing several 
hands. Mr. Powell had been in business several 
years when he began the publication of the Gazette. 
David Allinson had previously started a literary paper 
called the Rural Visitor, which was short-lived and a 
pecuniary loss. Dr. Hollemback, an old and well- 
known citizen, was journeyman printer working for 
Powell, and was instrumental in its publication. 
The office was in a building that stood on the west 
side of High Street, where Union Street has since 
been opened through. In his first editorial Mr. 

Powell used these words : " In religion we are Chris- 
tian ; in politics, Republican." The paper was de- 
voted to literature, agriculture, politics, and news of 
the day. The first number contained about a dozen 
advertisements, and not a single local item. In May, 
1839, the words '" and New Jersey Silk and Agricultural 
Register" were added to the title, and one Charles 
George, of Hunterdon County, became a partner of 
Mr. Powell. This was about thetimp the multicaulus 
fever raged, and a glance over the paper shows the 
proprietors were deeply interested in the prevailing 
excitement. In October of the same year Mr. George 
disposed of his interest in the paper, and early in 
1846 the word " Silk" was dropped from its title. 

In 1846, Mr. Powell disposed of the Gazette to 
Edmund Morris, who was born in Burlington in 1804, 
and learned printing in the oflJice of the Freema?i'g 
Journal in Philadelphia. Mr. Morris had a particu- 
lar talent for literary work. In 1824 he was part 
owner of a weekly newspaper at Doylestown, Pa. 
He carried on the printing business quite extensively 
for several years in Philadelphia. He was the author 
of "Ten Acres Enough," which had a large sale, and 
other works, and wielded a forcible and fluent pen, 
being a man of more than ordinary ability, with a 
keen insight into humap nature. For three years he 
had charge of the New Jersey State Gazette in Trenton, 
and conducted the Ariel and the Saturday EveJiing 
Bulletin in Philadelphia. He died and was buried in 
Burlington, May 4, 1874. 

In 1848, Samuel C. Atkinson purchased the Gazette 
from Mr. Morris. Mr. Atkinson was born in Mount 
Holly, Jan. 11, 1795, and died in Philadelphia, Feb. 
2, 1862. He was the founder of the Saturday Evening 
Post of Philadelphia, selling it for fifty thousand dol- 
lars, which in those days was considered a wonderful 
price for a weekly paper. He took in part payment 
a patent right which proved worthless, and lost 
heavily. In 1851, Mr. Atkinson sold the Gazette \o 
John Rodgers, a young lawyer from East Jersey. The 
latter soon tired of the business, and sold the paper 
in 1856 to Franklin Ferguson. 

Mr. Ferguson was born in Bucks County, Pa., and 
learned the printing business at Doylestown. For 
six years he published the Washington Whig at Bridge- 
ton, N. J. He also published a paper in Camden, 
and in 1848 went back to Bridgeton, where he pur- 
chased the West Jersey Telegraph, and changed the 
name to West Jersey Pioneer. 

In February, 1876, Mr. Ferguson sold the Burling- 
ton Gazette to James O. Glasgow, the present pro- 
prietor, who is a native of Bucks County, Pa., having 
learned the printing business at Doylestown, Pa. 
Mr. Ferguson died in Camden, N. J., June, 1876, 
aged seventy-one years. After Mr. Powell disposed 
of the Gazette he remained in Burlington, and was 
elected mayor of the city, and filled various other 
offices. He died June 1, 1878, aged eighty years. 
Mr. Atkinson removed to Mount Holly, where he 



died in 1868. Mr. Rodgers removed to Jersey City, 
and died tliero previous to the civil war. 

The New Jersey Enterprise. — This paper was 
first issued as an independent paper in 1868, under 
the joint owncr:«hip of Messrs. Hays and Magrath. 
After running the paper some time, and it not proving 
a great success pecuniarily, Mr. Hays bought out his 
partner, Mr. Magrath, who is now editor of the Cape 
May yVdvc, and hoisted the Republican banner to the 
head of the Euferprise. Mr. Hays continued the paper 
until his death, since which time it has been at dif- 
ferent periods under the management of William F. 
Le Roy, who since has edited the Keyport WeeJdy, 
but now with the Asbury Park Journal; Messrs. 
Stiles, Hand, and Schermerhorn, under the firm-name 
of the Enterprise Printing Company, and eventually 
passed into the hands of the present proprietor, San- 
ford S. Murphey. The office is now one of the best 
equipped between Philadelphia and Trenton, is fur- 
nished with steam-power and all the modern improve- 
ments, and Mr. Murphey being a thorough business 
man the paper is now on a firm basis. 

The New Jersey Mirror, the oldest journal in 
the county, was e>t;ibli.-^lied in Mount Holly, Sept. 16, 
1818, by Nathan Palmer & Son (Strong N. Palmer), 
of Wilkesbarre, Pa. In 1826, Strong N. Palmer & 
Co. were the publishers, but the next year Nathan 
Palmer resumed full control, and continued to pub- 
lish the paper until his death, July 28, 1842, in the 
seventy-fourth year of his age. Under the will of 
Nathan Palmer, his widow, Mrs. Jerusha Palmer, was 
the publisher of the paper up to the date of her de- 
cease, April 2G, 185G, in the ninetieth year of her age. 
The paper then descended to the daughter. Miss 
Eliza Palmer, who associated with herself Joseph 
Carr, Jr., under the name of Joseph Carr, Jr., & Co., 
and was by them published until sold to tlie present 
proprietor, Charles H. Fohvell, July 1, 1872. During 
the lifetime of Nathan Palmer the paper was edited 
by him, assisted by his son, Strong N. (who subse- 
quently removed to Pottsville, Pa., and established a 
newspaper there). While published by the widow, 
his son, George W. Palmer, had editorial charge for a 
short time, but was .soon succeeded by Joseph Carr, 
Jr., who had entered the office at the age of fourteen 
years, and ^Ir. Carr continued the management up to 
the disposal of the property in 1872. Since that date 
Mr. Folwell, who also served an ai)j»renticeship in the 
office, has been the editor as well as proprietor. 
About one month after the sale of the paper to Mr. 
Folwell, Miss Eliza Palmer died at an advanced age. 
Judge Carr, her associate publisher, lives in retire- 
ment with a well-earned competence. 

During the existence of the Whig party it received 
the hearty suj)port of the Mirror. At the dissolution 
of that party the ^V//'/-«r naturally assumed leadership 
in the new Kepublican organization, and it has since 
been an earnest and prominent advocate of the prin- 
ciples of that party. 

W^hen first issued the. Mirror was printed on a sheet 
eighteen by twenty-one inches. Now the size is thirty- 
one by fifty-two inches, the largest county paper in 
the State if not in the Union. The present office of 
publication, erected in 1880, is one of the finest print- 
ing-houses in New Jersey. Complete files of the 
paper since 1818 are preserved in the office. The 
present circulation of the Mirror is about two thou- 
sand five hundred copies. 

Hox. Joseph Carr. — The Carr family was early 
represented in America by three brothers, — John, 
Joseph, and Samuel, — who emigrated from Scotland 
and located as follows : John purchased a tract of land 
in Pennsylvania, Joseph settled in New York State, 
on the rocky point of land still known as " Carr's 
Rock," while Samuel came to Monmouth County, 
N. J., and is the great-grandfather of the subject 
of this biographical sketch. His son Samuel married 
Abigail Chamberlain, and had sons, — David, Joseph, 
John, and Solomon — and daughters, Rebecca, Marj-, 
and Eliza, Joseph, of this number, was born in Mon- 
mouth County, Oct. 25, 1790, and married Ruth N. 
Thomas, formerly a resident of the suburbs of New- 
castle, Wales, whose birth occurred Oct. 20, 1790, and 
who became a resident of the United States in 1799. 
She was the daughter of Richard and Martha Ann 
Thomas, the former of whom was born in 1751. 

Joseph and Ruth Carr became residents of Mount 
Holly, N. J., in the spring of 1817, when he at once 
engaged in the shoe business, which was conducted 
without interruption until his death, on the 24th of 
August, 1870, in his eightieth year. His wife sur- 
vived him, and died March 26, 1879, in her eighty- 
ninth year. Their children are Samuel, Naomi T. 
(Mrs. Jabez Kingdon), Joseph, Martha Ann (de- 
ceased), Mary F. (deceased), Elizabeth T., and David 
W. Joseph was born Jan. 11, 1821, in Mount Holly, 
which has been the scene of his active business career. 
His advantages of education were limited, and con- 
fined to a period prior to his tenth year. At the age 
of thirteen he Vas apprenticed to Nathan Palmer, 
who, in 1818, established the New Jtrscy Mirror. In 
this office Mr. Carr acquired the art of printing, and 
formed habits of application which contributed greatly 
to his subsequent success. He continued in the em- 
ploy of Mr. Palmer until the latter's death, in 1S42, 
upon which he assumed entire charge of the paper, 
which he conducted with marked ability and success 
until 1857, when he was admitted to an equal copart- 
nership. From 1842 until 1872 he superintended the 
issue of every number with but two exceptions, and 
this personal supervision, together with the general 
excellence of its editorial columns, won for it a high 
rank throughout the State. Through the paper and 
upon the rostrum Mr. Carr contributed not a little to 
the victories achieved by the Whig and Republican 
parties in New Jersey. 

Having retired from the newspaper field in 1872, 
Mr. Carr was appointed during the same year judge 



of the Court of Common Pleas aAd Orphans' Court 
of Burlington, which position he held for a term of 
five years. Though actively engaged in politics dur- 
ing his whole life he has never been an aspirant for 
official honors, and has ever declined such distinctions. 
During the campaign of 187G the party selected him 
as the representative of the Second Congressional 
District of New Jersey on the electoral ticket for 
Hayes and Wheeler. He has been for many years a 
director of the Farmers' National Bank of Mount 
Holly, one of the oldest financial institutions in the 
State. Mr. Carr's advice and friendly offices are fre- 
quently sought in the settlement of estates, and as a 
custodian of important trusts. 

One of Mount Holly's prominent citizens left on 
his death the sum often thousand dollars, the income 
of which was to be distributed among the deserving 
poor of the city. Mr. Carr upon the urgent solicita- 
tion of the citizens was appointed by the chancellor 
of the State guardian of the trust, and now fills with 
fidelity and discretion the duties of the position. Mr. 
Carr was married on the 10th of June, 1875, to Emily, 
second daughter of John Palmer, of New York, and 
granddaughter of Nathan Palmer, with whom he 
served his apprenticeship. 

The Mount Holly Herald.— The "plant" of this 
journal was The New Jersey Chronicle, established in 
1826, and its founder was Alexander A. Young. Its 
support was given to John Quincy Adams. M**. Young 
did not hold the tripod long. He was succeeded by 
Mr. Melcher, who changed its political tone and made 
it an advocate of Andrew Jackson. He did not pros- 
per, and the paper was sold to Boswell & Young. 
William Boswell subsequently removed to Trenton, 
and the establishment was bought by Washington R. 
Moore, who was a man of merit and ability. He died 
of consumption, and Joseph Pugh took charge. He 
changed its title to The Burlington County Herald, and 
conducted it successfully fur several years. Pugh's 
successor was George Ottiuger, who was not suited to 
the business, and did not remain long. His succes- 
sors were Peter C. Tomson and Edwin W. Callis. The 
firm only lasted a short time. Callis disposed of his 
interest to his partner and went West. Tomson con- 
ducted it only a few months, when he took into part- 
nership J. Loxley Rliees, who did the editorial work. 
He gave it the name of The Family Casket and Bur- 
lington County Herald. The firm dissolved, Tomson 
going into the spice business in Philadelphia, and 
Rhees engaging in the book and stationery business 
in Mount Holly, besides holding the position of super- 
intendent of public schools. Their successor was 
jMoreton A. Stille, of Philadelphia, who took posses- 
sion in 1850, and gave it back part of its old title, — 
The Mount Holly Herald. Stille was a good printer, 
a forcible writer, but a poor businsss manager. He 
kept the paper in running order until March, 1859, 
when Nathan Harper, a Friend, then residing in 
Burlington, was installed as editor. He was u bold, 

pungent writer, but unfortunately he was neither a 
practical printer nor a shrewd business man. The 
paper would have been wrecked had not the leading 
Democrats of the county contributed to keep their 
organ alive. To add to the troubles of the concern, 
the split in the Democratic party occurred during his 
editorship, and although the feeling for Stephen A. 
Douglas prevailed largely over that for John C. 
Breckenridge, the supporters of the latter were in- 
censed at the course of The Herald in advocating 
Douglas' election, and made matters worse. Har- 
per's editorial career was brief, but very stormy. He 
afterwards became secretaryof the Security Insurance 
Company of New York, holding his residence at 
Plainfield. He was elected mayor of that city, and 
is now one of the judges of the Common Pleas Court 
of Union County. Upon his retirement Samuel S. 
Smith wielded the editorial scissors, continuing from 
March, 1861, until August 1st of that year. 

The paper was at a very low ebb, and was just 
about to expire, when Charles Wills, who held some 
of the incumbrances upon it, concluded to buy it, 
after a great many others had been vainly importuned 
to take the elephant. Mr. Smith became quarter- 
master of the Tenth Regiment New Jersey Volun- 
teers. Mr. Wills was widely known throughout the 
county, and highly respected. He removed the office 
to a location nearly opposite its former quarters, and 
at once began to improve the business status of the 
paper and gave it a higher standing. Editing a 
Democratic newspaper during the war, and in a town 
so strongly Republican, was no easy or pleasant task. 
The Herald, however, went through the ordeal, and 
although its patronage was confined to Democrats, 
its editor and all connected with it taunted and 
jeered at, it slowly but surely crept upward until it 
became firmly established and profitable. It was en- 
larged and improved with new type and presses. On 
March 1, 1874, The Herald was sold for a handsome 
sum by its proprietor to his son, William B. Wills. 
The latter, being a practical printer and finely edu- 
cated, at once set out to make the paper better in 
every way than ever before. The office was removed 
from its unhandy, dingy quarters on Mill Street to 
si^ecial and more commodious rooms on Main Street, 
and better presses were added, besides all the newest 
and modern types and appurtenances. Finally steam- 
power was introduced. Under the new manajrenient, 
before twelve months had rolled around, its subscrip- 
tion-list was doubled, and its patronage in the adver- 
tising and jobbing department increased proportion- 
ately. It was carefully edited, especial attention 
being given to its local department, which came to 
be highly appreciated, and. awakened considerable 
latent talent in the county. The Herald also exerted 
considerable influence in the politics of the county, 
and its effijrts in this direction were very successful. 
It now takes rank among the first of the county week- 
lies in the Union. 



The News, of Mount Holly, was first issued July 
3, 1879, as a semi-weekly newspaper, by William L. 
Powell, William J. Bower, and Samuel S. Bower, 
under the name of Powell & Bowers. It contained 
five columns to the page, size eighteen by twenty- 
four iuches, and met with gratifying success. Feb. 
2, 1880, it was enlarged to twenty-four by thirty- 
seven inches and seven columns to the page. At this 
time J. Howard Clothier, then reporter, was admitted 
to the firm. 

On July 31, 1880, William J. Bower died after a 
lingering illness, at the early age of twenty-two. The 
business was continued by the remaining members of 
the firm, under the old firm-name. Still proving suc- 
cessful, the paper was again enlarged, Feb. 2, 1882, 
to eight columns and twenty-six by thirty-eight 
inches, and changed to a weekly, still retaining the 
old name, The Xeus, and now stands on a firm foot- 
ing, with a gratifying circulation. 

The Friends' Weekly Intelligencer was previ- 
ously published in Philadelphia, by Josiah Chapman, 
but that gentleman having removed to Bordentown in 
the year 1842, continued the publication in this town. 
What length of time he did so, however, cannot be 
definitely ascertained, but circumstances hereinafter 
presented indicate about two years. The Intelligencer 
was published in the interest of the Friends. 

The Palladium. — The first paper printed in Bor- 
dentown devoted particularly to local affairs was the 
Palladium, the proprietors of which were Messrs. Jo- 
siah Chapman and T. I. Jones. April 12, 1845, the 
first edition was printed. A well-preserved copy 
thereof is in the possession of Mr. C. D. Burns. Mr. 
Jones' connection must have been remarkably brief, 
as in the sixth number of the paper Chapman's 
name alone appears as proprietor. From the first 
printers' devil in Bordentown, William Burns, Esq., 
still a frequent visitor to the editorial sanctum, we 
learn the following facts relative to Chapman. He 
was an educated, social gentleman, and greatly attached 
to his profession. He had the ability and the enter- 
prise to make his efforts successful, but consumption 
undermined his health and sent him to an early grave. 
He was engaged to be married to an accomplished 
young lady of Bordentown, who still remains true to 
her first love. 

As the first number of the Palladium is now lying 
before the writer, a synopsis of the contents may be 
interesting. The number of columns is twenty-one, 
fifteen of which are devoted to news and selected mis- 
cellany, the remainder to advertisements. In the in- 
troductory the editors declare their neutrality "on 
those lines of demarkation which divide the commu- 
nity into parties." The locals are only two, barely 
sufficient to justify the appellation. One refers to the 
steamboats "Trenton" and "New Philadelphia," then 
plying between Bordentown and Philadelphia; the 
other to the newly-commissioned postmaster, Edward 
Robbins, Esq., lately deceased. Twenty-nine adver- 

tisements — twelve local and seventeen Philadelphia — 
tell their varied tales. Among the local patrons, 
Jonas Bechtel offered for sale a house and lot on 
Prince Street, adjoining property of Capt. Richard 
Shippen ; William Cowlcs sold tobacco, etc., corner of 
Main and Church Streets; George W. Thompson 
dealt in stoves ; William B. Farrell praised his boots 
and shoes; Amos P. Ellis, cabinet-maker, wanted 
patrons; Garrett S. Cannon presented his professional 
card, and in another place gave notice of a tavern 
property for sale at Cookstown, — office, Main Street 
directly opposite John Kester's hotel ; John C. Foulks 
told of his new grocery and dry-coods store; William 
H. Gilder advertised the Bellevue Female Seminary ; 
Whitall Stokes mentions his drug-store ; Samuel Gris- 
com, principal of boarding-school for young men and 
boys, Moorestown, solicited pupils ; and Thomas J. 
Bleyer topped off the whole by publishing the list of 
letters remaining in the post-office. 

The Palladium was printed on a small Washington 
press, requiring, in printer parlance, one pull to each 
page. The publication day was Saturday, and the 
subscription price was two dollars in advance. At 
first the office was on Main Street, in the building 
lately torn down by J. Bingham Woodward. Having 
subsequently rented a piece of ground in Church 
Street, near the First Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Chapman put up a one-story structure, and removed 
the printing material thereto. The late Charles Bo- 
dine afterwards purchased this building. Sickness 
preventing Chapman from giving his business the at- 
tention it required, he disposed of the office in 1843, 
A. J. Herman becoming the owner. At that time 
Herman was a compositor on the Palladiuvi. One 
year as proprietor ended his connection. Love of 
outside pleasure is the reason assigned for the young 
man's lack of success. 

In 1849, Messrs. Gilbert & Gould assumed the pro- 
prietorship of the Palladium. It appears that a few 
weeks were sufficient to satisfy the new firm that the 
profits of the office were too meagre for their support, 
and Messrs. Gilbert & Gould diaappeared from the 
town just about as unceremoniously as they came. 

The Bordentown Register.— On the ruins, as it 
were, of the Palladium, a paper that expired in 1840, 
Messrs. Thomas C. Borden and Daniel Taggart, two 
energetic young printers, founded Tlie Bordcntou-n Recj- 
i'<1er, the first number of which was issued July 4, 
1851. With the new firm business did not prosper. 
As in nearly all small towns, advertisements and job 
printing were scarce. Knowing that they could turn 
their skill and brains to more profitable account, Bor- 
den and Taggart after two years' experience as pub- 
lishers, like their immediate predecessors, left Bor- 
dentown, minus some hundreds of dollars. Mr. 
Taggart eventually gave up the printing business, and 
for a number of years filled a lucrative position in one 
of the departments at Washington. 

When Bordeu and Taggart retired the office fell 



into the hands of Messrs. Levi Piester and William 
Bush, through Abraham Jemison, of Crosswicks, who 
held an unsatisfied claim on the concern. 

Notwithstanding the ill luck attending those who 
had previously wielded the editorial quill, the new 
firm felt sanguine of success. Alas for human am- 
bition ! In one year Mr. Piester was more thansatis- 
fied. As a bachelor he expei-ienced no little difficulty 
in making both ends meet, but having taken a part- 
ner to love and provide for through life, he had in- 
curred a responsibility which admitted of no such 
risk as he had run in the previous year. Accordingly 
in the year 1854 the firm of Piester & Bush was dis- 
solved, Mr. Piester innnediately taking leave of Bor- 
dentown. He ultiipately located in a flourishing 
town on the Hudson, and when last heard from, a 
few years since, was publishing a thrifty weekly jour- 

Nothing daunted. Bush at once replaced his partner 
by taking in William H. Van Northwick, Esq. Van 
Northwick at that time was chief clerk in the office 
of Robert S. Van Rensselaer, superintendent of the 
old Camden and Amboy Railroad, whose headquar- 
ters were in tlie building now occupied by the Register. 
For the first time in its history the office began to be 
profitable. The fact was due to the great quantity of 
job-work which poured in from the railroad company. 
The subscription list, too, increased considerably. 
Both as a writer and a printer Bush ranked above 
mediocrity, and Van Northwick rapidly gained repu- 
tation for his editorial ability. The latter's ready 
command of invectives and proneness to make use 
of the same soon brought him in conflict with various 
newspaper writers as well as citizens of Bordentown. 
The Rcgkter was enlarged and otherwise improved, 
and under the new management did quite a remuner- 
ative business. But the habit of changing hands 
asserted itself, and in less than two years Van North- 
wick had withdrawn, and Bush became sole pro- 
prietor. Matters went on smoothly for a time, but 
by and by Bush had to pay the penalty of his inat- 
tention to business. In June, 1856, he bowed to the 
inevitable, and Peter L. Suydam took his place. 
With characteristic economy he set to work to make 
the paper self-sustaining. The office, which was over 
Carman's store, corner Church and Farnsworth Ave- 
nue, was removed to cheaper quarters, — Robbins' 
building, nearly opposite Crosswicks Street. From 
thence it was transferred to Lowell's building, on the 
Avenue, and later to Carslake's Block, corner of the 
Avenue and Miles Alley. Although possessed of no 
knowledge of the art of printing, Suydam, by perse- 
verance and economy, in less than a year began to 
make money. His career of thrift, however, was in- 
terrupted by an opposition paper, strongly backed, 
which sprang into existence in 1857. The new office 
in one swoop carried away all the railroad printing. 
A severe blow that; but Suydam bore it philosophi- 
callv, and fell back on his old system of retrenchment 

and close personal application. The rival sheets had 
a wordy warfare, which lasted about one year, when 
the Register once more had the field to itself. Suydam 
held the office a period of five years. 

On the 17th of October, 18G1, George L. Suydam, 
son of P. L. Suydam, and James D. Flynn, graduates 
of the office, became the proprietors of the Register. 
The partnership continued until June 28, 1868, nearly 
seven years. Since then the Register has. been in the 
hands of the present proprietor, Mr. Flynn. In July, 
1878, the office was removed to the railroad building, 
the most central part of the city, where it has one of 
the largest and finely-equipped press-rooms in the 
State. On the 17th of October next James D. Flynn 
will have filled the editorial chair exactly twenty-one 
years, having taken it in his teens, and being now the 
senior editor of the county. Like the Mount HolUj 
Mirror and Herald, the Register has substantial cir- 
culation, and has made money for its proprietor. 

George L. Suydam is now engaged in the printing 
business at Sacramento, Cal. 

The New Jersey Signal. — The New Jersey Signal 
was ushered into tiie newspaper world Jan. 22, 1857, 
Messrs. William H. Van Northwick and Samuel C. 
Ashbrook were the editors and proprietors. The 
office was located at the corner of Main Street and 
Miles Alley, Bordentown. To Van Northwick the 
reader has already been introduced. His partner was 
the only son of the Rev. Joseph Ashbrook, of the 
New Jersey Methodist Episcopal Conference. In less 
than a year the copartnership was dissolved, and the 
Signal's light was wholly extinguished on the IStli 
day of January, 1858. Few offices in small towns 
were better furnished than that of the Signal. The 
types and presses were removed to Gloucester County, 
where Mr. Ashbrook subsequently published the Car- 
penter's Layiding Times. When the Times became 
defunct the materials had a checkered career, being 
finally shipped to the railroad shops at this place, the 
Camden and Amboy Company having some kind of 
a claim on them. They were at last disposed of to 
parties in South Jersey after having been stored away 
several years, and greatly depreciated in value by the 
apprentices at the railroad-shops " playing printer'' 
in their leisure hours. In 1862, Ashbrook, as a corre- 
spondent of the Philadelphia Inquirer, joined the 
Army of the Potomac, and the exposure incident to 
such a life led to his death before the close of the 
war. Van Northwick resides in Jersey City, and 
writes for several newspapers. 

The Daily Burlingtonian.— Dec. 11, 1857, the 
initial number of the first and last daily paper ever 
printed in Bordentown was issued from tlie office of 
The New Jersey Signal. Its editors were Messrs. Van 
Northwick and Ashbrook. It was half the size of the 
Register, and existed three weeks. 

The Leaflet. — The first number of the Leaflet wcs 
printed at the office of the Register, July 23, 1860. It 
was edited by Messrs. Joseph W. Allen, Jr., R. Wat- 



son Gilder, and William F. Allen. Though an ama- 
teur affair, and a trifle larger than a sheet of foolscap, 
it was adopted as the State organ of the Bell-Everett 
partj'. After the Presidential election it was discon- 
tinued, having been published just sixteen weeeks. 
Mr. Gilder was afterwards engaged on the staff of the 
Newark Dallij AdvcHhrr ; later he, with a partner, 
founded the Newark Morning Regiater, and now fills 
the honorable and responsible position of editor of 
ScTJbncr's Monthly Magazine. A few years ago he was 
instrumental in bringing out " Wind Harp," a collec- 
tion of poems by Trenton's gifted poetess, "Clemen- 
tine." For a number of years W. F. Allen has edited 
ihfc " Traveller's Official Guide" of the United States 
and Canada. Col. Joseph W. Allen is a civil en- 
gineer; liad charge of the construction of the United 
States buildings at Trenton, and is now connected with 

The Parish Paper. — To complete the list we add 
The Parish Paper, distributed in Bordentown among 
the members of the Episcopal Church, the Rev. W. 
Pettit, the then and present rector, being the editor. 
It was distributed quarterly during the years 1873, 
1874, and 1875, but as its circulation was mostly 
gratuitous, the cash returns did not justify the labor 
and expense incurred, and it died in its third year. 

The Bordentown Republican.— The first propri- 
etor and projector of this paper was Benjamin F. Jobs, 
of Bordentown, an engineer on the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, who, not being a practical printer, very sen- 
sibly associated with himself M. W. Swank, under the 
name of Swank & Co. The first number was issued 
Aug. 26, 1880, made a good appearance, and gave 
evidence of talent. Falling into difficulties, although 
a good support was realized, the firm was dissolved 
Jan. 13, 1881, when Messrs. C. K. and F. H. Barn- 
hart purchased the paper of Mr. Jobs, but through 
want of means were compelled to leave after publish- 
ing it a little over one month. Feb. 24, 1881, it again 
fell into the hands of the former proprietor, Mr. Jobs, 
who ran it until May 1st, when it was purchased by 
E. C. Applegate. On the 17th of June of that year 
the columns were widened, head-lines placed over each 
page, and the day of publication changed from Thurs- 
day to Friday. Jan. 6, 1882, the paper was again en- 
larged by the addition of four columns. Mr. Apple- 
gate, having been brought up in his father's office, Col. 
E. F. Applegate, of the Monmouth Inquirer, is a prac- 
tical printer, and has made his paper a success. 

The Beverly "Weekly Visitor. — The Vimior was 
established in February, 1869, by David Scattergood. 
It was a " patent outside" paper, and although edited 
with considerable ability, the disadvantage of being 
printed in Philadelphia forced it to succumb to the 
Banner in the autumn of 1879. 

The Beverly Banner. — The Banner \sa9, established 
Aug. 30, 1879, and took the place of the Visitor, a 
" patent outside" paper. Its founders were L. W. 
Perkins and Col. J. K. Uaffey, who continued in 

partnership as editors and publishers until Nov. 24, 
1880, when E. S. Sherman took the half-interest of 
Col. Haffy, and the paper has since been edited and 
published by the firm of Perkins & Sherman. It has 
a circulation of one thousand, is ind_ependent, and is 
printed in their own office. Its size is twenty-four by 
thirty-six inches. 

The Moorestown Chronicle. — This paper was first 
issued by J. E. Watkins and Co., with Mr. Watkins 
as editor, Dec. 10, 1879, as a twenty-eight-column 
independent paper. On Jan. 1, 1881, it passed 
over to the ownership of Watkins & Lovell ; Mr. 
Watkins still remaining editor. It is a weekly, and 
earnestly endeavors to be independent in political 
matters. The editor is a Virginian by birth, a civil 
engineer by profession, and now is in the employment 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. He lost his 
leg by being run over at the "Meadows" in 1873. 

The Mechanic, a monthly journal of mechanics, 
science, and literature, is a sixteen-page quarto, and 
was established by H. B. Smith, at Smithville, in 
October, 1871, and after the first issue was published 
weekly until Jan. 1, 1881, when it was again changed 
to a monthly. It is now published by the H. B. 
Smith Machine Company. Present circulation, ten 
thousand copies monthly. Mrs. A. M. Smith was the 
editress of The 3Iechanic from the date of its estab- 
lishment until her death, which occurred in January, 



Delegate to (he Colonial Congress «t New York, 1705 — Delegates to the 
Continental Omgress at I'liiladelpliia fi-oni 1774 to 1788 — President 
Continental Congress, 1782 — Signer of tlie Declanition of Independ- 
ence — Superintendent United States Mint — Presidential Electors — 
United States Senators — Governors of New Jersey — Blenibers of the 
Provincial Congress held at Trenton in May, June, and August, 1775 
— Members of the Provincial Congress held at Tienton in October, 
1775 — Members of the Provincial Congress held at New Brunswick 
from Jan. 31 to March 2,1770 — Menibeisof the Convention held at 
Burlington, Trenton, and New Brnnswiik from June 10 to Aug. 21, 
177G — Members of the Assinibly held at Perth Anilioy fmm Jan. 11 
until Feb. i:i, 1775 — Members of thj Assembly helil in Burlington 
from May 15 to Blay 20, 1775 — Members of tlie Assembly licM at Bui • 
lington from Nov. 15 to Dec. C, 1"75— S<-iretary of State— Sliite Treas- 
urers — Adjutant-General — Quaiteiniaster-Geiieral — Surveyoi-Geu- 
erals of West Now Jersey — SlierilTs — Surrogates — County Clerks. 

Joseph Borden. 

TO 178«. 
James Kinsey, 1774-75. • Elias Boudinot, 1777-78. 

John Uart, 1770-77. Lambert Cadwalader, 1784-87. 

Francis Ilopkinson, 1776-77. 

' This Congress was composed of delegates from nine of the cidanies, 
and met at New Yoik on the 7th of October, 1705, Timotliy Riigglrs, 
prcbideut ; John Cotton, secretary. 




EliRS Boudinot, Nov. 4, 1782. 


Francis HupkiuEon. 


Elias Boudinot, 17'Jo to 1805. 


Calob Ncwbold, 1797. i Thomas Newbold, 1841. 

Tlionias Newbold, 1805. G. Black, 1853. 

Joseph Budd, 1821. I 

John Rutherford, March 4, 1791, to Dec. 5, 1798. 
Ricliard Stockton, Nov. 12, 179G, to March 3, 1799. 
Joseph Mtllvainc, Nov. 12, 1823, to Nov. 10, 182G. 
Garret D. Wall, March 4, 1835, to March 3, 1841. 
John C. Ten Eyck, March 17, 1859, to March 3, 1865. 
James W. Wall (vacancy), Jan. 14, 18G3, to March 3, 1863. 

Samuel Jennings, deputy, 1681. ' Daniel Coxe, 1687. 
Thomas Olive, lGt-4-85. i 


Sz-parate from A>jr York. 
William Franklin, 1763-7G. j Garret D. Wall (declined), 1829. 

Joseph Bloomfielil, 1801-2. Charles C. Stratton, 1845-48. 

Joseph BloomfieUl, lSo:i-12. ' 

At Ihe Session held at Trenlov in Mag, June, and August, 1775. 
Joseph Borden. 1 Joseph Read. 

Isaac Pearson. John Pope. 

Colin Campbell. ' 

At the Session heldal Trenton m October, 1775. 
Isaac Pearson. i John Wood. 

John Pope. I Joseph Newbold. 

Samuel How. ' 

At the Session held at Neic BrunsxcicTt from Jan. 31 vniCl March 2,^'i'}G. 
Isaac Pearson. | John Wood. 

John Pope. Joseph Newbold. 

Samuel How. ' 


At the SxeioH held at Burlington, Trenton, and Kew Brtmsirick from June 
10 to Aug. 21, 1776. 
Peter Tallman. i Charles Reed. 

Thomas Reynolds. Caleb Shreve. 

Thomas Fenimore. ' 


At the Session at Perth Amhoij from Jan. 11 until Feb. 13, 1775. 
City. — James Kiiiscy, Thomas P. Hewlinga. 
County. — Henry Paxson, Anthony Sykes. 

At the Session at Burlington from May 15 until May 20, 1775. 
City. — James Kinsey, Tlionias P. Hewlings. 
County. — Henry Paxson, Anthony Sykcs. 

At the Session at Burlington from Nov. 15 until Dec. 6, 1775. 
City. — James Kinsey, Tliomas P. Hewlings. 
County. — Henry Paxson, Anthony Sykes. 


Bowes Reed, 1778-94. 


William Grant, 1832. 
William P. McMichael, 18G8. 
Josephus Sooy, Jr., 1871. 

Gersliom Mott, 1875. 
George M. Wright, 1876.' 


Zachariah Rosscll, 1810-42. 

> U:b third term expires March 4, 1886. 

Garret D. Wall, 1824-^0. 

Andrew Rolieson, 1088: held office C years. 
Thomas Gardiner, Jr., 1004 : held office 24 yeors, 
James Alexander, 1718^ held office 38 years. 
Dauiel Smith, Jr., 175C; held office 18 years. 
Ruboit Sniitli, Jr., 1774; held office 41 years. 
Burr Woolman, 1815; held office 29 years. 
Fiaukliu Woolman, 1844. 

Mahlon Bndd, 1807-10. 
William Woolman, 1810-13. 
Samuel Haines, 1813-16. 
Williiim Woolman, 1816-19. 
Samuel Haines, 1819-22. 
Joshua Earl, 1822-25. 
Williiim N. Shinn, 1825-28. 
Joseph A. Clark, 1828-30. 
Joshua Hollingshead, 1830-a3. 
John W. Fenimore, 1833-36. 
Samuel Brown, 1836-39. 
Isaac Hllliard, 1839-42. 
Joseph Kiikbride, 1842-45. 
Charles Collins, 1845-48. 


I Abrnham Gnekill, 184S-51. 

William H. Pancoast, 1851-64. 
Samuel A Dobbins, 1854-57. 
John D. Thompson, 1857-00. 
Samuel T. Leeds, 1860-G3. 
William C. Lippiucott, 18C3-C6. 
John B. Hankinson, IMiO-CO. 
Charles S. Kinible,^ 1809-April 9, 

Henry B. Kimble, May 14,1872-72. 
David L. Hall, 1872-75. 
George P. Conover, 1875-78. 
Benjamin F. Lee, 1S78-81. 
Nathan W. C. Hays, 1881-83. 

Herbert McElroy, 1785-89. 
Thomas Adams, 1786-89. 
Williiim Griffith, 1790-99. 
Samuel J. Reed, 1800-3. 
Abraham Brown, 1804-33. 
Charles Kinsey, 1833-38. 
Benjamin Buckman, 1848-53 
John F. Moore,< 1853-56. 


I David Stewart,^ Dec. 1855-50. 

William K. Armstrong, 1856-61. 
■ N. H. Buzby, 18GI-CC. 
Charles E. Folwell, 18GG-71. 
William I. Emley, 1871-76. 
John K. Howell, 1870-81; i 
elected for five years. 


James Mcllvaine, 1800-23. 
Samuel J. Reed, 1823-33. 
John R. Slack, 1833-38. 
Joseiih S. Reed, 1838-43. 
James Ropers, 1843-48. 
Josejih F. Burr, 1848-53. 

Samuel Smith, 1853-58. 
John T. Naylor, 1858-63. 
Amos Gibbs, 1863-68. 
William M. Riscume, 18C8-73. 
Richard B. Naylor, 1873-78. 
John B. Deacon, 1878-83. 



The occupation of the great majority of the in- 
habitants of Burlington County is agricultural. 
Upon the loam soil large quantities of grass and 
grain, particularly corn, wheat, and rye, are pro- 
duced, and sandy lands, enriched with mar], also 
give crops of grain and Along the bank of 
the Delaware particularly, and near the railroads, in 
convenient situations for supplying the market of 
Philadelphia, the farmers give much attention to the 
more profitable culture of garden vegetables, pota- 
toes, melons, fruits, etc. Much grain is fed to stock, 
and no county in the United States, or country in the 
world, produces heavier hogs than Burlington. (See 

* Prior to 1807 there are no records in w hich the names of eaily sher- 
iffs are recorded, and there are no docnmeuts to which their names are 

8 Charles S. Kimble died in office, and his son, Henry B., filled the un- 
expired term. 

* Died in oflSce. ' To fill unexpired term. 



New Hanover township.) This county is noted for the 
fine quality of the live-stock sent to market, particu- 
larly of sheep and lambs. The following table is 
taken from the census report of 1880 : 

Acres. Buslicls. 

Bnckwheat 074 O.n'.O 

Indian corn 34.0ii( lfir,ljjr>3 

Oats 4,J:a ]:(l,iii;;i 

live „ _.. ^■■i4'Jo la/i.i-ia 

Wlieat 15,072 241.412 

Tobacco 76 94,487 

Burlington County Agricultural Society.'— The 
following is a condensed history of the origin, prog- 
ress, present condition, and prospects of one of the 
most popular and successful agricultural organiza- 
tions in the United States, located at the county-seat. 
Mount Holly, N. J. 

Holding its first exhibition thirty-five years ago on 
the court-house lot of two acres, and paying at this 
fair one hundred and seventy-five dollars in pre- 
miums, it has grown until thousands of dollars are an- 
nually claimed and paid, and the present beautiful 
grounds and buildings each recurring October filled 
to overflowing with large and varied exhibits, and 
thronged with thousands of appreciative visitors from 
all the surrounding towns, cities, and country. 

The call for the first meeting was dated Jan. 6, 
1847, and is as follows : " The citizens of Burlington 
County favorable to the formation of a County Agri- 
cultural Society are requested to meet at the court- 
house, Mount Holly, on Saturday, the 16th inst, at one 
o'clock P.M., for the purpose of taking into consider- 
ation the propriety of such a measure," signed by 
"William N. Shinn, Rev. Isaac V. Brown, AVilliam 
Clothier, Chalkley Gillingham, Levi Borton, L. R. 
Lippincott, William Irick, Leander J. Budd, Joseph 
Campion, John W. Fenimore, Benjamin Ridgway, 
Jr., John C. Deacon, Thomas Hancock, George Mc- 
Henry, William I. Black, Marmaduke L. Pancoast, 
Watson Newbold, William H. Pancoast, William N. 
Searles, Dr. George Haines, Zebedee M. Wills, Allen 
Jones. " The meeting will be addressed by several 

In conformity with the above call the meeting as- 
sembled in the court-house on the 16th of January, 
1847, and was organized by appointing Dr. J. J. 
Spencer, president, and H. L. Southard, secretary. 
Remarks favorable to the organization were made by 
Rev. Isaac V. Brown, Chalkley Gillingham, and 
others, after which, by resolution offered by William 
N. Shinn, it was unanimously decided "that it was 
expedient to form an agricultural society." 

A committee on permanent organization, composed 
of one member from each township, was then ap- 
pointed to report at two o'clock on the 3d of Feb- 

At this meeting a constitution was adopted, and at 
a subsequent meeting held at the court-house on the 
13th of March, Dr. Jonathan J. Spencer was elected 

1 By Houry I. Budd, corresponding secretary. 

the first president ; William N. Shinn, Isaac V. Brown, 
Charles Collins, and Levi Borton, vice-presidents ; Jo- 
seph H. Burr, recording secretary ; Chalkley Gilling- 
ham, corresponding secretary; Charles ]\I. Harker, 
treasurer; Samuel A. Dobbins, Charles Haines, John 
W. Black, George B. Deacon, William Parry, and 
David B. Coles, executive committee. 

The society for five years managed its affairs with 
a constitution and by-laws of which the following is 
a synopsis: 

The first constitution, adopted February, 1847, and 
amended Jan. 28, 1854, provided for the election of 
a president, four vice-presidents, corresponding and 
recording secretaries, and treasurer, to be elected an- 
nually ; the appointment of three persons, to be 
called a committee of finance, to examine and audit 
the treasurer's accounts. 

The object of the society shall be the advancement 
of agriculture, horticulture, and manufactures. Any 
person residing in this or any State may become a 
member for the current year onli/ by the payment of 
one dollar each year, and by the payment often dol- 
lars a life member. 

Any person maybe elected a corresponding or hon- 
orary member. 

The revision of 1854 prevented the president from 
holding ofiice more than one year in succession. 

It becoming necessary to purchase land and erect 
buildings for the use of the society, the following act 
of incorporation was passed by the Legislature March 
4, 1852 : 

"An Act to iHcorpnrnte lie BvrVnQton Counltj Agricul'xiral Socifhj. 

" Wlierecit, It bus bten represented to the Legislature, tliat n society 
for the piomotion of Agriiiiliure lias existed for some years in tlie 
Connty of Burlington, and has been productive of much good to the 
farming intereits, and the society has readied a i>o»iiiou in wliicli it be- 
comes desirable for them to piirchase ground and erect buildings for the 
purposes of the association, and in order to enable them to accomidish 
this object, tlipy have petitioned the Legislature for a Cliaiter of iucor- 
jioration ; therefore, 

" I. Be it enocted hi/ Ihf Senate and General Afsemhly of the Slate of Neio 
Jertfy, That Jonathan J. Spencer, William N. Shinn, Isaac V.Brown, 
Chailes Eidgway, Joseph F. Burr, Thomas Hancock, Allen Jones, and 
John Btttterworth, of the county of Burlington, and their associales 
and successors, (-liall be, and are hereby, constituted a body politic and 
corjxirate, by the name of 'The Burlington County Agricultural 

'"2. .4»id fce i/ fnac/erf, That the said Society shall, from time to time, 
liave power to make, orilaiii, and establsh such Constilulion, By-Laws, 
and Regulations, as tliej th:ill judge jimiier for the designation of the 
Oflicers of said Society, the election of the same, for prescribing their 
resjiective functions, and the mode of discharging the same, and for the 
tniiisacting, managing, and directing the affairs of the Society; pro- 
ridetl,snch Consliiution, By-Laws, and Kegulations shall not be ipjing- 
naiit to the Coustilutlon and Laws of this State and of the United 

" 3. And be it reacted. That all land or other property which m.iy 
liereafter be owned by said Society, and used for the purpose of promot- 
ing the objects of snid Society, shall not be liable to have any taxes or 
tax assessed and levied >ipon it, fir anyiniipose whatsoever; jiroijt/.'rf, 
that such real and personal estate shall not exceed in value the sum of 
five thousand dollars. 

"4. And he it ennct<d. That this act shall take effect immediately. 

" Approved March 4, 1852." 

The society having become possessed of about 
twenty-four acres of valuable land on the Burlington 



road, within one-quarter mile of the town, purchased 
at different times, and having erected thereon expen- 
sive buildings, decided at their annual meeting of 
Jan. 25, 1868, to resolve the organization into a joint- 
stock company. Therefore the following supplement, 
passed by the Legislature Feb. 26, 1868, became the 
organic law of the society: 

" A SCPPl.EJlEXT lo 'An Ael to laeorporalt Oit CurlingUm County Agricml- 
liiral Socie!y.' 

" WuEEEAS, Tlie Burlington County Agricnltnral Society, by its act 
of iucorporation, approved March fourth, eighteen ImiidreU and fifty- 
two, was empowered to purchase and hoi J real estate, and erect build- 
ings thereo'i, for the purjoses of the society; and irA»r«a», in order to 
mise the funds for that purpose, life member tickets have been Buld to 
divers pt-rsons for ten dvlhirs each, the holders of which ti. keis constitute 
the actual memliers of said society, and who, in case s.iid society should 
cease to exi-t, should be entitled to the assets of Siiid society in e<iunl 
shares; and tchfreat, the property now held by said society is valuiible, 
and it is dr-emed advisable to place the same on a more permanent b.isis, 
and definitely define the ownership; therefore, 

" 1. Df U tHacted by lUe Seimlf nud General Auembly of the S^ale nf A'eir 
Jertfii, That said Society e1i:i11, and they are hereby aath'<rized to issue 
one thiiusaud shares of stock, to be culled the Cipitnl ^tock of suid Com- 
pany, of the par value of ten dulbirs each, with the privilege of in- 
cre.-iaing the number of shares as the Society may hereafter deem ad- 

"2. And he it enacted. That a certificate for one share of said stock 
shall be issued to each person holding a life member's ticktt in lieu 
thereof, and the balance of said stock shall be sold to such pei«ons as 
shall desire to purchase the same at ten dollars per share ; prodded , Oiat 
00 person shall at any time be allowed to hold more than on« share of 
said caj>ital stock. 

"3. And be U enacted. That such share of stock shall entitle the hold- 
ers thereof to one vote at nil elections held for officers of said Society 
or other business, and also to all the privileges which are now enjoyed 
by life members under the Constitution and By-Laws of said Society; 
provided, however, that no person shall be entitled or allowed to vote by 

"4. And bt it enacted, That said stock shall be deemed and taken as 
personal property, and transferrable on the books of said Society, and 
whenever the receipts sImII exceed the expenses the officers of the So- 
ciety Bliall have power to declare a dividend upon the capital stock, if 
deemed advisable, to be paid to the stockholders. 

"5. And be it enac'ed. That the capital stock of said Society, to the 
amount of ten thousand dollars, shall not bo liable to have any tax or 
taxes assessed and levied upon it for any purpose whatsoi'ver, so long as 
and no longer than the said Society declares and pays no dividend on its 
capital stock. 

"6 And be it enacted. That from and after the passage of this act it 
shall not be lawful for any person or persons to erect, place, or have any 
booth, stall, tent, carriage, boat, buildiffg of any description, or other 
place for the purpose or use of selling, giving, or otlierwise disposing of 
any kind ef articles of traffic, spirituous liquors, wine, porter, beer, 
cider, or any other fermented, mixed, or strong drink, or for the purpose 
of holding, having, or making any show, exhibition, concert, or any 
other show or amusement of any kind whatsoever, for gain or pleasure, 
within half a mile of the boundaries of the grounds of said Society 
during the time of any exhibition of said Society; procided, that nothing 
in this act contained shall be taken or construed so as to affect any li- 
censed tavern-keepers in his or her ordinary and lawful business, at his 
or her usual place of residence, specified in his or her license ; nor shall 
it be so construed as to aJect any merchant, shop-keeper, f.irm< r, me- 
chanic, or other person in the usual and lawful trnnsaction of his, her, 
or their ordinary coDoerns and business, in their usual places of doiug 
Bucb busioeas. 

"7. And be it emacled. That if any person or persons shall or do violate 
the preceding section of this act, he, she, or they shall be liable to the 
Banie penalties or forfeitures which shall be enforced in the same man- 
ner as is pre8cril>ed against offeoders under an act of this State entitled 
* An Act to prevent the disturbance of meetings held for the purpose 
of religious worship,' passed February second, eighteen hundred and 

"8. Aadbe if^nocted, Thatsomacfaoftheorigioal actaaisiocoiuiBtent 

berearith be ainl the same is hereby repealed, and this act shall be 
deetued a public act and take effect immediately. 
" Approved February 26tb, 16C8." 

The following amended constitution was then 

" Src. 1. This Society stiail be caU--d ih« Bcrli vctot CorNTT Agbictl- 
rrUAL SociETT, the olject of which shall be the advancement of agricul- 
tare, horticulture, aud maouCactures. 

"Sec. 2. The officers of this Society shall be a President, four Vice- 
Presi'lents, Becording Secretary. Corresponding Secretary, and Treas- 
urer, who shall be elected at the annual meeting by ballot, and hold 
their respective offices for one year, or tintil others are elected. The 
President shall not be eligible f^^r re-electiou until he has been out of 
office one year. 

" Sec. 3. The President shall preside at all meetingsof theSocitty ; all 
motions shall be addressed to him. He shall determine the vote upon 
all questions, and in case of an equal division upon all questions deter- 
mined by a mere niajority shall give the casting vote. lie 8bi<ll call 
special meetings upon the written request of three meml-ers, and ap- 
poiut all committees unless otherwise appointed by the Society. In the 
absence of the President, his duties shall be performed by one of the 
Vice-Presidents, and in the aliseuce of the President and Vice-Presidett.-, 
a President pro tern, with like power may be chosen. 

"Sec. 4. The Becording Secretary shall attend all meetings of the 
Society, record all its proceedings in a book provided for that purpose, 
preserve the books and papers belonging to the Society, and deliver all 
books and papers to his successor in office. 

''Sec. 5. The Corresponding Secretary shall correspond with individ- 
uals and associations, to further the interest cf the ScKiety, and preserve 
all important communications for the use of the Society. 

"Sec. 6. The Treasurer shall receive and keep all funds belonging to 
the Society, and pay out the same by its direction. He shall keep his 
accounts regiilarly slated in the books of the Society, and when re- 
quired, produce tlietn at any stated or special meeting. He shall give 
security for the faithful performance of his duties, and for the transfer 
of all Moneys, books, and papers in his hands to his successor in oflice. 

"Sec. 7. The Society shall hold its Annual Meeting on the fourth 
Saturday of January, and Quarterly meetings on the fo.irth Saturday of 
Apiil and Jal3% and in October, the next Saturday fullowing the Exhibi- 
tion, for the transaction of business ; and the place of holding the An- 
nual Meeting shall be determined at the previous Quarterly Meeting in 
October, and timely notice thereof given. 

" Seven members shall constitute a quorum. 

" Sec. 8. A Committee of three shall be appointed at the .\nnual Sleet- 
ing, to be called a Committee of Finance, whose duty shall jbe to audit 
all accounts before they are paid, and to examine the Treasurer's ac- 
counts from time to time, and to report to the Society at its Annual 
Meeting the condition of its funds. 

" Sec 9. A committee of five shall be appointed at the qmrterly meet- 
ing in Octo''er, of each year, whose duty shall be to report a schedule of 
premiums at the next Annual Meeting. 

"Sec. 10. This Constitution may be repealed or altered, by a vo:e of 
two thirds of the members present at any stated meeting of the Society ; 
provided, that notice of the contemplated change shall have l>cen given 
at the preceding meeting." 

Under the above supplement all life members be- 
came stockholders, and after the number had in- 
creased to four hundred, it was by resolution decided 
to limit the number of shares at that point, and allow 
no person to own more than one share. Under this 
limitation and the great appreciation of the property, 
owing to the many valuable improvements erected 
thereon, the large receipts from admissions (and free 
admission with side tickets accorded to stockholders), 
the sharea have grown from their par value of ten 
dollars per share to a selling price of fifty dollars per 

In 1876 the finances of the society culminated into 
a debt of about $11,000, caused by the competition of 
the great Centennial Exposition (producing a small 



attendance), too large premiums, too rapid improve- 
ments, too small admission fee, and other causes. 
This result created such dissatisfaction that it was 
decided at the annual meeting of Jan. 27, 1877, to 
transfer the management of all its affairs from the 
four hundred stockholders to a board of eleven direc- 
tors. The following amended constitution was then 
adopted : * 

"Sec. 1. Tliis Society sliall be callod Tiik BrBLiNcrox CorxTV Agki- 
CULTCRAL Society, the object of wliii h filuill be the adviiucenieiit of 
agricultnie, horticulture, and niannftctiirps. 

"Sec. 2. The officers of this Bociety stiall consi^'t of a Board of Kleveu 
Directors, six of wliom shall couslitnte a quorum for tlie traiisaitioii of 
any business connected willi the Sociftj-. The siiiJ Board of Directors 
shall be elected by ba)lut at the .nnnual meeting of the stockholders, and 
Bliall hold their offices for one year, or until others are elected. The Di- 
rectors at their next DJeeting after election, shall elect from their num- 
ber a President and Vice-President, and shall select suitable persons to 
serve as Secretary, Corre^jionding Secretary, and Treasurer, who shall 
hold their positions for one year or until their successors aie elected. 

"Sec. 3. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Society. 
All motions shall be addressed to him, and he shall determine the vote 
on all questions, and in case of an equal division upon all questions de- 
tennined by a mere majoritj', shall give the casting vote. He shall call 
special meetings upon the written request of three members, and ap- 
point all committees, unless otherwise appointed by the Society. In tlie 
absence of the President his duties shall be performed by the Vice-Presi- 
dent, and in the absence of the President and Yice-Presidcut, a Presi- 
dent pro tern, with like power may be chosen. 

" Sec. 4. The Recording Secretary shall attend all meetings of the So- 
ciety; record all its proceedings in a book provided for that purpose; 
preserTe the books and papers belonging to the Society, and deliver all 
books and papers to his successor in office. 

"Sec. 5. The Corresponding Secretaty shall correspond with individ- 
uals and associations to further the interests of the Society, and preserve 
all important communications for the use of tlie Society. 

"Sec. 6. The Treasurer shall receive and keep all funds belonging to 
the Society, and pay out the s.ime by its direction, lleshall keep hit ac- 
counts regularly stated in the books of the Society, and when required, 
produce them at any stated or special meeting. lie shall give security 
for the faithful performance of his duties, and for the transfer of all 
monej'g, books, and impers in his hands to his successor in office. 

"Sec 7. The Society shall bold its annual meeting on the fourth Sat- 
urday of January, for the transaction of business and the election of 
Directors. The place of holding the annual meeting shall be deter- 
mined by the Board of Directors, and t'vo weeks' notice thereof given. 
Seven members shall constitute a quorum. 

" Sec 8. A committee of three shall be appointed at the annual aioet- 
ing, to be called a ' Committee of Finance,' whose duty shall be to ex- 
amine and audit the Treasurer's acconntsand report the condition of the 
samo at the Society's annual meeting. 

"Sec 9. All parts of the old Constitution inconsistent with the above 
are hereby re}>ealed. 

"Sec 10. This Constitution may be repealed or altered by a vote of 
two-thirds of the members present at any stated meeting of the Society, 
provided, that notice of the contemplated change shall have been given 
at the preceding meeting. 

"Sec 11. Tlie Board of Directors be and are hereby empowered to fill 
all vacancies that may occur in their Board or in the committee of 

Under this provision Isaac Fenimore, John B. Col- 
lins, Henry I. Budd, Emmor Koberts, William L. 
Taylor, Benjamin F. Deacon, William K. Hancock, 
Joseph Wills, Edward L. Bowne, Judson C. Gaskill, 
and Theodore H. Risdon were elected to serve for 
one year. 

These directors organized by electing Isaac Feni- 
more, president; Emmor Roberts, vice-president; 
John B. Collins, recording secretary; Henry I. Budd, 
corresponding secretary ; Edward B. Jones, treasurer. 

This organization has been elected and maintained 
for six successive years with following exceptions: 
Edward L. Bowne resigned after a service of two 
years, and Henry Ellis was substituted in his place. 
Theodore Risdon resigned after a service of three 
years, and Samuel H. Chambers appointed instead. 
Emmor Roberts and Judson C. Gaskill resigned after 
a service of five years, and William R. Lippincott and 
Dr. William C. Parry were substituted in their place, 
and William L. Taylor elected vice-president. 

Under this direction the society has been eminently 
successful, paying in two years its debt of eleven 
thousand dollars ; in five years largely increasing the 
premiums, offering each year from nine thousand to 
eleven thousand dollars in prizes, and erecting in the 
same time buildings and improvements costing twenty- 
one thousand five hundred dollars. The society had 
previously expended for land ten thousand dollars ; 
improvements, ten thousand two hundred dollars ; 
total cost of land and improvements, forty-one thou- 
sand seven hundred dollars. This outlay, though 
seeming large, has given the society a very choice 
location (five minutes' walk from town, alongside of 
the railroad, which enables the Pennsylvania Com- 
pany to discharge at the gates in a few hours thou- 
sands of visitors), three very large and ornamental 
exhibition buildings two hundred by one hundred 
and twenty feet, an ornamental building for entrance 
gates and officers' quarters, one grand stand two hun- 
dred feet long, another one hundred feet long, jani- 
tor's residence, dining-rooms, and refreshment stands, 
one hundred and sixty model horse-stalls, hundreds 
of cattle, sheep, and hog pens, fifteen hundred feet of 
four-inch water-pipe, furnishing an abundant supply 
of water from the basin of the city water-works, an 
ornamental front fence, a fine half-mile race-track, 
with many otheruseful and ornamental improvements, 
presenting altogether the most complete and conven- 
ient fair-grounds in the United States. 

The visitors are carefully registered by a complete 
system of turnstiles, nine in number, capable of ad- 
mitting and registering thousands in a few minutes. 
In 1879 they registered 26,853; in 1880, 25,357; in 
1881, 28,033 visitors. 

The Annual Fairs. — The first annual exhibition, 
court-house and grounds, Oct. 28, 1847, and paid in 
premiums $175. 

The second annual exhibition, in same place, Oct. 
11, 1848, and paid in premiums $393. 

The third annual exhibition, in same place, Oct. 10, 
1849, and paid in premiums $350. 

The fourth annual exhibition, in lot south of Ridg- 
way Street, Oct. 9, 1850, and paid in premiums $350. 

The fifth annual exhibition, in same place, Wardell 
Brown's lot, Oct. 8, 1851, and paid in premiums $700. 

The sixth annual exhibition, in court-house and ad- 
joining lots, Oct. 6, 1852, and paid in premiums $700. 

The seventh annual exhibition, in court-house 
grounds, Oct. 5, 1853, and paid in premiums $700. 



The eighth annual exhibition, in court-house 
grounds, Oct. 14, 1854, and paid in premiums $700. 

The ninth annual exhibition, in court-house 
grounds, Oct. 3, 1855, and paid in premiums $700. 

The tenth annual exhibition and all future exhibi- 
tions were held on present grounds, this one Sept. 30 
and Oct. 1, 1856, and paid in premiums $1000. 

The eleventh annual exhibition, Oct. 6 and 7, 1857, 
and paid in premiums $1000. 

The twelfth annual exhibition, Oct. 5 and 6, 1858, 
and paid in premiums $1000. 

The thirteenth annual exhibition, Oct. 4 and 6, 

1859, and paid in premiums ?1300. 

The fourteenth annual exhibition, Oct. 2 and 3, 

1860, and paid in premiums $1200. 

The fifteenth annual exhibition, Oct. 1 and 2, 1861, 
and paid in premiums $1422.50. 

The sixteenth annual exhibition, Sept. 30 and Oct. 
1, 1862, and paid in premiums $1331.50. 

The seventeenth annual exhibition, Oct. 6 and 7, 

1863, and paid in premiums $1700. 

The eighteenth annual exhibition, Oct. 4 and 5, 

1864, and paid in premiums $1600. 

The nineteenth annual exhibition, Oct. 3 and 4, 

1865, and paid in premiums $1700. 

The twentieth annual exhibition, Oct. 2 and 3, 1866, 
and paid in premiums $1400. 

The twenty-first annual exhibition, Oct. 1 and 2, 
18G7, and paid in premiums $1900. 

The twenty-second annual exhibition, Oct. 6 and 7, 

1868, and paid in premiums $2113. 

The twenty-third annual exhibition, Oct. 5 and 6, 

1869, and paid in premiums $3200. 

The twenty-fourth annual exhibition, Oct. 4 and 5, 

1870, and paid in premiums $3890.50. 

The twenty-fifth annual exhibition, Oct. 3 and 4, 

1871, and paid in premiums $3710. 

The twenty-sixth annual exhibition, Oct. 2 and 3, 

1872, and paid in premiums $3889. 

The twenty-seventh annual exhibition, Oct. 7 and 
8, 1873, and paid in premiums $41136.50. 

The twenty-eighth annual exhibition, Sept. 29 and 
30, 1874, and paid in premiums $4336. 

The twenty-ninth annual exhibition, Oct. 1 and 2, 
1875, and paid in premiums $5533. 

The thirtieth annual exhibition, Oct. 3 and 4, 1876, 
and paid in premiums $5474. 

The thirty-first annual exhibition, Oct. 9, 10, 11, 
1877, and paid in premiums $3601.50. 

The thirty-second annual exhibition, Oct. 8, 9, 10, 
and 11, 1878, and paid in premiums $5575. 

The thirty-third annual exhibition, Oct. 7, 8, 9, and 
10, 1879, and paid in premiums $6601. 

The thirty-fourth annual exliibition, Oct. 12, 13, 14, 
and 15, 1880, and paid in premiums $8065.90. 

The thirty-fifth annual exhibition, Oct. 11, 12, 13, 
and 14, 1881, and paid in premiums $7297. 

The thirty-sixth annual exhibition, Oct. 10, 11, 12, 
and 13, 1882, and offers in premiums over $11,000. 

The above statement shows that since the organiza- 
tion of the society there has been offered and paid in 
premiums an aggregate sum of over $100,000, the dis- 
tribution of which has stimulated the creation of our 
many fine herds of cattle, sheep, and swine, the 
raising of many horses of world-wide renown, and 
developed our agricultural and horticultural capacity 
and productions into the front rank of counties. 

The presidents of the society have been 

Dr. Jonathan J. Spencer, 18-J7-52. George B. Deiicon, 18C5. 

William N. Shinn, 1853. 
George B. Deacon, 1854. 
Israel Lippincott, 1855. 
Samuel Bullock, 185G. 
Jolin ChamberB, 1857. 
John C. Deacon, 1858. 
Joseph H. Hulme, 1869. 
.lames Lipjiincott, 18G0. 
Joseph W. Emily, ISGl. 
Joseph E. Tr(jtli,1802. 
Samuel A. Dobbins, 18G3. 
Shreve Shiuu, 18ti4. 

David U. Coles, 18CG. 

Emmor Roberts, 18G7. 
j Henry J. Irick, 1808. 

James D. Shieve, 18C9. 
I Villiam C. Lippincott, 1S70. 
I James W. Deacon, 1871. 
I Henry I. Biidd, 1872. 

John L. N. Strattoii, 1873. 

William R. Lippiiicutt, 1874. 

Samuel Butterw ortli, 1875. 

William Taj lor, 1870. 

Isaac Fenimore, 1877-82. 

Joseph F. Burr, 1847-53. John B. Collins, 18G8-70. 

Benjamin Biickman, 1851-G5. | Charles Darnell, 1871-74. 

James W. Deacon, 18C6-G7. John B. Collins, 1875-82. 

Chalkley Gillingliam, 1847-53. ] James Lippincott, 187,i-7G. 

Charles llollingshead, 1854-G2. j Henry I. Budd, 1877-82. 

Dr. George C. Brown, 18G3-74. j 

Charles M. Harkrr, 1847-53. Franklin B. Levis, 18GC-72. 

Samuel Biirtis 18J4-i;0. Edward B. Jones, 1873-82. 

Peter V. Coppuch, 18G1-65. j 

The earlier records of the society having been lost, 
it has been impossible to give the names of all the 
vice-presidents and executive committees, therefore 
it was deemed best not to insert the names of any, as 
they nearly all appear in other official positions, princi- 
pally as presidents. 

During its early existence the following persons 
took an active part in its management: George B. 
Deacon, James Lippincott, J. L. N. Stratton, Thomas 
Hancock, Benjamin Buckman, Barclay White, Wil- 
liam Parry, Charles M. Harka, John C. Deacon, Dr. 
Charles Ridgway, Charles H. Holliushead, Samuel 
A. Dobbins, Shreve Shinn, John C. Ten Eyck, Peter 
Coppuch, Joseph H. Hulme, Benjamin C. Campion, 
Joseph E. Troth, David B. Coles, Watson Newbold, 
Samuel Bullock, Allen Jones, Daniel Wills, John L. 
Lippincott, John L. Drich, John D. Burling, John 
Butterworth, John Perkins, Charles Haines, Samuel 
E. Rogers, Edward French, Israel Lippincott, AVil- 
liam Clothier, Elisha Roberts, Horace N. L. Cleave- 
land, Thomas J. Lutter, Leander J. Budd, Benjamin 
Ridgway, Benajah B. Woodward, Joseph F. Burr, 
John Dobbins, William Black, Charles Y. Bates, Clay- 
ton Lippiucott,SamuelStockton, James Wills, Charles 
Jessup, Isaac Collins, Samuel Risdon, Richard M. 
Hagg, Philip F. Hack, George McHenry, Joseph 
Carr, Jr., Franklin Ferguson, Adolph Mailliard, 
Samuel R. Gummere, John Black, Jr., B. Lovd Jones, 



Levi H. Rogers, Edward Taylor; later, William R. 
Hancock, Peter Ellis, Henry Ellis, Joseph W. Emily, 
James W. Deacon, Abel Haines, William Buzby, Dr. 
George C. Brown, William C. Lippincott, Isaac Feni- 
morc, B. Frank Deacon, William G. Deacon, Chris- 
topher Riggs, Joseph Wills, Josephus Sooy, Ridgway 
Hancock, Henry J. Irick, Henry I. Budd, John B. 
Collins, William L. Taylor, Judson C. Gaskill, Samuel 
H. Chambers, William R. Lippincott, Emmor Rob- 
erts, Theodore H. Risdon, Edward L. Bowne, Dr. W. 
C. Parry, and others. 

Below will be found a list, with the post-office ad- 
dresses, of the present stockholders, which comprise 
many of the most prominent and successful farmers, 
prolessional, mercantile, and manufacturing men in 
the county : 



Ad.inis, Tbos. M., Borden town. 

Alcott, Thoniiis J., Mount Holly. 

Aylfs, Ulysses G., Pemberton. 

Armstrong, Floyd, Mount Holly. 

Armstrong, Clara V., Monnt Holly. 

Atkinson, Edward A., Columbus. 

Atkinson, Benj. \V., Burlington. 

Atkinson, Budd, Mount Holly. 

Allen, Barclay C, Vincentown. 

Allen, Franklin P , Vinccntowu. 

Allen, Josepli C, Vincentown. 

Anrouson, Robert, Columbus. 

Andrews, Charles, Fellowship. 

Butterworth, Virginia W., A'incen- 

Butterworth, Augustus H., Ridg- 
way House, Philadelphia. 

Butterworth, J. E., Vincentown. 

Butterworth, Frink L., Trenton. 

Butterworth, Job, Vincentown. 

Butterworth, J. H , Pemberton. 

Butterworth, S. S., Vincentown. 

Butterworth, Joseph B., Ridgway 
House, Philadelphia. 

Butterworth, Hannah A., Mount 

Butterworth, W. L , Mount Holly. 

Burling, Edward H., Huntingdon 
Valley, Pa. 

Brown, George C, Elizabeth. 

Brown, John, Mount Holly. 

Brown, CharlesJ W., Mount Holly. 

Bullock, Henry H., Columbus. 

Borton, George B., Atlantic City. 

Borton, Josepli II., Atlantic City. 

Black, John, Mount Holly. 

Black, Edwin, B jrdentown. 

Black, Thomas, Jobstown. 

Black, John W., Jobstown. 

Bowne, Joseph H., Mount Holly. 

Bowne, Edward L , Mount Hully. 

Bowne, Henry D., Mount Holly. 

Bowne, Sallie A., Bordentowu. 

Bowne, Frank \V., Georgetown. 

Budd, Alfred, Buddtown. 

Budd, Honrj- I , Mount Holly. 

Budd, A. E., M.D., Mount Holly. 

Braddock, Charles A., Jobstown. 

Braddock, Jacob, Jr., Medford. 

Braddock, Malcolm M., Medford. 

Bmddock, Job, Medford. 

Bigpham, Charles, Mount Holly. 

Bryan, George W., Georgetown. 
Buzby, \Villi:ini, Moorestown. 
Buzby, John, Moorestown. 
Buzby, William R., Moorestown. 
Buzby, Mark H., Masonville. 
Barcklow, Joseph H., Moorestown. 
Barcklow, John .S,, Moorestown. 
Brandon, Charles L., Mount Holly. 
Balliuger, R. C, Jobstown. 
Burr, Abel H., l-2th and Vine, 

Burlis, Charles S., Mount Holly. 
Bridger, Charles Albert, Baucocas. 
Borden, Frank P., Mount Holly. 
Bishop, John I., Columbus. 
Bennett, Charles, Mount Holly. 
Bowker, Japheth, Medford. 
Collins, John S., Moorestown. 
Collins, Charles, Fellowship. 
Cdlins, Harry C, Mount Holly. 
Collins, John B., Mount Holly. 
Collins, Adaline, Mount Holly. 
Coles, Mary K , Vincentown. 
Coles, David B., Lumberton. 
Cox, Isaac S., Pemberton. 
Caffrey, Charles S., Camden. 
Chambers, S. H., Mount Holly. 
Clevinger, Thos. L., Mount Holly. 
Champion, B. C, Mount Holly. 
Oliver, Ellis B., Burlington. 
Clothier, Caleb, Mount Holly. 
Cline, Samuel P., Pemberton. 
Deacon, James W., Mount Holly. 
Deacon, Japhet B., Mount Holly. 
Deacon, B. F., Mount Holly. 
Deacon, W. G., Mount Holly. 
Deacon, J. R., Mount Holly. 
Deacon, Henry I., Burlington. 
Deacon, Samuel B., 310 E. 14th St., 

New York. 
Deacon, Edmund, Camden. 
Deacon, B. H., Mount Holly. 
Deacon, Mary B., Mount Hully. 
Deacon, John L., Columbus. 
Deacon, John E , Yardleyville. 
Deacon, John B , Mount Holly. 
Deacon, George H., Mount Holly. 
Deacon, B. D., Mount Holly. 
Deacon, J. H , Mount Holly. 
Deacon, R. S , Mount Holly. 
Deacon, Anna H., Mount Holly. 
Deacon, Mary Alice, Mount Holly. 

Deacon, W. Budd, Mount Holly. 
Dill, Hope Ann, Mount Hollj-. 
Dobbins, Samuel A., Mount Holly. 
Dobbins, John H., Mount Hully. 
Dobbins, Edward T., 1412 Walnut 

St., Philadelphia. 
Dobbins, Samuel A., Jr., Mount 

Davis, Levi, Bordentown. 
Davis, Ivins, Pemberton. 
Davis, John B., Mount Holly. 
Davis, William Henry, Frei-hold. 
Darnell, Howard, Mount Laurel. 
Darnell, John E., Mount Laurel. 
Darnell, Henry, Masonville. 
Darnell, Charles, Mount Holly. 
Dudley, Enoch R., Masonville. 
Dudley, Clayton H., Mount Laurel. 
Dunphey, Joseph B., Marlton. 
Dyer, C. K., Mount H(dly. 
Doughten, F. C, Lumberton. 
Doble, William H., Wayne, Pa. 
Dunn, Martin L., Bordentown. 
Evans, Amos S., Marlton. 
Evans, Edward L., Cinnaminson. 
Emley, William I., Mount Holly. 
Emley, Joseph W., Mount Holly. 
Engle, Robert B., Mount Holly. 
Engle, Samuel T., Camden. 
Engle, Ezra, Masonville. 
Elwell, Alex., M.D., A'incentown. 
Earl, Joshua, Pemberton. 
Ellis, Henry, Juliustown. 
Flynn, William R, Bordentown. 
Flynn, Amanda, Bordentown. 
Flynn, James D., Burdentown. 
Forsyth, John, Pemberton. 
Forsyth, Joshua, Pemberton. 
Fenimore, Allen, Mount Holly. 
Fenimore, .\llen,Jr , Mount Holly. 
Fenimore, Isaac. Lumberton. 
Fenimore, Wm. H., Jacksonville. 
Fenimore, Allen M., Mount Holly. 
Fort, Andrew H., Pemberton. 
Fenw ick, James A., New Lisbon. 
Foster, A. J., Burlington. 
Folwell, Nathan, Bordentown. 
Gibbs, Daniel F., Pemberton. 
Gibbs, Nina, Mount Holly. 
Githens, Sarah B., Mount Holly. 
Githens, Frank, Mount Hidly. 
Gaskill, J. Harvey, Mount Holly. 
Gaskill, Joseph H., Mount Holly. 
Gaskill, Jiidson C, Birmingham. 
Gasliill, Theodore B., Pemberton. 
Gaskill, Job H., Pemberton. 
Gaskill, Caleb S., Mount Holly. 
Gaskill, Asa, Mount Holly. 
Goldy, Isaiah P., Pemberton. 
Garwood, William, Marlton. 
Garwood, Israel, Medford. 
Gillinghani, Y. M., Moorestown. 
Gibbs, Amos, Jlount Holly. 
Gandy, Thomas B., Mount Holly. 
Garon, Walter, Mount Holly. 
Holliushead, Benj. F., Hartford. 
Hiillinshead, Joshua, Hartford. 
Hollinshead, Joseph C, Camden. 
Heard, Thomas A., Mount Holly. 
Haines, Isaac C, Mount Holly. 
Haines, J. Woolston, Vincentown. 
Haines, Allen M., Hainesport. 
Haines, J. Garwood, Columbus. 
Haines, Stacy B., Vincentown. 
Haines, Robert P., Mount Holly. 
Haines, Behoboani B., Mount 


Haine°, Nathan, Burlington. 
Haines, John N., Medford. 
Haines, David T., Medford. 
Haines, Joseph C, Lumberton. 
Haines, Albert, Medford. 
Haine*, Abi 1, Ranrocas. 
Hankinson, John B., Mount Holly. 
Hankinson, Risdon, Mount Holly. 
Hankins, Bunting, Bordentown. 
Howard, R. H., Mount Holly. 
Harker, Harry, Vincentown. 
Harker, Aaron, A'incentown. 
Hopkins, John C, Moorestown. 
Hulme, Joseph M , Mount Holly. 
Hunt, Lloyd J., Mourestown. 
Haywood, George, Mount Holly. 
Horner, Charles B., Mount Holly. 
Horner, Page, Burlington. 
Hancock, George B., Rancocas. 
Hancock, Caleb, Burlington. 
Hancock, Samuel E , Builiuglon. 
Hancock, Ridgway, Burlington. 
Hancock, William R., C(dumbus. 
Hancock, J. Elwood, Columbus. 
Hancock, Joseph B., 172S Girard 

Ave., Philadelphia. 
Hancock, Edward B., Bonlenlown. 
Heulings, Wm. H., Moorestown. 
Hculiiigs, Israel W., Sloorestown. 
Hewlings, Sam'l B., Mount Holly. 
Hutchinson, John P., Georgetown. 
Hutchinson, Mahlou, Bordentown. 
Hewes, G. L , Bordentown. 
Hendrjckson, C E., Mount Holly. 
Hiilse, Benjamin, Allentown. 
Hills, Harry, Jobstown. 
Irick, Robert 11., Vincentown. 
Irick, Henry J., A'iiicentowu. 
Irick, John S., Vincentown. 
Irick, Samuel S , Vincentown. 
Irick, John B., Vincentown. 
Irick, William J , Vincentown. 
Jones, Barclay, Medford. 
Jones, E. B , Mount Holly. 
Jones, Lawrence W., Medford. 
Johnson, Samuel, Mount Holly. 
Johnson, Samuel W., Burlington. 
Johnson, AV. A., Hainesport. 
Jennings, Robert, Pittsburgh. 
Kemble, Henry B , Millville. 
Kemble, Amos, Jacksonville. 
Kaighn, David B., Camdeti. 
Kaighn, Joseph M., Camden. 
King, Ellis, Marlton. 
King, Sallie B., Jacksonville. 
Kellogg, Amos S., Mount Holly. 
Kirkbride, George AA'., Pemberton. 
Lippincott, W. G , Mount Holly. 
Lippincott, James, Mount Holly. 
■Lippincott, Grace, Mount Hully. 
Lippincott, S. II., Moorestown. 
Lippincott, AVallace, Biidgeboro'. 
Lippincott, AVilliam C, Marlton. 
Lippincott, C. M., Mount Holly. 
Lippincott, Wm. B., Cinnaminson. 
Lippincott, Stacy B., Jobstown. 
Lippincott, Aaron, Moorestown. 
Lippincott, Albert A., Hartford. 
Lippincott, Asa R., Moorestown. 
Lippiucolt, Charles, Burlington. 
Lippincott, Samuel R., Hartford. 
Lippincott, Henry C, Marlton. 
Lippincott, Freedom C, Marlton. 
Lippincott, John P., A'incentown. 
Logan, Edward E., Mount Holly. 
Logan, James, Mount Holly. 
Logan, James P., Beverly. 



LeviB, FrnnkliD B., Mount HoU.v. 

Lewis, Dnniel B., Wedford. 

Longgfrfef, H. H., Bordentowii. 

Lynch, Peter, Blount Holly. 

Low, Eliliu S., Medfurd. 

LaumasttT, J. Fred., Mount Holly. 

Lee, Benjamin F., Monnt Holly. 

MiJdletun, C'lias. H., Philadelphia. 

Middlcton, Edward, Crosswicks. 

Middletun, F. B . CrosswickB. 

Middleton, T. W., Fellowship. 

Morris, Anthony J., Peniberlon. 

Blonis, Anthony S.. Pcniberton. 

Miijijr, Clayton L., Burlington. 

Marter, Ez'a Budd, Burlington. 

Marter Edwin K , Burlington. 

Marti-r, ThoDias A., Beveily. 

Mortland, William, Moorestown. 

M\ lin, Amos K., Merchantville. 

Milnor, Franc-e \V., Burlington. 

McCorniick, John \V., Camden. 

Merritt, ('has. E., Mount Hully. 

Mathews, Hannah, Bordentown. 

Miller, L.nis Mount H.dly. 

Madden, T. B., Mount Holly. 

Morgan, Clmrles, Bordentown. . 

KewboM, Henry A., Jersey City. 

Kewbohi, Tliouias, Mount Holly. 

Newbold. Tlios., Jr., Wrightstowu. 

Kippius, U. H., Recklesstown. 

Olipliant, Jona., Recklesstown. 

Oliplianl, Eayre, New Lisbun. 
Pancoast, Teres.1, Mount Holly. 
Pancoast, N. D., Moorestown. 
Pancoast, M. S., Mount Holly. 
Pancoast, William, Mount Holly. 
Pancoast, Gio. H., Movnt Holly. 

Pancoast. Geo. E., Mount Holly. 
Pew, Joviah B., Mount Holly. 
Pew, Bloonifield B., Jobstown. 
Pew, C. Harry, Jobstown. 
Pew, Samuel B., Mount Holly. 
Pew, Asher B , Mount Holly. 
Pew, Waller W., Burlington. 
Pew, Helen B., Burlington. 
Pew, JoUah B., Jr., Mvnnt Holly. 
Phillips, .\ntliony. Monnt Holly. 
Powell, Joseph, Lnmberton. 
Powell, Isiiac M., Lumberton. 
Price, n. R., Birmingham. 
Peterson, Richard, Broad and Wil- 
low Streets, Philadelphia. 
Prickitt, John B., Viocentown. 
Prirkitt, Robert, Masonville. 
P.irry, William C, Hainesport. 
Parry, William, Parry P. 0. 
Poinsett, Frank, Bordeatown. 
Parrish, George D., Philadelphia. 
Porter, Wm. R , Edgewater Park. 
Regan, Josci'h. Mount Hidly. 
Risdon, T. H., Mount Holly. 
Risdon, T. R., Mount Holly. 
Risdon, .^. M., Moorestown. 
Risdon, T. R., Jr., Mount Holly. 
Risdon, Henry C, Mount Holly. 
Risdon, Bennett, Mount Holly. 
Risdon, Samuel, Mount Holly. 
Rogers, D.D.,70:iW\,lnutSt.,Phi]a. 
Rogers, Joseph J., Medford. 
R'gers, J. Slratton, Mount Holly. 
Rogers, S. E., Jr., Mount Holly. 
Rogers, Thomas H., Columbus. 
Rogers, Caleb, Columbus. 
Rogers, Slireve, Burlington. 
Rogers, William, Rancocas. 
Rigg, Edward, Burlington. 
Bigg, George, Burl.ngtoo. 

Rigg, Ann, Burlington. 
Reeve, Richardson S., Medf.ird. 
Reeve, 7.ach. R., Mount H.dly. 
Reeve, Isaiah W., Monnt Holly. 
Rue, John, Monnt H.dly. 
Roliorts, Emmor, Fellowship. 
Roberts, Joseph E , Hartford. 
Roberts, Samuel L., Moorestown. 
Rockhill, I-aiah, Columbus. 
RiJgway, Caleb S , Columbus. 
Stratton, J. L. N., Mount Holly. 
Stratton, James N., M.mnt Holly. 
Shreve, Ale.\ , Wrightstown. 
Shreve, Richard C, Monnt Holly. 
Slireve, James P., Monnt H'lly. 
Shreve, Baizillai R., Pembeiton. 
Shreve, Beiij. F., Mount Holly. 
Sliinn, Elwood, Jobstown. 
Shiun, Willit, Mount Holly. 
Stiles, John B., Mount Holly. 
Slack, R. J. B., Monnt Holly. 
Slack, Philip F., Mount Holly. 
Smith, John F., Monnt Holly. 
Sniitli, Samuel J., Monnt H..lly. 
Sloan, Charles M , Mount Holly. 
Smith, H. B., Sniitlnillc. 
Smitli,C.B , Rid-way House, Phila. 
Sutts, Jacob, Jobstiiwn. 
Stewart, Edwin, Ellisl.le. 
Stackhonse. A. P., Medford. 
Smalley, John C, Monnt Holly. 
Souder, Walter N., Bnrlingt.>n. 
Stokes, Charles, Jr., Rancoc;is. 
Swaim, John, Bordentown. 
Semple, John, Mount Holly. 
Sutter, Daniel, Mount ll.lly. 
Simons, Sol. R , Vincenlown. 
Ten Eyck, John C, M.mnt Holly. 
Taylor, Isaac D., Recklesstown. 
Taylor, Samuel W., Burlington. 
Taylor, Thomis, Birmiugham. 
Taylor, Will. am S., Burlington. 
Taylor, Chas. W , Recklesstown. 
Tomliuson, Evan H., Rancocas. 
Townsend, John B., Jacksonville. 
Thomas, Howard, Ellisdale. 
Troth. Wm. D., Mount Holly. 
Voorhees, Fred., Mount Holly. 
Vand.grlft, J.isepli, Burlington. 
Ward, Walter, Mount Holly. 
Wills, Charles, Mount Holly. 
Wills, Edward, Mount Holly. 
Wills, William R., Rincocas. 
Wills, Joseph, Rancocas. 
Wills, Micajah R., Medford. 
Wills, Howard H., Rancocas. 
Wills, Samuel J., Rancocas, 
Wills, Samuel F., Medford. 
Wills, Zebedee B., Marlton. 
Wills, James, Marlton. 
Wills, Benajah P., Mount Holly. 
Wills, Z. M., Marlton. 
Wills, Anna W., Mount Holly. 
Wills. Augustus Sl.^C/cilumbus. 
Wilkins, Caleb, Lumberton. 
Wilkins, John W., Ma*onTiIle. 
Walton, Levi, Moorestown. 
White, Aaron S., Monnt Holly. 
White, Benjamin, Pemberton. 
White, B.irclay, Mount Holly. 
Wells, Davis C, Pemberton. 
Ware, Thendosia P., Columbus. 
Wood, William C, Haddonfield. 
Warner, Charles G., Mount Holly. 
Woolman, Isaac L., Cr.'Sswicks. 
Zelley, Clayton, Mount Holly. 
Zelley, Hannah A., Mount Holly. 

The future prospects of the society are brilliant. 
It has grown beyond the capacity of its present 
grounds, and is anxiously looking forward to the 
time when it will be able to persuade the owners of 
the surrounding teyitory to part with some of their 
acres. With more land, they hope to provide tracks 
of such length and excellence that will attract the 
speediest of trotters and runners. With more build- 
ings, they hope to exhibit all the varied industries of 
the Union, either in repose or motion, and thus ren- 
der the Burlington County Fair the most interesting 
and instructive spot in America. 


Mount Holly Insurance Company — Burlington County Timber Protec- 
tion Company — The Grange Movements — Burlington C<.)unty Lyceum 
of History aiid Xatural Science. 

Mount Holly Insurance Company.— March 21, 
1831, tlie Legislature of New Jersey passed an act to* 
incorporate "The Mount Holly Insurance Company," 
in the county of Burlington, with power to appoint 
and elect such officers and agents as might be neces- 
sary to carry into effect all measures proper for such 
an organization, naming as first directors Caleb New- 
bold, John Black, Joseph C. Clark, Samuel F. Levis, 
John Larzelere, William Ridgway, Jonathan J. Spen- 
cer, Thomas Swaine, John L. Stratton, Moses Wills, 
Jacob Ridgway, Samuel Fenimore, and George Hay- 
wood. Of the above-named directors, John L. Strat- 
ton, Joseph C. Clark, William Ridgway, Jonathan 
J. Spencer, Samuel F. Levis, and George Haywood 
met 31st day of first month, 1831, at the house of 
Stacy Campion, and organized by appointing William 
Ridgway president, and George Haywood secretary, 
and adjourned to 8th of second month at two p.m., 
when Ridgway, Fenimore, Clark, and Haywood 
were present. At this meeting it was " Resolved, That 
books of subscription be opened at the house of Stacy 
Campion, on the 2d day of fifth month next, and that 
the same be advertised in the two newspapers in 
Mount Holly." The meeting was then adjourned to 
2d of fifth month, 1831. At this meeting the sub- 
scription books were opened, when the following 
names were entered, and five dollars paid on each 
share : 

John Black, 


Jeremiah H. Sloan, 


Asa G. Shinn. 



Charles Stokes, 


Charles F. Lott, 



Samuel Fenimore, 


Jonathan J. Spencer, 



Joseph W. Birck, 


William N. Shinn, 



Jacob Ridgway, 


David Vanderveer, 



Moses Wills, 


Richard Eayre, 



Betijamin Davis, 


John Beatty, 



William Ridgway, 


Caleb and Benjamin 

George Haywood, 





Caleb Newbold, John L. Stratton, Thomas Swaim, 
John Larzelere, Samuel F. Levis, Joseph C. Clark, 
and George Haywood, having resigned as directors, 



their places were filled by the appointment of William 
N. Shinn, John Beatty, Richard Eayre, Benjamin 
Shreve, Asa G. Shreve, Charles F. Lott, and Charles 
Stokes. At this meeting John Black was elected 

At the end of the first year the company declared 
a dividend of five per cent., and in 1835 declared a 
dividend of three per cent, semi-annually, and have 
increased the capital stock from time to time until it 
now enjoys a capital of one hundred thousand dollars, 
with assets amounting to one hundred and eighty-five 
thousand dollars. From 1831 to and including 1858 
the business of the company was transacted in the 
law-office of Hon. George Haywood, secretary of the 
company. In that year the company purchased the 
property on Mill Street, where their office has since 
been located. 

Changes of directors and other officers have been 
very few, except by death or removal. As a conse- 
quence the managers have well advanced in age, and 
to that cause is attributed much of the stability and 
prudence that have characterized the proceedings of 
the company. 

At one time about one-half of the directors aver- 
aged nearly or quite eighty j'ears of age each. Of the 
original members of this company in 1831, only three 
are living, viz.: Charles Stokes, who is still an active 
member of the finance committee, though over 
ninety years of age ; Samuel Levis, who is nearly 
ninety ; and the venerable Hon. George Haywood, 
aged ninety years, is still actively engaged as secre- 
tary and treasurer of the company. 

There have been thus far but four acting presidents 
of the company, viz. : William Ridgway, from thirty- 
first day of first month, 1831, to second day of fifth 
month, the same year, when John Black was elected, 
and served until his decease in 1874, when John R. 
Slack was elected and served till 1877, when the pres- 
ent president, Allen Fennimore, was elected. Harris 
Cox has been assistant secretary of the company since 

Burling'ton County Timber Protective Company. 
— This company was organized at Mount Holly, April 
24, 1880, under the laws of the State of New Jersey, 
with the following-named charter members : John S. 
Irick, Vincentown; Franklin W. Earl, Pemberton ; 
Samuel A. Dobbins, Blount Holly; Stacy B. Lippin- 
cott, Springfield ; David B. Coles, Lunjberton ; An- 
drew H. Fort, Pemberton ; C. Morgan Lippincott, 
Mount Holly ; William Cotton, Shamong; William J. 
Irick, Vincentown ; James Lippincott, Mount Holly ; 
Benjamin White, Pemberton ; Henry J. Irick, Vincen- 
town ; Benajah P. Wills, Mount Holly ; Joseph L. 
Budd, Pemberton ; Allen Fenimore, Northampton ; 
Samuel H. Chambers, Springfield ; Henry I. Budd, 
Mount Holly; Alfred L. Black, Springfield ; Alfred 
Budd, Buddtown ; Budd Atkinson, Mount Holly. 

At a subsequent meeting the following-named gen- 
tlemen were elected directors : John S. Irick, Vincen- 

town; Isaac Fenimore, Lumberton ; Franklin W. 
Earl, Pemberton ; Samuel W. Chambers, Springfield ; 
Alfred Budd, Buddtown ; Eayre Oliphant, New Lis- 
bon ; Alfred Black, Jobstown ; Samuel A.Dobbins, 
Mount Holly ; William Braddock,> Jr., Medford ; 
Henry I, Budd, Mount Holly. 

President of Board of Directors, Alfred Black. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Henry I. Budd. 

The objects of this society are tie detecting and 
arresting timber-thieves, and the prosecution of those 
buying stolen timber, logs, wood, rails, posts, lumber, 
herbage, and cranberry' vines, ferreting out and ar- 
resting incendiaries of pine and cedar timber, wood, 
and lumber. Its necessity arose from the immense 
losses incurred each year from the depredations of 
thieves and incendiaries in the forests of Burlington 
and adjoining counties, and it has resulted in largely 
protecting the property of its members, which own a 
large portion of \rhat are called the pine lands of New 

The Grange Movement in Burlington County. 
— The grange movement took shape in the United 
States in 1870, when William Saunders and others, 
in the city of Washington, organized "The National 
Grange of Patrons of Husbandry." It rapidly spread 
until in about four years it numbered over two million 
members. " Its original idea was the general co- 
operation of the agricultural interests of the whole 
country for the protection of the farmer as a purchaser 
as well as a seller, combining sociability with educa- 
tion, bringing the intelligent farmer and the plodder 
into social intercourse with each other." It early 
took root in Burlington County, and the order became 
more numerous and longer maintained its integrity 
than in any other county in New Jersey, numbering 
at one time over one thousand members. Following 
is a list of granges in Burlington County. 

Mount Laurel Grange, No. 6, was organized Sept. 6, 
1873, with fourteen members (present number, twenty- 
one), with John E. Darnell as Master, and Edmund 
Darnell, Sec. ; present Master, Japhet B. Joyce; Sec, 
Sally N. Brown. 

Moorestown, No. 8, organized Sept. 22, 1873, Avith 
thirty-seven members (now have eighty-nine), with 
Charles Collins, Master, and George W. Jessuj), Sec. 
Present Master, -Joshua Hollinshead ; Sec, Sally 

Medford, No. 36, organized Dec. 3, 1873, with 
eighteen members (now have sixty-five), with Micajah 
R. Wills, Master; Richard Haines, Sec. Present 
Master, Joseph J. Rogers; Sec, James W. Haines. 

Mount Holly, No. 37, organized Dec. 30, 1873, with 
twenty members (now have twenty-two), with James 
Lippincott, Master, and Henry I. Budd, Sec. Present 
Master, Henry I. Budd ; Sec, Lydia W. Gandy. 

Rancocas, No. 49, organized Jan. 17, 1874, with 
fifteen members (now have fifteen), with Abel Haines, 
Master, and William R. Wills, Sec. Present Master, 
Joseph Lundy ; Sec, Uriah Barton. 


Pemberton, No, 50, was organized Feb. 20, 1874, 
with twenty-three members (now hare thirty-four), 
with Joshua Forsyth, Master, and Franklin W. Earl, 
Sec. Present Master, Alfred Budd; Sec, Henry Lip- 
pi ncott. 

Columbus, No. 58, organized Feb. 7, 1874, with 
"William R. Hancock, Master, and Franklin L. Zelley, 
Sec, with twenty members (now have sixty-eight). 
Present Master, Eobert Taylor; Sec, Thomas A. 

Crosswicks (No. 61) was organized Feb. 11, 1874, 
with Alfred Satterthwaite, Master, and Charles H. 
Tindall, secretary, with seventeen members (now have 
thirty-one). Present Master, William Deacon ; Sec, 
Elizabeth A. Rogers. 

Burlington County Pomona, No. 1, first paid dues 
to State grange in 1877, on one hundred and forty 
members (present number, one hundred and two), but 
Avas organized as Pomona in 1875, with William S. 
Taylor as Master, Henry I. Budd secretary. Present 
Master, Benjamin Gillingham ; Sec, Edmund Brad- 

Although the average granges do not manifest as 
lively an interest as at the inception of the grange, 
yet the order has done and is doing a great deal to 
advance the material and educational interests of the 

The Pomona, No. 1, the patron grange of the 
county, is largely instrumental, principally through 
its executive committee, of which James Lippincott, 
of Mount Holly, N. J., is chairman and purchasing 
agent, in buying each year in the wholesale markets 
of the West thousands of dollars of grass and grain 
seeds, feed, stock, sheep, and cattle, and other sup- 
plies, thereby obtaining the best articles at the mini- 
mum of wholesale cost. 

It is also educating its members (male and female) 
in parliamentary law and all the duties necessary to 
active citizenship, and rapidly bringing them from 
the extreme background to the front in the councils 
of the people. State, and nation. 

The Burlington County Lyceum of History and 
Natural Science was organized July 4, 1859. The 
charter reads as follows : 

"An Act ^^ Incorporate The Burlington Counlij Lyceum of History and 
Natural Science. 

"Whereas, it in represented to tlie Legislature, that a number of 
persons bave fornieil a Sjciefy at Mount Hully, in the County of Bur- 
lington, for the Collecting of Stiitistics of lJi»tory,aud tbe eucouiage- 
luent and cultivation of the Sciences, by the name of 'The Burlington 
County Lyceum of History and Natural Science,' as a Society devoted 
entirely to tbe advaucenient of useful learning, and in order that the 
purposes thereof may be better carried into effect ; Iherefore, 

"1. Ee il enacted by tbe Senate and General Assembly of the State of 
Kew Jersey : That all such persons as now are memberj of said Society, 
according to its rules beietofore adopted, or that hereafter may become 
members of the same, agreeably to its rules and regulations, be and 
they are bei eby incorporated into a Society by the name of ' The Bur- 
lington Countj' Lyceum of History and Natural Science,' and by that 
name sball have perpetual succession, with jKJwer to have a common 
seal and change the Siinie at pleasure, to make contracts relative to the 
(aid luEtituliou, to sue and W; BU>.'d ; and by that name and style bo 

capable in law of purchasing, taking, holding, and conveying any estate 
real or personal, for the use of said incorporation. 

" 2. And be it enacted, That the Society shall consist of active members, 
correspondents, honorary and life members ; all candidates for admission 
sball be elected under such rulen and upon sucli terms as the Society 
shall est;iblisib: but members only shall have the right of voting, of 
holding offices and of tran^actlng business. 

"3. And be il enacted, That the Society may establish by-laws and or- 
ders for its government and regulation, and for tbe preservation and 
application of tbe funds thereof; Prorided, the same be not repugnant 
to the constitution and laws of the United States or of this State. 

j "4. And be U enacted, That the offices of the Society shall be a Presi- 
dent, two Vice-Presidents, a Corresponding Secretary, a Recording Sec- 
retary, a Treasurer, a Libraiian, and four Curators, with such other 

1 officei'S as the Society may deem advisable, whose respective duties may 

I be as-igned by the by-laws of the said Society, and they shall be elected 
at tlie la-it Stated Meeting of the Society in December of each year ; and 
if any odice shall Ix'Come vacant, it nniy be supplied byaspecial election 
until the annual election next ensuing. 

I "5. And be i' enacted. That if the annual election for officers shall not 

j be held at the slated day, the said corporation shall not be thereby dis- 
solved, but the officers shall continue in office until a new election. 

I " Approved Feb. 7, 18GU." 



" Article I. — The regular meetingof this society shall be held on the 
first Saturday in each month, at three o'clock p.m., at the society's 

" Article II. — Tlie initiation fee for membership shall be two dollars ; 
the annual fee, one dollar. 

"Article 111. — The president shall preside at all meetings of tbe 
Society, decide all questions of order, give the casting vote, and call 
special meetings when required. But iu the absence of the president 
from any meeting, his duties shall devolve upon the vice-presidents in 
rotation; or at his request, when present, his duties may be performed 
by either of the vice-presidents. 

"The recording secretary shall keep minutes of the proceedings of 
all meetings of the Society, enter them in the society's book of records, 
and present the same at regular times for approval or correction, lie 
shall also take charge of the papers of the society. 

"The corresponding secretary shall notify all members of their elec- 
tion, and shall conduct the correspondence of the society. 

"The librarian shall have the custody and care of the books belong- 
ing to the society, which he shall dispose and arrange in such a manner 
as sball be judged most convenient, and shall keep an arranged cata- 
logue of them and the names of the donors; he shall also assist the 
curators in the charge of the cabinet. 

" The treasurer shall collect fees of members, pay debts on the order 
ef the society, furnish reports on the condition of the treasury when 
required, and at the close of his term of office presei.t a full report of 
the financial transactions of the year, sujiported by proper vouchers. 

"The curators shall bave charge of the rooms of the society, sball ar- 
range and label tbe specimens in the cabinet, and dnly enter them in 
the books provided for the purpose, giving scientific and common names, 
together with their origin or locality, and the names of the donors. 

"Article IV. — The specimens of the society sball be (daced iu the 
society's cabinet; they shall be marked with the society's mark, and 
shall be accessible to any of the members through the curators. 

"Article V. — There shall be eleven standing committees, namely, 
Geology anil Palajontology, Mineralogy, Ornithology and Oology, Iclitliy- 
ology, Herpetology, Entomology, Conchology, Mammalogy, Botany, 
History and Antiquities, Numismalics." 

The officers of the lyceum in 1862 were : President, 
Edward Harris, Moorestown ; Vice-Presidents, Sam- 
uel Bullock, Westhampton; James Lippincott, Jr., 
Mount Holly ; Recording Secretary, Charles 11. Aaron ; 
Corresponding Secretary, Eugene Schumo; Treasurer, 
Charles H. Hollinshead ; Librarian, John P.Burnett; 
Curators, George C. Brown, W. H. B. Thomas, S. H. 
Shreve, E. Schumo, C. E. Aaron, Andrew Davis, John 
P. Schofield. 

The society's rooms are pleasantly located in the 
new " Levis Block," on Main Street, Mount Holly. 



The officers for 1832 are as follows: President, 
Marmaduke S. Pancoast; Vice-Presidents, Andrew 
E. Budd, M.D., John Ekings; Recording Secretary, 
Charles Ewan Merritt; Corresponding Secretary, 
John C. Ten Eyck ; Librarian, M. S. Pancoast; 
Treasurer, Howard C. Levis ; Curators, Charles H. 
Estill, Francis Ashhurst, M.D., Joseph C. Clark, 
Howard C. Levis, Richard H. Parsons, M.D., John 
C. Ten Eyck ; Trustees of Library, Francis Ash- 
hurst, M.D., Andrew E. Budd, M.D., Charles Ewan 
Merritt, Joseph C. Clark, Franklin B. Levis, Clifford 
Stanley Sims, James N. Stratton ; Assistant Librari- 
ans, Mrs. D. W. Carr, Miss Nellie Carr. 


Executions that have taken place in Burlington County — Finances of 
Builingtun County — Its net Indebtedness— Popnlxtion of Burlington 
Counly^Maniagcs, Birtlie, and Deatlis — Consolidated Staliotics of 
rublic Schools — Electoral Vote of New Jersey. 

The executions that have taken place in Burling- 
ton County have been as follows : 

Black Eliza, by Sheriff Joshua Hollinshead, in 1830. 

Joel Clougli, for the murder of Mary Hamilton, at 
Bordentown, by Sheriff Joshua Hollinshead, in 1833. 

Philip Lynch, for the murder of George Thomas 
Coulter, at Bordentown, by Sheriff John D. Thomp- 
son, March, 18G0. 

Charles Brooks, by Sheriff William C. Lippincott, 
Dec. 11, 18G3. 

The amount of funded debt of Burlington County i 
is $275,531.67 ; composed of $202,800 on county bonds, 
$72,731.67 surplus revenue to schools. Rate of inter- 
est on funded debt, $168,200, at seven per cent. ; 
$107,331.67, at six per cent. Purposes for which con- 
tracted, $72,731.67 surplus revenue to the schools; 
$150,000 current expenses of county; $52,800 on 
account of bounties. Falls due: Jan. 1, 1883,$2i,600; 
Jan. 1, 1884, $59,800; Jan. 1, 1887, $60,400 ; Jan. 1, 
1890, $57,700. 

Amount of real estate taxable, $19,413,245. 

Amount of personal property taxable, $7,807,772. 

Rate of tax levied, $0.58i per $100. 

Amount of tax raised : State school tax, $65,082.54; 
county tax, $104,917.46. 

Expenditures for the fiscal year ending May 10, 

SL'ite school tax $01,611.31 

Interest surphis revenue to schools 4 3C:i.92 

State ajipropriation to S'hools 4,812.7a 

State appropriation, two-mill tax 48,0h;5.28 

County examiner schools r20.G4 

School superintendent, sjilarv and expenses ],.'iiiu.00 

Bridges ! 22,002 0;i 

Slate Lunatic Asylum 3,01.'). 71 

Almshouse 6,u:i7.2:j 

Court-houRP and j)risou committee 4,47:5.60 

Election expenses I,116..o0 

Coroners' hills rtlh.'i 

Courts ll,4G().li9 

Freeholders' personal bills 3 W.i.2-'> 

Printing bills 1,102 54 

Sheriff, feeding prisoners 3,408.27 

Poor bills 307 84 

' E. J. Anderson, comptroller of treasury, State of New Jersey, p. 140. 

Books and stationery $18,1.07 

Bonds iwid 01,0(1(100 

Interest on bonds 17,711..')U 

Saliii ies paid 2,1)")0.(K) 

Miscellaneous 372.4.5 

Note Mount Holly Nation il Bank lO.OOuoo 

Relief Fife Company, Mount Holly 100 00 

Land for county... k I,0o0 00 

Charles A. Antrim, liouiify 300.00 

Good Intent Fire Company JOO 00 

Rent of office 80 ()0 

Burlington County Children's Home 190.99 

Total 8204,199.78 

Net indebtedness : ^ 

County debt S2C0,103 

Township d>-bt 04,297 

School di-trict debt 39,497 

City and town debt 45,760 

Total of county $409,053 

Total assessed valuation of real and personal prop- 
erty, $31,613,208. 

Total taxation, $222,384. 

The population of Burlington County, as given by 
the tenth census, 1880, was : 

Bass River KKIO 

Medford 1980 

Mount Laurel 1739 

New Hanover 237.i 

Northampton 4030 

Pemberton (exclusive of bor- 
ough) 20SG 

Pemlierton (boroufih) 709 

Randolph 42'< 

Shamoiu: 1007 

S;.)Utlianiptoii 2270 

Sp; in}:tield l.*-80 

Washington 380 

WpKthaiiiptori 715 

Willincboro' 743 

Woodland C25 

Colored 2,.570 

Indians 4 

Total 55,403 

Beverly (exclusive of city)... 13(i9 

Beverly (city) ". 1759 

Bordentown 6334 

Burlington 7237 

Chester 2855 

Chesterfield 1525 

Cinnaminson 2184 

Delran 1700 

Kastlmnipton 500 

Evesham 10o2 

Florence 152,s 

Little Egg Harbor 18M 

Lumbei ton 10>-9 

Mansfield 1048 

Of this there were : 

Male 27.297 

Female 28.100 

Natives 51,403 

Foreign 4,000 

■White 51,829 l 

The marriages, births, and deaths for the year end- 
ing June 30, 1881, were as follows: marriages, 348; 
births, 1072 ; deaths, 847. 


Report revised by Edgar H^tas, Connlij Superintendent. P. 0. address, Bor- 

Whole number of elementary schools 174 

Scho'ls for colored child i en 4 

SchiK)! buildings, giudy-aiid recitation-rooms: 

Wliolu number of school buiMiiigs 123 

No. having more than one study-room 24 

No. having more than one recitation-room 10 

Whole numlier of seats now iiroviilcd 10,735 

Entire seating capacity of all schools 10,735 

Condition of buildings: 

No. reported in t:ood condition 94 

No. having insufficient grounds 19 

No. simply reported in bad condition liO 

No. of buildings in which hi^h slIiouIs are also taught 9 

No. of te.ichers in elementary schools: 

White, male 69 

" female 120 

Total white teachers 179 

Colored, male 1 

" female 3 

Total colored teachers 4 

Grand total white and colored teachers 183 

Qualifications of teachers: 

No. educated at high schools or academies 43 

No. educated at normal sclioids 32 

No. educated at colleges or universities- 2 

No. holding diplomas or certificates other than from 

institutions as above 106 

Wages and time employed: 

Average of teachers' salaries per month, males $40.59 

" " " " females $31.60 

" number of months employed in 18sO 9.4 

* Tenth Census United States. 


J-K.^ - - 




lis -^ •»•«./„•- 
^•<" > '>4' ^^, >■*■; 

i 7 

it* /^v -V.-. 

MAT' of ilif To^ni of 



-Btiijravetl e.rprf.tsiy /or //us WttrA- 



'Whole iinnil>er of pupils in attendance daring school year: 

Vliitc, nmle 5207 

" fonmli- 5193 

Total while 10,40() 

Culoied, male 113 

" female 105 

Total coloml ^ 218 

Averatre ilHily attendance of piipilg during school year : 

White 6200 

Colored 103 


No. of S'liools Hsing a nniform series 183 

No. in which tliev are provi.leil at piil.lic e.vpeiise 9 

No. of scliooU in vhich instruction is given in any of fol- 
lowing branches: 

Botany 6 

Natiu-ul pliiloBrtiiliy 35 

Phy^ical geography 43 

Physiology 35 

Drawing 78 

Book-kee)iiiig 47 

Average iiunibcr of hours of instruction : 

Morning 3 

Alteriiuon 3 

Per day C 

Average number of xlays in which school was taught in all 

schools III 1880 18R 

Libiaries, n)i)>aratus, etc. : 

No of sili'Mils which have libraries 32 

No. (if bound volumes in same 1C7I 

No. of schools whicli have aiiparutns for object teaching 25 

Sources ol income : 

From State taxes f55,920.95 

From couiitv, town, and city taxes, dog taxes, and other 

publii funds 10,010.19 

From all other sources 20,X28.29 

Total ofreceiiits $92,759.43 


For buibling 385.00 

For repairs 2,121.32 

For teachers' salaries 65,.i97.81 

Fortext-biH.ks 205.84 

For school furniture 1,79C.H6 

For appMiHliis 105 00 

For libraries 190 00 

For all other purposes, building 8,807.11 

Total expenditures 87y,;iG8.44 

Value of school pmperty : 

Value of school liiiikiings and grounds 215,825.00 

A'alue of other school projierty 729 00 

Total value of all school property J2IC,554.00 

District balance, S3:;54 25. State balance, $10,130.74. 


For Prctidenl and yice-Piesidei>l,/rom ilarch 4, 1789, to March 4, 1881. 

1789. — George Washington, of Virginia 6 

JoIlii Adams, of Massachu>etts 1 

John Jay, of New York 5 

1793.— George VVai-liingtoii, of Virginia 7 

John Adams, of Jlassachnst-its 7 

1797. — John Adams, of Massaclni.«plts 7 

Thomas Pinckney, ot South Carolina 7 

1801.— John Adams of Massachusetts 7 

C. C. I'inckney, of South Carolina 7 

1805.— Thomas Jeffeisuii, ol Virginia 8 

George Clinton, of New Y.nk 8 

1809. — James Madison, of Virginia 8 

George Clinton, of New York 8 

1813.— De Wilt Clinton, of New York „ 8 

Jared liigersoll, of I'cniisyhaiiia 8 

1617. — James Monroe, of Virginia 8 

Daniel D Tompkins, of >ew Yolk 8 

1821.— Janus Munroe, of Virgin'a 8 

Daniel D. T.impkins, of New York 8 

1825. — Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee 8 

John C. Calhoun, (f South Carolina 8 

1829.— John Q. Adams, of Massacluisctis 8 

Uicliaid Itiish, of Pennsylvania 8 

1833.— Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee 8 

Maitiii Van liuieii, of New York 8 

1S37.— Wjlliuni 11. Harrison, of Ohio 8 

Francis Granger, of New York ^ 8 

1841.— William U. Harrison, of Ohio 8 

John T.>ler, of Virginia 8 

1845.— Henry Clay, of Kentucky 7 

Theodore Frelinghuysen, of New Jersey 7 

1840. — Zarhary Taylor, of Louisiana 7 

Millard F'illmore, of New York 7 

1853. — Fianklm Pierce, of New Hampshire, 7 

William K. King, of Alabama 7 

1857. — James Uiuhauan, of Pennsyh-ania 7 

John C. Bieckenridge, of Kentucky 7 

18G1. — .\bralmni Lincoln, of Illinois 4 

Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine 4 

Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois 3 

Uerschel V. Johnson, of Georgia 3 

1865. — George B. McClellan, of New Jersey 

George H. Pendleton, of Oliio 7 

18C9. — Horatio Seymour, of New Yoik 7 

Francis P. Blair, of Missouri 7 

1873. — Ulysses S. Grant, of Illinois 7 

Henry WiNoii, of Massachusetts _ 7 

1877.— Samuel J Tilden, ..f New Yoik 9 

Thomas A. HendricU*, of Indiana 9 

1881.— Winfield Scutt Hancock, of Pennsylvania 9 

William U.English, of Indiana 9 



Situation and Boundaries.— Burlington is situ- 
ated upon the northern border of the county, west of 
the centre, and is one of the larger, improved, and 
populous townships of the county, its limits includ- 
ing Burlington City and Burlington Island. It is 
bounded north by Pennsylvania, from which it is 
separated by the Delaware River, east by Florence 
and Springfield, south by Springfield, Westhampton, 
and Willingborough, and west by Willingborough 
and Beverly. 

Physical Features. — Burlington is now greatly 
curtailed from its original dimensions. Its approxi- 
mate greatest width east and west is five miles, north 
and south four miles. It is very irregular in form, 
and contains eleven thousand one hundred and thirty 
acres. It has a gently undulating, in some parts al- 
most even surface ; its soil is sandy but productive, 
and in all sections highly cultivated. Quite a tract 
of land in the western part of Burlington City is oc- 
casionally submerged, and on account of its marshy 
character unfit for cultivation. This is being re- 
claimed by a system of drainage in connection with 
steam-power pumping. The Delaware River flows 
along the northern border of the township, receiving 
Assiscunk Creek in the eastern part of the city, and 
at other points several less important tributaries, 
most of which rise within the townsliip. Mill Creek 
flows along the southwestern side. Numerous well- 
graveled roads traverse the township. The Amboy 
Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad crosses it from 
east to west near the northern limit, with stations at 
Burlington and at Stevensville. The Burlington and 
Mount Holly Railroad also crosses it about centrally 
north and south, connecting at Mount Holly with 
other lines extending eastward, westward, and south- 
ward through the county and beyond. !Many portions 
of the township which years ago were swampy tracts 
have long since been drained and placed under profit- 
able cultivation. 

The Indians and the First White Settlers.— Ac- 
cording to Heckewelder, the Indian name of the spot 
where Burlington City now stands was Techichohocki, 
meaning ancient, or, more literally, "oldest planted 
land." There was planted their first town on the river, 

1 Revised and corrected by George F. Mott. 



Prior to the coming of the English in 1676, three 
Dutchmen settled on the neck of land between Assis- 
cunk Creek and the Delaware River, opposite Matini- 
conk Island. In 1666 their rights were recognized by 
Governor Carteret, and soon afterward conveyed to 
Peter Jegou, who, armed with a license from the same 
authority, about 1668 built on the point, close by the 
water, a log house after the Swedish form of architec- 
ture.' This, says Henry Armitt Brown, '• was the only 
tavern in this part of the country. And it was well 
placed, for at this point the narrow foot-path which 
leads through the woods from the banks of the North 
River comes out upon the Delaware, and those who 
journey from Manhattan towards Virginia must cross 
the latter river at this point. This is the place which 
Governor Lovelace meant when, in expectation of a 
journey thither some years ago, he directed one of his 
servants to ' go with the horse allotted by the captain, 
as speedily as you can, to Navesiuk, and thence to the 
house of Mr. Jegoe, right against Matiniconk Island, 
on Delaware River, where there are persons ready to 
receive you.' But the journey was not undertaken, 
for somehow or other Jegou became an object of ha- 
tred to the Indians, and recently (in 1670) they have 
plundered him and driven him away. His house was 
empty and deserted five years ago, as is mentioned by 
a very noted traveler. After a day's journey of fifty 
miles, without seeing man or woman, house or dwell- 
ing-place, he says, 'At night, finding an old house 
which the Indians had forced the people to leave, we 
made a fire and lay there at the head of Delaware 
Bay. The next day we swam our horses over the 
river, about a mile twice, first to an island called 
Upper Dinidock, and then to the mainland, having 
hired Indians to help us over in their canoes.' This 
is especially interesting, for the name of that trav- 
eler was George Fox.'' Matiniconk," continues Mr. 
Brown, placing himself in imagination back to the 
date of the English settlement, " lies too far from the 
mainland, but Jegou's Island is a very fit place for a 
town. It is about a mile long and half as wide. It 
lies close against the Jersey shore, from which it is 
separated only by a narrow creek, where the tide ebbs 
and flows, and the channel in front of it is deep 
enough for ships of large burthen. Its soil is rich, 
its meadows rank with grass, its trees tall and luxuri- 
ant, and its green and sloping bank destined to be al- 
ways beautiful." Jegou's Island took its name, "not 
from an Indian chief," as was long supposed, "but 
from a Frenchman who . . . lived at ' Water-Lily 
Point.'" Rev. William Allen Johnson, in an un- 
published lecture, delivered in 1870, "has solved 
these two questions, which so long puzzled the local 
antiquary: 'Chygoe,' he says, is a misspelling of 
the name Jegou, and ' Lazy' or ' Leazy' Point, which 

1 Record of Upland Court, 9th nio. 2j, 1C70; Memoirs of Hist. Soc. 
of Peiiii., vol. vii. p. 140. 
« Fox's Journal, 7tli mo. 10, 1C72. 

he has found spelled in five different ways, a corrup- 
tion of the Dutch word Lisch, Pond- or Water-Lily." 

Peter Jegou, at a court held at Upland, Nov. 25 
and 28, 1679, brought an action of trespass against 
Thomas Wright and Godfrey Hancock. " The plain- 
tiff declares that in 1668 he obtained a permit and 
grant of land, where he settled a house of entertain- 
ment for travelers (passing to and from the settle- 
ments of New York and the Delaware River), and 
there continued until 1670, when he was plundered 
and utterly ruined by the Indians, as is well known 
to all the world, and having thus to seek his liveli- 
hood elsewhere. It hath since come to pass that by 
the arrival of these new-comers called Quakers, out 
of England, these defendants have forcibly entered 
upon his said lands, and there planted corn, mowed 
hay, cut timber for houses, etc. The defendants hav- 
ing declared themselves very willing to abide the 
verdict of the court, the court, after a full hearing 
and examination of the papers, declared he, the plain- 
tiff, was entitled to the land. This shows how easy 
and simple were the principles of equal justice as 
practiced by them."' 

The English Settlers of Burlington.— Among the 
purchasers of the West Jersey lands were two com- 
panies, both consisting of Friends, or Quakers, one 
from Yorkshire, the other from London. These com- 
panies contracted and received patents for large shares. 
Those of the county of York were Thomas Hutchin- 
son, of Beverly, Thomas Pearson, of Bonwicke, Jo- 
seph Helmsley, of Great Kelke, George Hutchinson, 
of Shefiield, and Mahlon Stacy, of Hausworth. They 
were all principal creditors of Edward Byllinge. To 
them other creditors made assignments of their re- 
spective claims. The entire indebtedness amounted 
to £3500 sterling, and these creditors accepted in 
satisfaction for this sum one-tenth part of West 
Jersey, which was conveyed to them by William 
Penn, Gawen Lawrie, Nicholas Lucas, and Edward 
Byllinge in two separate deeds, dated March 1, 1676. 
The Yorkshire division began preparations for col- 
onizing New Jersey, and in the mean time another 
company was formed in the vicinity of London. 
Men came from various parts of England to join its 
ranks. From members of the Yorkshire company 
are descended the New Jersey families of Clayton, 
Ellis, Hancock, Helmsley, Stacy, and Wetherill. 
They had felt the heel of the oppressor, and were 
ready for the establishment of a more liberal govern- 
ment far away from the scenes of their former lives. 

Wiliiam Clayton, Richard Hancock, John Ellis, 
Richard Guy, and Richard Woodmancy were pris- 
oners in York Castle at different times between 1660 
and 1677. Christopher Wetherill was incarcerated in 
Beverly gaol in 1560. Of the London company, John 
Kinsey, of Hadham, in Hertfordshire, had been a 
prisoner; William Peachy had recently been tried at 

* Watson's Annals of PbiladclphiA, vol. ii. pp. 245, 240. 



Bristol, and was under sentence of banishment as a 
convict for attending "meetings;" John Cripps had 
lain twelve days in a cell at Newgate for keeping 
his hat on in a bold and irreverent manner when the 
Lord Mayor passed by into Guild Hall ; Thomas 01- 
live had been confined in Northampton gaol ; so also 
had John Woolston ; and Dr. Daniel Wills was "tried 
for banishment for a third offense," and was "thrice 
in prison for holding meetings in his house." Mr. 
Brown, from whose address' these facts are extracted, 
states that he gleaned them from " Besse's Sufferings," 
where they " are all set forth with painful particu- 
larity," and adds: "The names of nearly all the 
early settlers of Burlington can be found in that 
record of persecution. I doubt if there has ever been 
another town of which so many of its citizens had 
been in the gaol. Certainly no other can speak of 
the matter with so much honest pride." Ollive, 
Woolston, and Wills were all men of note, and their 
attachment to the London company had much influ- 
ence upon its career. 

The Sailing of the Ship " Kent." — In his interest- 
ing address, above referred to, Henry Armitt Brown 
drew the following vivid picture of the departure of 
the emigrants, their voyage, and their arrival at their 
' future home : 

"The prejiRrations are now made, and Uie lime for departure is at 
hand. The two companies liave ajipointed coniraij^eioneis to govern 
tlicm, — Joseph Helmsley, Ruhert Stacy, William Emley, and Thomas 
Fuulke for Ihe Yorkshire people; Thomas Ollive, Daniel Wills, John 
I'cnford, and Benjamin Scott for the London purchasers. They have 
secured a stanch ship, under the command of an experienced seaman, 
and she is iiow lying ready in the Thames. With what feelings does 
this band of self-devoted exiles go on board ! Does any one of the half- 
inillioii souls of the great metropolis notice the little company of Eng- 
lish yeomen as, laden with their scanty store of household stuff, and 
leading their wives and children by the hand, they shake the dust of 
England from their feet and clamber on deck ? Does any one foresee, as 
lie looks with pride on the forest of masts and yard-arms that stretches 
fi om London Tower to London Bridge, that of all the ships that move 
to and fro beneath him or lie at anchor on the crowded Thiimes but one 
shall be remembered? It is not that big merchantman, fast to yonder 
wharf, (li.scharging the rich cargo she has just brought from the Indies; 
nor this gallant vessel that, as she swings with the tide, turns to him a 
hull scarred with many a Dutch or Spanish broadside; nor yet the 
stately ship that at this moment comes slowly up under full fail from 
Gravesend. Long after these and they that sailed them shall have been 
forgotten, the hai)py citizens of a free commonwealth in a distant land 
shall speak w ith affectionate renit nibrance of the good ship ' Kent' and 
'Master Godfrey Marlow.' Obscure and unnoticed, and perhaps on that 
account undistuibed, all are at last on board. They have taken leave of 
their country; it only remains to say farewell to tlieir king. It is a 
pleasant day in the opening sunimerand London is full of gayety. The 
banquets at Whitehall have never been move brilliaiit, and the king, in 
spite of French victories and Popibh plots and Quaker persecutions, is as 
gay as ever. What caies good-natured Charles, or my La<ly of Cleveland, 
or his Lordship of Buckingham if the public mind be full of discontent, 
and the public coffers enipty, and the prestige of England be threatened 
both on sea and land? The weather is fine, the French gold still holds 
out, and Ihe charms of Her Grace of Portsmouth aie as fresh as ever. 
The brii;ht sun and the pleasant air tempt His Slajesty upon the water, 
and he passes the afternoon floating in his barge. The Tliames is full of 
ehiiiping, for at this time London has no rival in commerce but Amster- 
dam, and the king amuses himself watching the vessels as they come to 
and fro. Suddenly the barge approaches a ship evidently about to sail. 
Something attracts the king and draws him near. A group of men and 

' The Settlement of Burlington, delivered iu Burlington Dec. C, 1877. 

women are on the deck, plain in appearance, sombre in dress, quiet in 
demeanor. They are of the yeoman class chiefly, and the gay courtiers 
wonder what attracts the attention of the king. The two strangely dif- 
ferent vessels come together, and for a moment those widely separated 
companies are face to face. Charles, w ith that pleasant voice that could 
heal with a friendlj' phrase the wounds inflicted by a lifetime of ingrati- 
tude, inquires who they are. ' Quakers, bound to America,' is the re- 
ply. There is a pause for an instant, and then the king, with a royal 
gesture, flings them his blessing, and Charles II. and his Quaker sub- 
jects have parted forever.^ ... On the 6th of August (uld style), 1C77, 
there is excitement on the 'Kent.' The voyage has been fair, but the 
ocean is wide and full of perils, and all are longing for the Sud- 
denly a faint line appears on the horizon. Slowly it rises from the sea, 
until at last the straining eyes of the 'Kent's' jiassengers can make out 
land. . . . The old ship turns to the northwest and enters the mouth of 
a beautiful bay. This is the first view of the western world, — the har- 
bor of New York. The object the emigrants have in view in coming 
here is to wait upon Sir Edmund Andros, the Duke of V'uk's lately ap- 
pointed Governor of his territory. Accordingly the comm'ssioners go 
on shore. Andros receives them coldly. They inform him of their pur- 
pose to settle on the Delaware. He feigns an ignorance of their authority. 
They remind him of the law, and repeat how the land in Webt Jersey was 
granted by the king to his brother, by the duke to Carteret and Berkeley, 
and by them to their grantors. It is of no use. 'Show me a line from the 
Dukehimself,' says Andros. They have neglected this precaution. Upon 
which the Governor forbids them to proceed, and when remonstrated with 
touches his sword significantly. Here isanewandunexi)ected trotible,and 
it is no comfort to learn that John Kenw ick is at the moment a prisoner 
in New York for attempting his settlement at Salem w ithout the duke's 
authority. Suddenly their perplexity is unexpectedly relieved. If they 
will lake commissions from him, Sir Edmund w ill allow them to set 
sail, but they must promise to write to England and abide by the result. 
Anxious to escape from the dilemma they accept the proposal. Fenw ick 
is released at the same time, and they set sail for the Di laware. On Ihe 
IGth day of August — about the 2Gth, acconlingto our style — they reach 
the site of New Castle, and presently — two hundred and thirty in number 
— land at the mouth of Iticcoon Creek.* . . . The Swedes have a few 
houses at Ihe landing-place, and in these and in tents and caves our new- 
comers take temporary lodging. . . . Without delay the commissioners 
set out to examine the country and settle the terms of purchase with the 
Indians. Accompanied by Swedish interpreters they buy three tracts 
— from the Assanpink to Ihe Eancocas, from Kancocas to Timber 
Creek, and from Timber Creek to Oldman's Creek. The Y'orkshiro 
purchasers choose the former as their share ; the London decide to settle 
at Arwaumus, near the present Gloucester ; and Daniel Wills orders tim- 
ber to be felled and grass to be cut in preparation for the winter. But 
a second thought prevails. Why should we separate? We have passed 
through many perils together; we are few in number; the furests are 
thick and full of savages; let us build a town in company. It is at 
once agreed upon. Where shall it be? . . . 

"It is probable that Oldman's Creek, Assanpink, Matiniconk, and 
Jegou's Islands were all suggested and discussed in turn. The first was 
too near John Fenwick's colony, the second was too far away, the third 
was too far from the mainland, the last was a suitable site for a tow n. 
Soon a decision in its favor was arrived at, and the emigrants embarked 
in small boats and began the ascent of the Delaware. 

" Tinakonk, the residence of the ancient Swedish Governors ; Wicka- 
koe, a small settlement of that people close to the high bluff called 
'Coaquanock,' 'a splendid site for a town;' Takona, an ancient In- 
dian town, and the mouth of the Pancocas, or ' Northampton River,' 
are passed in turn . It is already late in October, and the « ild landscnpo 
lies bathed in the mellow gloiy of the Indian summer. Beneath a sky 
more cloudless than English eyes have been w out to see waves the prim- 
eval forest clad in the rainbow garments of the fill. No sound breaks 
the stillness save the plash of the oars in the Avuter or the whistling of 
the wings of the wild-fowl that rise in countless numbers from the 
marshes. The air is full of the perfume of grapes, that hang in clusters 
on the banks and climb from tree to tree, and the sturgeons leap before 
the advancing prow. The startled deer stands motionless ui>on the 
beach; and hidden in the tangled thickets the Indian gazes in silent 

- nje Smith's Hist, of N. J., p. 93: "King Oiarles II. in his barge, 
pleasuring on the Thames, came alongside, seeing a great many passen- 
gers, and informed whence they were bound, asked if they were all 
Quakers, and gave Ihem his blessing." 

'Smith's History, p. 03. 



wonder at llie pale-faced strangers that liavo come to take his place in 
the land of his fatliers. Presently the river seems suddenly to come to 
n stop. On the left is a gravel beach. In the distance in front an island, 
with a steep red bank washed .by the ru-<liing stream and pierced with 
Bwiillows' holes. To the right a bit of marsli, the rouuth of a silvery 
creek, a meadow sloping to the shore, and then a high bank lined VNith 
mnlberiies and svcanioies aiul unutterably green. For the first time and 
aflerso many days the eyes of its founders have rested upon Burlington." 

How the Town was Founded. — Among those who 
came in the "Kent" and settled at and near what is now 
Burlington were Thomas Ollive, Daniel Wills, Wil- 
liam Peachy, William Clayton, John Cripps, Thomas 
Harding, Thomas Nositer, Thomas Fairnsworth, Mor- 
gan Drewet, William Pennton, Henry Jennings, 
"William Hibes, Samuel Lovett, John Woolston, Wil- 
liam Woodinancy, Christopher Saunders, and Robert 
Powell. John Wilkinson and William Perkins, with 
their families, were passengers, but died on the voy- 
age. John Kinsey, one of the commissioners, died 
before reaching Burlington, but was buried there. 
One Marshall, a carpenter, was a passenger, and his 
services were greatly in demand as soon as building 
Avas begun and improvements inaugurated. Another 
who accompanied the pioneers to Burlington was 
Richard Noble, a surveyor, who had come out from 
England with John Fenwick two years before, and 
whose profession had familiarized him with the coun- 
try. To Noble all authorities agree in stating was at 
once committed the duty of laying out the town, — a 
labor in which William Matlack and others of the 
young cien assisted.' A broad and imposing main 
street was opened through the forest, running at right 
angles to the river southward into the country. This 
was what has come to be known as High or Main 
Street. It is probable it did not at first extend far 
south of Broad Street. Another, crossing it, extended 
east and west through the middle of the island. A 
third was opened along the river side. The town 
thus laid out was divided into twenty properties, ten 
in the eastern part for the Yorkshire and ten in the 
western part for the London proprietors. The town 
lots in Burlington were mostly often or eleven acres, 
intended only for a house, orchard, and garden. Some 
along the river were smaller. 

Everybody was speedily busy making preparations 
for the winter. Under the direction of Marshall, 
building was vigorously prosecuted. The woods rang 
with the blows of the builders' axes. On the Main 
Street, near Broad, in a small opening cleared for the 
purpose, was erected a tent designed to serve as a tem- 
porary meeting-house. At first the -dwellings were 
either mere caves hollowed out in banks and protected 
at their entrances with boards, or the most primitive 
shanties imaginable. The opinion that they were 
built of logs is pronounced erroneous. Two Dutch 
travelers thus described Burlington two years after it 
was laid out: "The English and many others have 
houses made of nothing but clap-boards, as they call 

1 William Matlack 's affidavit stating these facts is to be found in Book 
A, ill the survryo: -general's office in Biuliiigtou. 

them here. They make a wooden frame, as in West- 
phalia and at Altona, but not so strong, then split 
boards of clap-wood like coopers' staves, though un- 
bent, so that the thickest end is about a little finger 
thick, and the other is made sharp like the end of a 
knife. They are about five or six feet long, and are 
nailed on with the ends lapping over each other. . . . 
When it is cold and windy the best people plaster 
them with clay."" These abodes were characteristic- 
ally English in their primitive structure. It was the 
Swede who introduced the block-house in America. 

Soon the settlement began to take on the appear- 
ance of a town, and to be regarded as worthy of a 
name. In memory of an old Yorkshire village it was 
christened Burlington. Smith says it was at first 
called New Beverly, and later Bridlington, and by 
that name it appears on Holme's map, dated 1682. 
Mr. Brown is authority for the statement that the 
earliest letters written from the place, some within a 
week or two of the beginning of the town, were dated 
at Burlington.^ Daniel AVills gave to one portion of 
the neighborhood the name 'of his native "North- 
ampton." Thomas Ollive, who located in Willing- 
borough, gave that locality its name. York Street 
and London Bridge also attest that the minds of the 
pioneers frequently reverted to their native Albion. 

Frontier Settlements— "Various Interests Es- 
tablished—The Indians.— All that has come down 
to us through more than two centuries respecting the 
founding of the town in 1677 has been given to the 
reader. We now proceed to note the advance of the 
settlement, which was increased numerically by the 
arrival, late in October, of a party from Wickaco, the 
Swedes' settlement on the Delaware. 

Late in November, 1677, the ship " Willing Mind," 
commanded by John Newcomb, arrived from London, 
with sixty or seventy passengers, and dropped anchor 
at Elsingburgh. Some of those who came over by 
the " Willing Mind" located at Salem, some at Bur- 
lington. In this year arrived the " flie-boat" 
"Martha," which set sail from Burlington, in Eng- 
land, late in the summer, bearing one hundred and 
fourteen passengers, who contemplated settlement in 
the Yorkshire tenth. John Kinsey, then a young 
man, a son of John Kinsey, the commissioner, whose 
early death has been referred to, came on one of these 
ships, or about that time. He is mentioned else- 
where. The first ship to navigate the Delaware as 
far as Burlington was the "Shield," from Hull, Capt. 
Towes, commander. At the present site of Philadel- 
phia she went so near the bold shore in turning that 
part of the tackling struck the trees, and some of 
those on board are said to have remarked at the time 
that it was a fine site for a town. The breeze fresh- 
ened, and the vessel was borne up the stream to 

- The journal of Dankers and Shiytcr, in 1G79, published by the Long 
Ishind Ilistoiical Sutirty, vol i. pp. 173-175. 

i Bridlington and Burlington are the same name, and the latter id a 
very old form of the word.— i/eiiry Armill Brown. 



Burlington, where she was moored to a tree, which, 
tradition has it, was identical with the enormous 
sycamore yet standing on the river-bank, nearly in 
front of the residence of Mr. C. Ross Grubb. The 
weather changed, suddenly becoming so intensely 
cold, it is said, that the following morning the people 
on board the " Shield" came off on the ice which had 
formed during the night. 

In the "Shield" came William Emley, the second 
time, with his wife and two children, one born on the 
passage, also two men and two women servants; 
Mahlon Stacy, his wife, children, and several ser- 
vants, men and women ; Thomas Lambert, his wife, 
children, and several men and women servants ; John 
Lambert and servant ; Thomas Revell, his wife, chil- 
dren, and servants; Godfrey Hancock, his wife, chil- 
dren, and servants; Thomas Potts, his wife and chil- 
dren ; John Wood and four children ; Thomas W^ood, 
his wife and children; Robert Murfin, his wife and 
two children; Robert Schooley, his wife and chil- 
dren ; James Pharo, his wife and children ; Susannah 
Fairnsworth, her children and two servants ; Richard 
Sattersall, his wife and children ; Godfrey Newbold, 
John Dewsbury, Richard Green, Peter Fretwell, John 
Fretwell, John Newbold, one Barnes, a merchant 
from Hull; Francis Baswick, George Parks, George 
Hill, John Heyres, and a number more. The same 
year there arrived in the province a ship from Lon- 
don, which brought -over John Denn, Thomas Kent, 
John Hollinshead, with their families; William 
Hewlings, Abraham Hewlings, Jonathan Eldridge, 
John Petty, Thomas Kirley, and others. Some of 
these settled at Salem, and others at Burlington. 
About the same time, or within a fevf years, the fol- 
lowing persons arrived from England and settled at 
Burlington: John Butcher, William Butcher, Henry 
Grubb, William Brightwin, Thomas Gardner, John 
Budd, John Bourten, Seth Smith, Weaker Pumphrey, 
Thomas Ellis, James Satterthwaite, Richard Arnold, 
John Woolman, John Stacy, Thomas Eves, Benjamin 
DutEeld, John Payne, Samuel Cleft, William Cooper, 
John Shinn, William Biles, John Skein, John War- 
rel, Anthony Morris, Samuel Bunting, Charles Read, 
Francis Collins, Thomas Mathews, Christopher Weth- 
erill, John Dewsberry, John Day, Richard Basnett, 
John Antrom, William Biddle, Samuel Furnace, 
John Ladd, Thomas Rapcr, Roger Higgins, and 
Thomas Wood." 

Many of those above mentioned became prominent 
citizens. Not a few of them will be found mentioned 
in succeeding pages, as the successive early events of 
Burlington's history and its leading interests are con- 

Settlement continued ; the town grew. The sur- 
rounding country was gradually cut up into large 
farms. The early settlers depended on the product 
of the earth for their support. Fish were abundant 
in the Delaware and its tributary streams. Game was 
plentiful in the forest. The habits of the people were 

simple, their wants few and easily satisfied. The 
place yielded them all that was needful to eat and to 
wear. Their industry supplied anything further that 
was required. Ollive's mill, on Mill Creek, was 
quickly built. A trade with Barbadoes was begun by 
Mahlon Stacy and "bthers as early as the winter of 
1G79-80, and their "ketch" of fifty tons met with the 
good fortune their enterprise deserved. The follow- 
ing year, by an act of Assembly, "all vessels bound 
to the province" were " obliged to enter and clear" at 
its " chief town and head," " the port of Burlington," 
and at the same time two annual fairs were provided 
for in the Market Street " for all sorts of cattle and all 
manner of merchandise."^ 

The first act of the Friends' meeting was to provide 
for a collection of money monthly " for ye support of 
ye poor," and the second to consider "selling of rum 
unto Indians," and whether it " be lawful att all for 
Friends' pfessing truth to be concerned in itt." In 
ten or a dozen years after settlement begun a print- 
ing-press had been set up. 

" A a yearly meetinge held at Burlington, West New 
Jersey, on the 10th of the 7th month, 1G90, an account 
beinge given here thatseverall particular friends have 
engaged themselves to raise a considerable sum of 
money for the encouragement of the printer to con- 
tinue the presse here, it is agreed that it bee recom- 
mend to each quarterly meetinge belonging to this 

Antedating this by several years, five years after 
the landing of the first settlers, by an act of Assembly 
passed Sept. 28, 1682, the citizens had devoted " to 
the use of the public schools" the broad acres of Ma- 
tiniconk Island. 

The church, the press, the school had been estab- 
lished. A burying-ground had been opened, and al- 
ready had received the remains of some of the pioneers. 
The people were living in thrift and in peace, and 
contentment dwelt at their firesides. The settlers ex- 
perienced little trouble from the Indians. Says Henry 
Armitt Brown, — 

"The Manta?, it is true, who dwell )iai'dby, had committed a murder 
at Matiniconk and pliiudercd poor Jeguu some years lief^re the arrival 
of the ' Kent,' but these w ere exceptional instances. The Lciiiii Lenajie 
were .1 peaceful lace. Upri^'lit in person and straight of limb, their fierco 
conntenances of tawiij- reddish-brown belied a gentle natnie. Grave 
even to sadness, courteous to strangers and respectful to the old, never 
iu lin-<te to speak, and of oool, deliberate temper, this mysterious peojile 
easily forgave injury uud never forgot kindness, more than repaying Iho 
benevolent Inimiinily of the settlers of Burlington by a fn bearing friend- 
ship that lived as long as they. At the same lime at which the savages 
of Virginia were iiunishing cold-blooded murder with passionate Llo. d- 
shed, and scourging with fury every plantation from the Potomac to the 
James, and on the northern sky the light of blazing villages, from oiin 
end of New England to the other, marked the de-pairing vengeance of 
King Philip, the banks of Delaware smiled in unbroken peace, and their 
finiplehearted native, consciousof thef.ite that would speed. ly over take 
his people, — which no one foretold sooner or more touuhingly than he, — 
was saying in a council here in Burlington, ' We are your brother*, and 
intend to live like brothers with you. Wc \\ ill have a broad [■alh for you 

' Learning and Spicer's L iws of New Jersey, p. 4; 
of rouiifjlvan a, vol. i. p. Wi. 

Hazard's .\nnal« 



and us to walk in. If an Iiidim he asleep in this path, tlie Englishman 
siiall puss liini bvaiid do liini no liaini: and if an Enplislininn he asleep 
in it, tlie Indian eliall pass liim by and say, ' He is an Englishman — he is 
a«leep — lot him atone.' The path shall be plain; there ehall not be in 
it a Btiimp to hurt the feet." l 

The Pioneers' Experiences and Impressions.— 

There is little doubt that the settlers fully believed Bur- 
lington would speedily become an important commer- 
cial town, none of them then forseeing the possibility 
of an overwhelming rival in the future Philadelphia. 
"When we read in their old letters that within three or 
four years after the arrival of the "Kent" deer were 
brought in continually by the Indians and offered for 
sale; that ducks, geese, turkeys, pheasants, partridges, 
and rabbits abounded on the land, and that the Dela- 
ware was well stocked with many kinds offish ; that 
cranberries made an excellent sauce for venison, tur- 
keys, and other great fowl ; that they " are better to 
make tarts than either gooseberries or cherries;" that 
t^e pippins made a curious " cyder," we can readily 
see they were an industrious and thrifty people who 
were bent upon securing good homes and well pro- 
viding them. 

John Crips, in a letter to Henry Stacy, dated Bur- 
lington, the 26th of the eighth month, 1677, saj's, . . . 
" The country and air seems to be very agreeable to 
our bodies, and we have very good stomachs to our 
victuals. Here is plenty of provisions in the country 
plenty of fish and fowl, and good venison very plen- 
tiful and much better than ours in England, for it 
eats not so dry, but is full of gravy, like fat young 
beef. . . . 

*' The Indians are very loving to us, except here 
and there one when they have gotten strong liquors 
in their heads, which they now greatly love. But for 
the country in short, I like it very well, and I do be- 
lieve that this river of Delaware is as good a river as 
most in the world. It exceeds the river Thames by 
many degrees." 

He also in Tinother letter, dated Burlington, the 
19th of 4th month, 1678, says, . . . "Your letter 
saith, ' it's reported the water is not so good as in 
England.' I do not remember that ever I tasted 
better water in any part of England than the springs 
of this place do yield, of which is made very good 
beer and ale, and here is also wine and cyder. And 
whereas your letter to me saith, 'several have come 
back from this country to England,' — two or three, 
I suppose ; these are lazy, idle persons that have done 
80, but, on the other hand, here are several per- 
sons, men of estate, that have been here and have 
gone back to England and sold their estates and re- 
turned with their whole families hither again, whicli 
methinks should take many of these scruples out of 

' Smith's Hist, of K. J., p. 100, and 13C, note ; Bancroft, toI. ii. p. 102 
el Kq. ; Idem, \i, 210. " When six of the hostile chieftains presented them- 
selves as messengers to treat of a reconciliation, in the blind fury of the 
moment they were murdeied." This was in 1075. The war in A'irginia 
omtinned more than a year afterwards. King Philip's" rebellion'' brolic 
out in June, 1CT5. lie was killed in Angiist, 1C76. 

the way if nothing else were said or done in praise 
of this country. But I suppose there are many in 
England that desire to hear ill of thi.s place because 
they would keep their friends there with them, and 
they think we never write enough of the bad proper- 
ties of the country and vermin in it. 'Now this I may 
say, in short, tliat here are bears, wolves, foxes, rattle- 
snakes, and several other creatures (I do believe be- 
cause I seethe Indians have such skins to sell), but 
I have traveled several hundred of miles to and fro, 
and I never to my knowledge saw one of those 
creatures except two rattlesnakes, and I killed them 

The following is an extract from a letter of Mahlon 
Stacy to his brother Revell and others, dated the 26th 
of the 4th month, 1680: 

" My cousin Kevell and I, with some of my men, went last third month 
into the river ti) catch herrings, for at that time they came in great 
shoals into the shallows; we had neither rod nor net, hut after the In- 
dian fashion mnde a round pinfold, about two yards over, and afoot 
high, but left a gap for the fish to go in at, and made bu^h to l.iy iti the 
gap to keep the fish in, and when that was done we took two long 
birches and tied their tops together and went about a stone's cast above 
our said pinfold, there hauling these birches' boughs down the stream, 
where we drove thousands before us, but so many got into our trap as it 
would hold, and then we began to haul them on shore as fast as three cr 
four of us could, by two or three at a time, and after this manner, in half 
an hour, we could have filled a three bushel sack of as good and large 
herrings as ever I saw. And as to beef and pork, here is great plenty of 
it and cheap, and also good slieej). The common grass of this country 
feeds beef very fat. I have killed two this year, and therefore I have 
reason to know it, besides I have seen this fall, in Burlington, killed 
eight or nine fat oxen and cows on a market day, and all very fat. And 
though I speak of herrings only, lest any should think we have little 
other sorts, we have great plenty of most soils of fish that ever I saw in 
England, besides several other sorts that are not known there, as rocks, 
cat-fish, shad, sheep-heads, sturgeons, and fowls plenty, as ducks, {;eese, 
turkies, pheasants, jiartridges, and many other sorts that I cannot re- 
member and would be too tedious to mention. Indeed the country, take 
it as a wilderness, is a brave country, though no place will please all. 
But some will be leady to gay he writes of conveniences, but not of in- 
conveniences. In answer to those, I honestly declare, there is some bar- 
ren lands, as (I sui)pose) there is in most places of the woild, and more 
wood than some would have ui>on their lands, neither will the country 
produce corn without labor, nor cattle be got w ithout something to buy 
them, nor bread with idleness, else it would be a brave country indeed. 
And I question nor, but all then would give it a good word, for my part 
I like it so well I never had the least thought of returning to England, 
except on the account of trade. 

"M.MIl.O.X Stacv." 

In a letter to William Cook, of Sheffield, and others, 
Stacy wrote thus, — 

"This is a most bnivij place, whatever envy or evil spies may speak of 
it, I could wish you all here. Bui lingtoii will be a place of f i.ule qui' kl\ , 
for here is way for trade. I, with eight more, la«t winter, bought u 
good ketch of fifty tons, freigli'ed her out at our own charge, and sent 
liei to Barbados, and so to sail toSaltertngas, to takeiu part of her lading 
in salt, and the rest in Barbados goods, as she came back, which said voy- 
age she hath accomplished very well, and now rides before Bnilington. 
discharging her lading,anil so to go to the West Indiesagain,nnd weiii- 
tend to fieiglit her out with onr own corn. We have wanted nothing 
since we came hither, but the company of our good friends and acquaint- 
ances; all our ppojile are very well, and in a hopeful way to live much 
belter than ever Ihey did, and not only so, but to provide well for their 
posterity. They improve their lands and have good crops, aird if our 
friends and cotintiymen come they will find better reception than we 
liad by, at fir~t, before the country was settled as now it is. I know 
not one among the peiple that desires to be in England again. I mean 
since settled. I wonder at o\it Yorkshire people, that they had rather 



live in Berritude and work hard all the year and not be three pence 

the better at tlic > ear's end, than stir out of the chimney corner and 
transport themselves to a place where with the like pains, in two or 
three years they might know better things. 

" I never repented my coming hitlier, nor yet remembered the argu- 
ments and out-cry against Kew Jersey with legret. I live as well to my 
content, and in as grt-at plenty as ever I did, and in far more likely way 
to get an estate. Tliough I licar some have thought I was too large in 
my former, I afifimi it to be true, liaving seen more with mine eyes in 
this tnie since than ever yet I wrote of. 

" Mahlon Stact." 

Thomas Budd, who owned a share of propriety in 
West Jersey, being ancestor to a large family there, 
and who arrived at Burlington in 1678, in a pamphlet 
describing the country about nine or ten years after- 
wards, says, — 

"The Indians told us, in a conference at Burlington, shortly after we 
came into the country, tliey were advised to make war on us, and cut 
us off while we were but few; for that we sold them the Smallpox with 
the Jlatch coat they had bought of us. Which caused our i>eople to be 
in fears and jealousies concerning them ; therelbre we sent for the In- 
dian Kings, to speak wiih them, who, with many more Indians, came 
to Burlington, where he had a conference with them about the matter. 
We told them we came amongst them by their own consent, and had 
bought the land of them, for which we had honestly paid, as well as for 
all the commodities which lie had at any time bought of them ; that we 
had been just, kind, and respectful to them from the time of our first 
coming, and therefoie know no reason that they had to make war on us. 
To which one of them in behalf of the rest, made the following speech 
in answer: 

" ' Our young men may speak such words as we do not like nor approve 
of, and we cannot help it. And some of your young men may speak 
such words as you do not like, and you cannot help that. We are your 
brothel's, and intend to live like brothers with you ; we have no mind 
to have war, for when we have war we are only skin and bones; the 
meat that we eat does us no good. We always are in fear. We have not 
the benefit of the sun to shine on ns ; we hide us in holes and corners ; 
we are mitidcd to live in peace. If we intend, at any time, to make war 
upon you, we will let you know of it, and the reasons why we make war 
with you; and if you make us satisfaction for the injury done us, for 
which the war was intended, then we will not make war on you; and 
if you intend at any time to make war on us, we would have you let us 
know of it, and the reason ; and if we do not make satisfaction for the 
injury done unto yon, then you may make war on us. Otherwise we 
ought not to do it. You are our brothers, and we are willing to live 
like brothers with you. We are willing to have a broad path for you 
and us to walk in, and if an Indian is asleep in this path, the English- 
man shall pass by and do him no harm ; and if an Englishman be asleep 
in this path, the Indian shall pass by him and say, "he is an Etiglishnian ; 
he is asleep, let him ahme, he loves sleep." It shall be a plain path; 
there must not be in this path a stump to hurt our feet. And as to the 
smallpox, it was once in my grandfather's liuio, and it could not be the 
Englisli that could send it to us then, there being no English in the 
country ; and it was once in my father's time ; they could not send it to 
us then either; and now it is in my tim<'; I do not believe they have 
sent it to us now ; I do believe it is the Man abovfl that hath sent it to 

"Some are apt to ask, how we can propose safely to live among such 
a heathen people as the Indians, whose principles and practices lead 
them to war and bloodshed; and ours, on the contrary, to love enemies? 
I answer, that we settled by the Indians' consent and goodliking, and 
bought the land of them that we settle on, which they conveyed to us 
by deeds under their hands and seals, and also submitted to several arti- 
cles of agreement with us, viz., not to do us any injury ; but if it should 
80 happen that any of their people any time should injure or do harm 
to any of us, then they were to make ui satisfaction for the injury done. 
Therefore if they break these covenants and agreements then, in conse- 
quence thereof, they may be proceeded against as other offenders, viz., 
to keep ill subjection to the Magistrate's power, into whose hands the 
sword of justice is committed to be used by hini for the punishment of 
evil-doers, and the praise of them that do w ell ; therefore I do believe it 
to be both lawful and expedient to bring offenders to justice by the power 
of the magistrate's sword, which is not to be used in vain ; but may be 
used against such as raise rehellions and insurrectious against the gov- 

ernment of the country, be they Christians or Indians (now that these 
have BO far agreed to abide the laws of civil government), otherwise it 
is in vain for us to pretend to magistracy or government ; it being that 
we own t-i be lawful, both in principle and practice. . . . 

" The Indians have been very serviceable to us by selling us venison, 
Indian corn, pea-', and beans, fish, and fowl. . . . 

" The women plant the corn and carry burdens. There are many of 
them of a g(K)d understanding, con-idering their education, and in their 
public meetings of business they have excellent order, one speaking 
after another; and while one is s|)eakiug all the rest keep silent, and 
do not so much as whisper one to the other. 

" We had several meetings with them ; one was in order to put down 
the sale of rum, brandy, and other strong liquors to them, they being ii 
people that have no government of themselves so as to diink in uiodei-a- 
lion. At which time there were eight kings (one of them was flkanickon, 
a noted friend to the English) and many other Indians. The king sat on 
a form, and we on another, over against them. They had prepared four 
lielts of Wauijium (oo their current money is called, being black and 
while beads, made of a fish shell) to give us as seals of the covenant 
they made with us. One of the kings, by the consent and appointment 
of the rest, stood up and made this following speech : 

. . . " ■ The strong liquor was first sold us by the Dutch ; and they are 
blind ; they had no eyes, they did oot see that it was for our hurt. The 
next people that came among us were the Swedes, who continued the 
sale of these strong liquors to us; they were also blind; they had no 
eyes, they did not see it to be hurtful to us to drink it, although we 
know it to be hurtful to us; but if people will sell it to us, we are so in 
love witli it that we cannot forbear it; w lien we drink it, it makes us mad ; 
we do not know what to do; we then abuse one another; we throw each 
other into the fire. Sevenscore of our people have been killed by reason 
of the drinking it since the time it was first sold ns. Those iieople that 
sell it are blind ; they have no eyes. But now there is a people come to 
live amongst ns that have eyes; they see it to be for our hurt, and we know 
it to be fur our hurt; they are willing to deny themselves the profit of 
it for our good. Those people have eyes; we are glad such a people are 
come among among us ; we must put it down b.v mutual consent ; the 
cask must be sealed up; it must le made fast; it must not leak by day 
nor by night, in light nor in the dark ; and we give you these four belts 
of Wampum, w hich we would have you lay up safe, and keep by you, 
to be witnesses of this agreement that we make with you ; and wo would 
have you tell your children that these four belts of Wampum are given 
you to be witnesses betwixt us and you of this agreement.'" 

The following notice of the early settlement of 
Burlington by the English, communicated to the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania by John F. Wat- 
son, was copied from the original autograph of Mrs. 
Mary Smith, a Friend, who arrived with the primi- 
tive colonists when she was only four years of age : ^ 

" Robert Murfin and Ann, his wife, living in Nottinghamshire, Eng- 
land, had one daughter born there in the year 1G74, the 4th of the 2d 
month, named Mary (the writer of this account, who married tiic first 
Daniel Smith, of Burlington). After that they had a son called Robert. 

"Some time after it came in their minds to move themselves and 
family info West Jersey in America, and in order thereto they went to 
Hull and provided provisions suitable for their necessary occasions, 
such as fine flour, butter, cheese, with other suitable commodities in 
good store; then took their passage in the good ship, the 'Shield of 
Stockton,' with Malilun Stacy, Thus. Lambert, and many more families 
of good repute and worth ; and in the voyage there were two died and 
two born; so that they landed as many as they took on board. And 
after about sixteen weeks sailing or on board they arrived at Burling- 
ton in the year 1GT8; this being the first ship that ever was known to 
come so high up the Delaware River. Then they landed and made some 
such dNtellings as they could fur the present time, some in caves and 
others in palisade-houses'secured. \\ ilh that the Indians, very numer- 
ous liut very civil for the'niost part, luought corn and venison, and sold 
the English for such things as they needed; so that the said English 
had some new supply to help their old stock, which may well beatlrili- 
uted to the good hand of Providence so to preserve and provide in such 
a wilderncsa. 

1 Historical Collection of the State of Xew Jersey, Barber and Howe, 



"I may not omit some English that came the year before, which 
landed lower down the river, and were gotten to Burlington, who came 
in some small vessels up to Builingtou before us, and was so consented 
to !>)• the Indians. 

"Tlie first comers, with the otlwrs that came near (hat time, made an 
agreement with the Indians for their land being nfler this manner: 
From the river to snch and such creeks, and was to he paid in goods 
after this manner, say, so many match coats, guns, liatchets, hoes, ket- 
tles, two full boxes, with other materials, all in number as agreed upon 
of both Indians and English. When thrge goods were gotten from 
Kiigland and tlie Indians paid, then the alKjve-mentioned people sur- 
rendered some part of the land to settle themselves near the river, for 
they did not dare go far from it at first. 

" I must not forget that these valiant subjects, both to God and their 
king, did buy their land in old England before they enteied (upi>n 
this engagement), and after all this diJ submit themselves to niei»n liv- 
ing, taking it with thankfulness, mean and course; as ptmnding Indian 
corn one day for the next day; for there was no mill except Stime few 
Bleed-mills, and (we) thought so well of this kind of hard living that I 
never heard them say, ' I would I had never come 1' which is worth ob- 
serving, considering how plentifully they lived in England. It seems 
no other than the hand of God so to send them to prepare a place for 
the future generations. I wish they that come after may cousiiler the»e 
llringB, and not be like the children of Israel after they were settled in 
the land of Canaan, forgetting the God of their fathers and following 
their own vanities, and so bring displeasure instead of the blessings of 
God upon themselves, which fall and loss will be very great nu all 

" Now to return to Robert Murfin and his wife. After they came into 
this land they had one son called Julm, and in the year 1681 they had 
another son called Wdtiaw, and in the year 16S4 they had a daughter 
1 ained Johimah. K.ibert and Jolin died young.' 

"It may be observed how God's providence made room for us in a 
wonderful manner in taking away the Indians. There came a dis- 
temper- among them so mortal that they could not bury all their dead. 
Others went away, leaving their town. It was said that an old Indian 
kingsiioke prophetically before his diath and said the English should 
increase and the Indians ducreuse !" 

Anecdotes in which Some Notable Men Fig- 
ured.^ — "The early Quaker inhabitants of Burling- 
ton were distinguished as well for their intelligence 
as for their piety. Dr. Franklin found among them 
minds congenial to his own, whose society he much 
enjoyed. To go still further back, the following may 
interest our readers as one of the pleasant little tra- 
ditions of the good old times: William Penn, when 
Governor of Pennsylvania, used to sail up in his 
barge from Philadelphia to his manor house in Penns- 
bury, a few miles above Bristol. He would frequently 
stop on his way to visit Governor Jennings, of New 
Jersey (who was also a distinguished Quaker minis- 
ter). . . . On one occasion Jennings and one of his 
friends were enjoying their pipes, — a practice which 
the gentlemanly Penn disliked. On hearing that 
Penn's barge was in sight, they put away their pipes 
that their friend might not be annoyed, and en- 
deavored to conceal from him what they were about. 
He came in upon them, however, somewhat sud- 
denly, and pleasantly remarked that he was glad they 

r — — — 

1 Mary Smith was found drowned with her horse in the year 1739, 
near the Long Bridge, in the Northern Liberties; supposed to have oc- 
curred from her intending to give her horse water where it was very 
deep ; " that wag then the direct and only road to Burlington." 

s This was the smallpox (brought amongst them by the colonists), 
which from the manner of treating by sweating and then plunging into 
cold water was very f.ital. 

3 nistorical Collections of the State of New Jersey. Barber and 
Uowe, 18-14. 

had sufficient sense of propriety to be ashamed of the 
practice. Jennings, rarely at a loss for an answer, re- 
j joined that they were not ashamed, but desired to 
I avoid hurting a weak brother. Another anecdote we 
; will give, illustrative of the simplicity and genuine 
I hospitality of early days. Somewhere about the year 
! 1753, the family of John Smith (brother of Smith, the 
historian), then occupying the venerable and in those 
days imposing mansion of the late excellent Mr. 
Coleman, were sitting at their tea-table under the 
trees at their door in the main street. A gentleman (a 
stranger) passing along was invited to partake of their 
fare, and was induced by the conversation that ensued 
to settle in the place. He became one of the most ef- 
ficient and valuable citizens of Burlington, and his 
family, in the second and third generations, are (1844) 
among the most respectable inhabitants. This was 
Isaac Collins, the first Burlington printer and editor 
of an ably-conducted paper, which was commenced 
Dec. 5, 1777, and was employed successively by the 
colony and the States. Throughout the war it was 
the leading vehicle of information to the Whigs, and 
Governor Livingston and others wrote many effective 
essays for it. He printed ' Livingston's Philosophic 
Solitude,' a large edition of the Bible, the Burlington 
Almanac, and probably the first Continental money." 
"The Days that Tried Men's Souls."— J Lndij 
of Burlington in the Revolution* — The journal of Mrs. 
Margaret Hill Morris during the Revolutionary period 
contains all that remains to us of the history of Bur- 
lington in those troublous days. It is especially in- 
teresting, not only as contemporaneous record, but for 
•the keen observation it evinces, as well as the fairness 
with which the writer, who espoused the royal cause, 
stated her convictions and her varying sensations 

* Extracts from the journal of Margaret Hill Morris. "Though a 
fragment only, the following journal, kept by Margaret Morris for tie 
amusement of her sister, MilcaU Martha Moore, will de(j>ly intenst 
the reader. It embraces nearly all that has been preserved of a manu- 
script much valued by the descendants of the writer. The antiipiarian 
and liistorian of a future day may find in it matter for reflection. But 
few if any similar journals dining the same period are known to exist. 
As it details the daily alarms to which a private family was liable, the 
frequent and often absurd rejKiits ciiculated, and the kind of persecu- 
tion to which obnoxious individuals were subjected, it will serve as a 
picture, iii liUU, of the times. No apology is oflered for the pulitital biiis 
of the writer ; this she jioss' s.-ed in cmnmon with too many of hei coun- 
trymen, both good and great, to make her a mark for satire or reprehen- 
sion. . . . The estimate which the writer herself placed on this j)iodnc- 
tion is disclosed in a letter to the sister for whom it was designed, in the 
following extract from one of her letters: ' I have not yet collected all 
the scraps of my late diary into one piece ; when I have I shall send it 
to thoe, and thee will t.b>ci ve as thee reads it, that it is by no means fit 
for mixed companies or general communication. Part of it was w litten 
in a serious, others in a waggish mood, and most of it after the family 
were al>ed, and I sat up to keep guard over my fences, &c., while, the Sol- 
diers were next door, for fear they should pull them down to burn.' . . . 
Fifty copies of this journal were printed for private circulation in IStlfi, 
and it has become very scarce, having excited considerable interest 
even among jierfect sti-angers."' — LcUert of l)r. Iticluird JJill awl 
Hia Children. John Jay ?mitli, Pl.ilad.lphia, 1854. The journal was 
printed in the work quoted from, and reprinted in " The Burlington 
Smiths." E. Morris Smith, Philndelphia, 1877. It is here reproduced, 
with a few omissions, all that portion having especi.i I reference to Bur- 
i lingtou having been retained. — Hi toeian. 

buHlingtox township and city. 


under the influence of passing events, changeful in 
character from day to day. The following extracts 
are given place here, and will be found both enter- 
taining and instructive: 

"December Ctli, 177C. — Being on h visit to my fiiend, M. S., ftt Had- 
(loiifield, I WHS prepaiiiiR to return to my family, wlien a person from 
I'll ladelpUia told me that tlie i>ec>ple were in great commotion; that 
tlie Englisli fleet was in the river, and hourly expected to sail up to tlio 
city : that the iDliabilauts were moving into the country ; and that sev- 
eral persons of considerable repute had been discovered to have formed 
A design of setting fire to the city, and were summoned before tbe CoD- 
press and strictly enjoined to drop the horrid purjOTse. ... On my 
journey home I was told the inhabitants of our little town" (Burling- 
ton) "were going in haste into the country, and that my nearest 
neighlmrs were already removed. When I heard this I felt myself quite 
sick; I was ready to faint. I thought of my S. D." Oicr sister, Sarah 
Dilhvyn, wife of George, then absent) "the beloved companion of my 
widowed state — her husband at a distance of some hundred miles from 
her, I thought of my own lonely situation — no husband to cheer with the 
voice of love my sinking spirits. My little flock, too, without a father 
to direct them how to steer. All these things crowded into my mind at 
once, and I fi It like one forsaken ; a flood of fiimdly tears cime to my 
relief, and I felt a humble confidence that He who had been with me in 
six troubles would not forsake me now. . . . and was favored to find my 
family in good health on my arrival, and my dearcompaniou not greatly 
discomposed, for which favour I desire to be truly thankful. 

" December 7th. — A letter from my next neighbor's husband, at the 
camp, warned her to be gojie in haste, and many jiersons coming into 
town to-day brought intelligence that the British army were advancing 
toward u-=. 

" Deceml)er Stli. — Every day liegins and ends with the same accounts, 
and we hear to-day that the regulars are at Trenton. Some of our 
neighbors gone, and others going, makes our little bank (Green Bank, 
on the river) lodk lonesome. But our trust in Providence is still firm, 
and we diire not even talk of moving our familj-. 

"December 9th. — This evening were favored with the company of our 
fidllifiil friend and brother, K. \V. (Richard Wells). This testimony of 
liis lovo was truly acceptable to us. 

"December 10th. — To-day our amiable friend, H. C. (Hetty Cox), and 
her family tiade us adieu. Sly brother also left ns, but returned in less 
than an hour, telling us he could not go awas" just as the Hessians were 
entering the town ; but, no troops coming in, we urged him to leave us 
next morning, which he concluded to do, after preparing us to expect 
the Hessians in a few hours. A number of galleys have been lying iu 
the river before the town for two days past. 

"December lltli. — After various reports from one hour to another of 
light-horse approaching, the people in town had ceitain intelligence 
that a large Intdy of Hessians were come to Bordentown, and we might 
expect to see them in a few hours. About ten o'clock of this day a 
party of about sixty men marclied down the main street; ae they passed 
along they told our doctor (Odell) and some other persons in the town, 
that a larjie number of Hessians were advancing and would be in town 
in less than au hour. This party were riflemen, who, it seems, had 
crossed the river somewhere iu the neighborhood of Bordent >wn to 
reconnoitre, and, meeting with a stiperior number of Hessians on the 
road, were then returning and took Burlington in their way back. 
From us they crossed to Bristol, and by the time they were fairly cra- 
baiked the Hessians, to the number, as we heard, of four or five hun- 
dred, had passed what we call York Bridge. On the first certainty of 
their approach, John Lawrence and two or three others thought best, 
for the safety of the town, to go out and meet the troops. He commu- 
nicated his intention to one of the gondola captiiius, who approved of 
it, and desired to be informed of the result." * 

(The gondobis or galleys were American gunboats.) 

"The gentlemen went out, and though the Hessian (Count Donop, or 
'deNope') spoke but little English, yet they found that, upon being 
thus met in a peaceable manner on behalf of the inhabitants, he was 
ready to promise them safely and security, to exchange any messages 
that might be proper with the gentlemen of the galleys. In the mean 
time he ordered his troops to halt; they remained in their ranks be- 
tween the bridge and the corner of Main Street, wishing an answer 
from on board. J. L. and T. H. went down to report what had pii«sed, 
and told Captain Jloore that the Colonel had orders to quarter his troops 
in Burlington that night, and that if the inhabitants were quiet and 
peaceable, and would furnish him with quarters and refreshment, be 

would pledge his honour that no manner of di-order slio\ild happen to 
disturb or alarm the people. Captain Sloore replied Hint in his opinion 
it would be wrong in such case to fire on the town, but that he would 
go down and consult with the commodore, and return an answer as 
soon ae might be. While this atiswer was waited for. Dr. Odell was 
told it would be a satisfaction, both to the Hessian commandant and to 
our own people, to have • person who could serve as interiircter be- 
tween tli'-m. Kot doubting the foreigner couM speak French, the doctor 
went to him, and Ue had the Siitiafactiou to find it ])rubalde, at least 
that he might be of service to the people of the town. The commandant 
seemed highly pleased to find a person with whom he could converse 
with ease and precision. He desired tlie doctor to tell the gentlenn-n 
of the town to the same purport as above, with this addition : that he 
expected there would be found no persons in the town in arms ; nor any 
arms, ammunition, or effects belonging to persons that were in arms 
against the king, concealed by any of the inliabit.mts; that if any such 
effects were thus secreted the hou«e in which they were found would 
be given up to pillage, to prevent which it would be necessary to give 
him a just and fair account of such effects, which account he would for- 
ward to the general, and that if we acted openly and iu good faith in 
these respects, he repeated his assurances upon the honor of a soldier 
tli:it he would lie answerable for every kind of disorder on the part of 
hi-i troojw. They remained in profound silence in their ranks, and the 
commandant with some of his officers came into town as far as J. L's, 
where tliey dined, wailing the commodore's answer. 

"The doctor says that as he thought he observed much of the gentle- 
man in the commandant, and the appei ranee at of generosity and 
liumauily, he took an opportunity to inform him that there was an old 
friiMid of his ^the doctor's) who was a colonel, and of some estimation in 
the Continental army; that lie was at present with Gen. W.oshington, 
and that his lady, an amiable woman, had gone into the country with 
most of her effects; that the doctor was ignorant of the place of her re- 
treat, but that before her departure she had begged him, on the footing 
of former friendship, to take into his house, and, if he nii>;ht be per- 
mitted, to keep as under his protection some few things which she could 
not remove, and told the commandant he was ready to give an exact 
account of such of her effects as he had thus taken charge of; and at the 
same lime confe-sed that when he took them it was in the hope of being 
suffered to preserve them for liis friend. The commanditnt told him, 
without a nionienl's hesitation, ' Sir, you need not beat the trotible of 
giving any further account of those things you have so candidly men- 
tioned ; be assured that whatever effects have been intrusted to you in 
this way I shall consider as your own, and they shall not be touched.' 
From this answer he was encouraged to hope he might be of still fuTthcr 
service to his friends, and in the full persuasion that nothing would occur 
to disturb the peaceable disjKi^ition that was making; but, as it happened, 
the coDioiodore had roc«ved intelligence of a party of Hessians having 
entered Burlington before Capt. Moore got down to him, and had ordered 
up four galleys to fire on the town whenever any two or three persons 
should be seen together. Capt. Moore met and hailed them one after 
another, but the wind was so high that he was not heard or understood. 
The four gondolas came up, and the first of them appearing before the 
main street, J. L., T. H., and W, D. (William Dillwyn) went down upon 
the wharf and waived a hat, the signal agreed on with Capt. Moore for 
the boat to come ashore and give the commodore's answer in i>eace. To 
the astonishment of these gentlemen all the answer they received was 
first a swivel th<it. Not believing it possible this could be designedly 
done they stood still, and J. L. again waved his hat, and was answered 
with an eighteen-pounder. Both these fires, as the gondola people have 
since told us, were made with as good aim as could be taken, as they 
took it for granted it was at Hessians they fired. However, as it was 
impossible to conjecture that such conduct could have happened, or to 
suspect such a mistake, it is no wonder the town was exceedingly 
alarmed, looking upon it in the light of a cruel as well as unprovoked 
piece of treachery. l'i«5n this news the commandant rose calmly from 
the table, and Uis officers with him went out to eight or ten men, who 
had come to the door as a small body-guard. He turned to the doctor as 
lie went into the street, and said he could easily dispose of his i>eople out 
of the possibility of danger, but that much mischief might be done to 
the town, and that he would take a view of the gondolas and see what 
measures might be<iecessary on his part, but that he should be sorry to 
l>e the occasion of any damage or distress to the inhabitants. He walked 
down the street, and sent different ways three sentinels, in Indian file 
together, to view and report to him what they saw. These being now 
and then seen at different times, induced the people on board to believe 
tiiat tlie houses were full of Hessians, and a cannonade was continued 
till almost dark in different directions, sometimee along the street, some- 



times across it. Several bouses were struck and a little damageO, but 
not one liviiiir creature, eitlier man or Iiea!>t, killed or woumled. About 
dark the gc.ndcilas fell dmvii a little way below the town, and the iiiglit 
was passed iu quiet. AVhile all tliis tuDuilt was in town, we, on onr 
peaceful b;iiik, ignorant of the occasion of the firing, were wondering 
wliat it could mean, and unsuspecting of danger were quietly pursuing 
our business in the family, when a kind neighbor informed us of the 
occasion, and urgpd iib to go int') the cellar as a place of safety. We 
were prevailed on by him to to do so, and remained there till it censed. 

"December 12lli. — The pcojile of the galleys, suspecting that some 
troops were yet eilher concealed in the town or neighbourlioiid of it, have 
been very jcalnus of the inhabitants, who have often been alai med w ith 
reports that the city would be set on fiie ; many have gone in haste and 
great distress into the country, but we still hope no mischief is seriously 
intended. A number of men halted on our bank this morning, and tuld 
lis it was their settled puri>ose to set fire to the town. I begged them 
not to set my house on fire ; they asked which was n>y house, and they 
said they knew not what hinderetl them from firing on it last night, fur 
seeing a light iu the chambers they thought there were Hessians in it, 
and they pointed their guns at it several times. I told them my chil- 
dren were sick, which obliged me to burn a light all night. . . . 

" I>eceniber 13th. — This day we began to look a little like ourselves 
again. The troops were removed some miles from town, as we hear, and 
our friends began to venture out to see us; but the suspicions of the 
gondola men still continued, and search was made in and about town 
for men distingui^ljed by the name of tories. . . . 

"December 14th. — This day there was no appearance of the formid- 
able Hessians. Several of our friends called to see us. Among the num- 
ber was one (Dr. Odell) esteemed by the whole family and very intimate 
in it; but the spirit ofthedevil still continued to rove through the town 
in the shape of tory hunters. A message was deliveivd to our intimate 
friend informing him a party of armid men were on the search fur him. 
His liorse was brought and he retired to a jilace of safety. Some of the 
gentlemen who entertained the foreigners were pointed out to the gon- 
dola men; two worthy inhabitants (Uicliard Snjilh and anuiher) were 
seized upon and dragged on board. From tlie l;3lh to the ICth we had 
various reports of the advancing and retiring of the enemy; parties of 
armed men rudely entered the town and diligent search was made for 
tories ; some of the gondula gentry broke into aud pillaged Ud. Smith's 
bouse on the bank. 

"About noon this day (IGth) a very terrible account of thousands 
coming into town and imw actually to be seen on Gallows Hill: my in- 
cautious son (Di . John Morris) caught up the spy-glass and was running 
toward the mill to look at them. I told him it would be liable to miscon- 
struction, but he prevailed on me to gratify his curiosity ; he went, but 
returned much dissatisfied, for no troops could he see ; as he came back, 
poor Dick (Rd. Hill Morris) took the glass, and resting it against a free, 
took a view of the fleet; both of these were observed by the i)eople on 
board, who suspected it an enemj that was watching their molinns. 
They manned a boat and sent her on shore; a loud knocking at my door 
brought me to it; I was a little fluttered, and kept locking an<l unlock- 
ing that I might get my rutlied face a little comjKisi'd; at last I opined 
it and half a dozen men, all armed, demanded the key of the empty i 
house. I asked them what they wanted there ; they said to search for 
a d — d tory who had been spying at them from the mill. The name of 
u tory BO near myowu donr seriously alarmed me, for a poor rr/ugee, dig- 
nified by that name, had claimed the shelter of my roof, and was at that 
very time concealed like a thiif in an auger-hole; 1 rung the bell 
violently — the signal agreed on if they came to search, aud wlien 1 
thought he had crept into the hole I put on a very simple lo<(k, and 
cried out, 'Bless me, I hope yon are not".' ' l>o we look like 
Hessians?' asked one of them, rudely. 'Indeed, I don't know.' 'Did 
you ever see a Hessian ?' ' No, never iu my life ; but they are men, and 
you are men, and may be Hessians fur anything I know ; but I'll go with 
you into Col. Cox's house, though indeed it was my son at the mill ; he 
is but a boy, and meant no harm; he wanted to see the troops.' So I 
marched at the head of them, opened the door, and searched e^ery place, 
but we Could find no tory; strange where he could be. We returned, 
they greatly disiipjiointed; I, pleased to think my house was not sus- 
])ccted. The captain, a smart little fellow named Shijipeii, said he 
wished he could see the spy -glass. S. D. produced it, aud very civilly de- 
sired his acceptance of it, which I was sorry for, as I often amused 
myself in looking through it. They left us and searched J. V.'s" (James 
Verree) "and the next two houses, but uo tory could they find. This 
transaction reached the tow u and Col. Cox was very angry, and ordered 
the men on board. In the evening I went to town with my refugee, 
.aud placed him iu other lodgings. 

" December 27th. . . . TbiRereuingabout three thousand of thePenn- 

sylvania niinia and other troops landed on the neck, and marched into 
town with artillery, bagg:ige, etc., aud are quartered on the inhabitants. 
One comxany was lodged at J. V.'s, and a guard placed between his 
house and ours. >Ve were so favoured as not to have any sent to our 
house. An officer spent the evening with us, and nppeaiod to be in 
high spirits, and talked of engaging the English Ki a very trifling affair, 
— nothing so ea-'y as to drive them over the North River, etc. 

" December 2»l)i. — Early this morning the troops marched out of town 
in high spirits. A flight of snow this morning drove the gondolas along 
down the river. My heart sinks when I think of the numbers unpre- 
pared for death who will probably be sent in a few days to ajipear be- 
fore the Judge of heaven. The weather clearing up this afternoon, we 
observed several boats, with soldiers and their baggage, making up to 
our wharf. ... A man who seemed to have command over the soldiers 
first landed, civilly asked for the keys of Col. Cox's house, in which 
they stored their baggage and took up their quarters for the night, and 
were very quiet. 

"December 2'Jth. — This morning the soldiers at the next house pre- 
pared to depart, and as they passed my door they stopped to bless and 
thank me for the food I sent them, which I received not as my due, but 
as belonging to my Slaeter, who had reached a morsel to them by my 
hand. A great number of soldiers in town to-day; another company 
took possession of the next house w hen the first left it. The inhabitants 
much straitened for bread to supply the soldiers and firewood to keep 
them warm. This seems to be one of the many calamities of war. 

"December 30th. — A number of poor soldiers, sick and wounded, 
brought into town to-day, and lodged in the court-house; some of them 
in jirivate houses. To-day I hear several of onr tow nsnien have agreed 
to procure wood for the soldiers, but they found it was attended with 
considerable difficulty, as most of the wagons usually employed to bring 
in wood were pressed to take the soldiers' baggage. 

"January 3d (1777). — This morning we heard very distinctly a heavy 
firing of cannon; the sound came fiom about Trenton, and at noon a 
number of soldiers, upwards of one thousand, came intu town in great 
Confusion, with baggage and some cannon. From these soldiers we 
learn that there was a smart engagement yesterday at Trenton, and 
that they left them engaged near Trenton Slill, but were not able to say 
which side was victorious. They were again quartered on the inhabit- 
ants, aud we again exempt from the cumber of having them lodged in 
our house. Several of those who lodged in Col. Cox's house last week 
returned to-night and asked for the key, which I gave them. About 
bedtime I went into the next house to see if the fires wore safe, and my 
heart was melted to see such a number of my fellow -creatures lying like 
swine on the floor fast asleep, and many of them w ilhout even a blanket 
to cover them. It seems very strange to me that such a number should 
be allowed to come from the camp at the very time of the engagement, 
aud I shrewdly susjiect they have run away, for they can give no ac- 
count why they came or where they are to march next. 

"January 4th. — The accounts houily coming in are so contradictory 
and various that we know not which to give credit to. "VVe have heard 
our people have gained another victory, that the English are fleeing be- 
fore them, some at Brunswick, some at Princeton. We hear to-day that 
Sharp Delany and A. Morris (Capt. Anthony Morris, her cousin), and 
others of the Pennsylvania militia are killed, and that the Count de 
Nope is numbered with the dead. ... A number of sick and wounded 
brought into town calls upon us to extend a hand of chaiity towards 
them. Several of my soldiers left the next house and returned to the 
place from whence they came. Upou my questioning them pretty close, 
I brought several to confess they had run away, being scared at the 
heavy firing on the 3d. There were several pretty, innocent-looking 
lads among them, aud I sympathized with their mothers when 1 saw 
them preparing to return to the army. 

"January 6th. — 1 heard today that Capt. Shippen, who threateued to 
shoot my sou for spying at the gondolas, is killed. I forgave him long 
•go . . . and felt sorry. . . . We are told to-day that Gen. Mercer is 
killed, and MitHin is wounded ; what sad havoc will this dreadful war 
make in our land ! 

"January 9th. — . . . The report of poor A.Morris being killed is con- 
firmed by an officer who was in the battle. . . . The weather very cold ; 
some snow falling has also filled the river with ice, and we expect it 
will be strong enough to walk over in a day or two, and give an oppor- 
tunity to those inclined to escape, of crossing over, which, for several 
weeks past, has l>een attended with some difficulty ; all the boats belong- 
ing to the town being seized upon by the gentlemen of the galleys, and 
either borne away or broken to pieces, w hich they said was done to pre- 
vent the Hessians from crossing the river; and, on the same pretence, a 



iiuiiilicr of briilges Iinve been taken up and others so much damaged as 
to make it difficult for travelei's to pass from hence to riiihidolphia. 
Several of the soldiers who were brought into town sick have died, and, 
it is feared, tlie disorder by which they are afflicted is iufeclinus. 

" Januaiy 12tli. — . . . The Earl of B n,' who quitted his habitation 

on the first alarm of the Hessians coming in, is returned with liis family. 
We have come hopes that our refugee will be presented with a pairof 
lawn sleeves when dignities become cheap, and suppose he will then 
think himself too big to creep into his old auger-hole; but I shall re- 
mind him of the p2ace, if I live to see him created first B p of 

B n. 

" Jan\i.Try 14th. — . . . A friend from Trenton tellsme poor A. Moriis 
died in three hours after he was wounded, and was buried in Friends' 
burying-grouud at Stony Brook. Also Captain Shippen was buried by 
him. . . . 

" January 15th. — I was a good deal affocted this evening at seeing the 
hearse in which General Mercer's body was conveyed over the river on 
the ice to be buried at Philadelpliia; poor Captain Shippen's body *vas 
also taken over at the same time to be buried there. 

"February 3d. — To-day appeared in print a proclamation of General 
Washington, ordering all persons who had taken protections of the king's 
commissioners, to come in thirty days and swear allegiance to the United 
Si.ites of America, or else repair with their families to the lines of the 
British troops. What will become of our refugee now '! 

"February 4th. — To-<lay eight boats full of soldiers sailed up the river 
to join the Continental- fcures. They appeared to be very merry, with 
their drums beating and their colours flying. This is said to be the day 
appointed for our friend*, who are prisoners, to have a hearing before 
Putnam. A man who is not a lover of peace told us it was expected 
there would be bloody work on the occasion. 

"February Cth. — Several hundred soldiers, who were returning from 
the camp, were quartered on the inhabitants, and in general, I hear, be- 
haved well. 

"February 7th. — All the soldiers quartered in the town last night went 
away to-day. The prisoners taken from our town and Blount Holly dis- 
charged and returned home; several of them much fatigued, and some 

"June 13th. — Early this morning the soldiers beat to march from Bris- 
tol, and in the course of the day several boats full of soldiers, with the 
Pennsylvania militia, sailed up the river. 

"June 14tli. — Before daylight this morning the alarm guns at Prince- 
ton, Trenton, Bordentown, and Bristol were fired, and answered by those 
below. About nine o'clock the gondolas and barges began to appear in 
sight, and from that time until nine at night there have gone up the river 
five or six gondolas. Several flat-bottomed boatsare also gone to Bristol. 
There is a report of a battle today, which seems probable, as we have 
heard much firing above. By u person from Bordentown, we hear twelve 
expresses came in there to-day from camp. Some of the gondola men 
and their wives being sick, and no doctor in town to apply to, they were 
told that Mrs. BI. was a t-killful woman, and kept medicines to give the 
poor, and notwithstanding their late attempts to shoot my poor boy, they 
ventured to come to me, and, in a verj' humble manner, begged me to 
come and do something for them. At first I thought they might have a 
design to put a trick on me, and get me aboard of their gondola, and then 
pillage my house, ae they had done some others; but, on asking where 
the sick folks were, was told they were lodged in the Governor's house. 
So I went to see them. There were several, tioth men and women, very 
ill with a fever. I treated them according to art, and they all got well. 
I thought I had received all my pay when they thankfully acknowledged 
my kindness, but lo ! inashort time a verj- rougji, ill-looking man came 
to the door and asked for me. When I went to him, ho drew me aside 
and asked if I had any friends in Philadelphia. The question alarmed 
ine, supposing there was some mischief meditated against that poor city ; 
however, I calmly said, 'I have an ancient father-in-law, some sistei-s, 
and other near friends there.' 'Well,' said the man, ' do you wish to 
hear from them or send anything by way of refreshment to them ? If 
you do, I will take charge of it and bring you back anything you may 
send for.' I was very much surprised, and thought, to be sure, he only 
wanted to get provisions to take to the gondola*, when he told me his 
wife was one of those I had given medicine to, and this was the only 
thing he could do to )iay me for my kindness. >!y heart leaped with 
joy, and I set about preparing something for my de.-ir al*ent friends. A 
quarter of beef, some veal, fowls, and flour were soon put up, and about 
midnight the man called and took them aboard of his boat. He left them 

> Ironical. Dr. Odell U referred to. 

at Robert Hopkins, at the Point, from whence my beloved furnds loi.k 
them to town; and, two nights after, a loud knocking at our front door 
greatly alarmed us. Opening the chamber window, we heard a man's 
voice, saying, ' Comedown softly and open the door, but bring no light.' 
There was something mysterious in such a call, and we concluded to go 
down and set the candle in the kitchen. When we got to the frontdoor 
we asked, ' Who are you ?'■• The man replied, ' A friend, o])eu quietly ;' 
so the door was opened, and who should it be but our honest gondol(> 
man with a letter, a bushel of salt, a jug of molasses, a bag of rice, some 
tea, coffee, and sugar, and some cloth fjr a coat for my poor boy, — all seut 
liy my kind sisters. . . . Being now so rich, we thought it our duty to 
hand out a little to the poor around us who were mourning for want of 
salt. . . . 

"One morning, having left my chamber at an earlier hour than usual, 
• . . was surprised to see some humlreUs of boats, all filled with British 
soldiers. 1 ran to my d'>ar G. D.'s ro(un, and begged him to get up ami 
see the sight. He went to the window, and I wailed to hear what he 
would say ; but as he said nothing, I called out to him, ' Brother, what 
shall we do now?' He opened his door, and sweetly and calmly said, 
' Let us, my sister, keep still and quiet ; I believe no harm will happen 
to us;' and indeed we were favored with remarkable stillness; even the 
children seemed to partake of it. The boats were ordered up the river 
to Bordentown, to burn all the gondolas. The last boat we saw was a 
small one, with only three men and the rowers in it. Tliny were not 
soldiers. When they came opposite to the town wharf they stopped 
rowing, and pulled off their hats and bowed to the people on the wharf. 
We heard afterwards it was our poor refugees, Dr. S. Burling and J. 
Stansbnry, who intended to have come on shore and paid us a visit; but 
so many i)eople appearing on the wharf, they thought it safest to take 
to their oars and follow the fleet. One large vessel with cannon was in 
the fleet, and when they returned were ordered to fire if they saw soldiers 
on the wharf or abmit the streets. It seems the soldiers had notice of 
the time when they were, to return, and they placed themselves along 
the shore quite down to the ferry. It was First-day afternoon, and all 
the family but myself gone to meeting, and I was lying on the bed ; and 
hearing a large gun, looked out of the window and saw the large ship 
80 close to our landing that I thought they were coming ashore, when, 
behold! they fired two or three of their great guns, which shook the 
house, and went through the walls of our next-door neighbor, who was 
a captain in the rebel army. I still kept at the window, unajiiirehensive 
of danger; and seeing a man on the deck talking and pointing to my 
house, one of them said, ' In that house lives a woman to whom I am in- 
debted for my life; she sheltered mo when I was driven from my own 
house,' etc. This I was afterwards told by a person who heard it ; it is 
needless to add it was our poor refugee. A rebel quarterniiister, who 
had received some liitle civilities from my S. D. and myself, asked me 
one day if I did not wish to see my friends in Philadelphia. I said it 
was the wish nearest my heart. lie said he would accompany me as far 
as Frankfort if I would premise to take no kind of provi^iull with me, 
and that he would meet me at the same place and conduct me linme 
again. Such an offer was not to be slighted. I went to my fiiend 0. A., 
and asked her if she would venture to bear me company. She joyfully 
agreed, and we borrowed a horse and chair, and early next morning set 
out, our quartermaster being our guard, and good neighbor J. V. went 
with us to the ferry to see us s:ife over. We got to A. James' (former 
partner of the elder John Smith) place in the afternoon, and sent notice 
to our friends in town, and next morning my father, brothers Bloore 
and Wells, and my twosisteis met iis at Kensington, for they dared not 
go further, that being the British lines. . . . They went to town, and 
Nancy andiiiyself retired soon to bed, expecting our quartermaster to 
call on us by daylight, but no news did we hear of him; but a heavy 
firing in the morning made us fearful we should not get safe home. 
About nine o'clock some stragglt-rs stnpped at our quarters and said 
there had been a skiiniisli between the Engli-h and .\nipricans, and, 
more terrible still, that parties were ordered out to bring in all they 
should meet with. This intefTigence made us conclude to venture home- 
wards without our guide. We got into our chair, and whipped and cut 
our dull horse at a strange rate. Several parties pai^sed and repassed, 
and questioned os about whence we came and where we were going; 
they said if we were going to Burlington we should be stopped at the 
ferry and taken to WHshlngton's headquarters, for there was a report 
that women had been into town and brought out goods. We kept our 
minds pretty calm, hoping that if we got fafe to the ferry, as we were so 
well known, we should meet no more dangers; and we got along well 
till we got to the hill beyond the Red Lion, which being very bad, and 
we still pressing our poor horses to make more haste, he made one vio- 
i.-Dt exeitiuu to reach ibe top of the hill, when, to our utter dismay, the 



Bwingletree broke, nnd the cliair began to roll down the bill. We both 
jumped out «t the Mme instant. Nancy held the horse while I rolled a 
Btoiie behind the wheel, and there we stood, afraid to stir from the 
liorsp, nnd thinking we should be obliged to leave the cliair and lead 
the horse home. At last we ventured to the door of » small house liard 
by. A man came out, nnd, with the help of Nancy's ribbons and my 
gartors, li.xed u-i off, and we onre again mounted the chair and walked 
the lidtge till we ciime near the Bristol road, where we heard the ferry 
was guarded, and none Buff>'red to cross. However, we kept on, and at 
length reached the ferrv, where, instead of armed men, we could hardly 
find one man to put us over. . . When we arrived at my door my beloved 
S. D. had the neighbors and children all sitting with her, her tender, 
anxious mind filled with apprehensions for our safety. As we had stayed 
K day longer than we intended, it was conjectured by our wise neighbor, 
J. v., that some terrible thing had happened, — nothing less than that 
the house, which whs his, had been seized, and we kept in Pennsylvania. 
Rd. Smith, who lent the chair, was equally alarmed for the fate of his 
carriage ; and S. H., who loudly exclaimed against the expedition, said 
■we were certainly carried to headquai1('rs,and, a* NancyV liusl>and was 
in the British p:iy,it would go hard with her for his sake; but, behold ! all 
their wise conjectures proved like the croaking of the raven, for in the 
midst of it all we appeared before them in our proper persons before our 
arrival was announced." . . . 

From the Journal of James Craft.— The follow- 
ing, some of which i.s contemporaneous with some of 
the matter from the journal of Margaret Morris, above 
quoted, is from the journal of James Craft, and was 
published in the "Pennsylvania Historical Maga- 
zine," vol. i. p. 300: 

" Cth mo. ICth, 1770, Geo. Whitefield, the Great Calvinistic Preacher, 
preacht before the Court House. Great Audience. Deal of humor. 
]'j!th mo. 11th, 177C, sad woik this day. The Hessians came. Town 
fired on by gondolHS. Nobody hurt, altlio' large and small shot was 
fired iileuty and in all directions. .5tli mo. lOlh, 177.S. British came 
back (from Bordentown) and what a whipping our poor town got, tho' 
through blessing nobody hurt. Bullets and every kind of shot show- 
ered down upon us for hours. 12th uio. ICtli, 1778, Lee's troop of horse 
at Burlington." 

The following, communicated to Barber and Howe's 
"Historical Collections of New Jersey" by an aged 
and highly re.'^pectable gentleman (living in 1844), 
briefly relates the story of an eye-witness of an attack 
on old Burlington : 

"In the twelfth month, 1770, Count Donop commanding a detach- 
ment of Hessians (say 40(i) entered Burlington, and were encamped on 
the premises of Thomas Wetherill, below York bridge. Two brass field- 
pieces were placed in the road near Kobert Deacon's corner; their mus- 
kets were stacked in the middle of the street, and guards placed near — 
the troops cooking their provisons. Prompted by curiosty, and having 
obtained permission from home, I entered their encampment. Amused 
with the novelty of the scene, so entirely new to me, 1 for a time forgot 
both friends and home nnd tarried longer than prudent. My parents in 
the meantime had become uneasy at my slay, being ignorant of the 
cause; and my father arrived in search of me, just a* the row-galleys 
in the Delaware, opposite the town, began firing — which api)nzHd us of 
the necessity of seeking a place of safety. On our way home, when we 
arrived at John Neal's, corner of York and Broad streets, he was stand- 
ing at his door, and hearing the reports of the cannon fired in quick 

Biiccession, he accosted my father with, 'M. , these are perilous 

times.' At that instant an eighteen-pound double-headed shot struck 
the back of tho house, within lees than twenty yards of us, broke a large 
hole through the wall and lodged in the fireplace, driving the ashes out 
of the front-door, which my father observing, said he thought they were 
firing red-hot balls. His wife was standing on the sill of the door, and 
in her fright sprang beyond the porch. On our way home we had to 
face the cannon as they fired up York street. My father bade me watch 
the flath and immediately fall flat, which we both did, nnd were favored 
to arrive safe. We found the family had retired to the cellar, which 
Wiis the retreat chosen by numbers. In the spring of 1778, on a First- 
day afternoon, n number of women and children (myself amongst them) 
assembled on the bank, in front of James Kinsey's house, above the 

town-wharf, to view the British naval armament that had been np tlie 
Delaware and destroyed the American fr'gntes and row-galleys, and as 
they had passed up peaceably the preceding day, it was not supposed 
they would fire on the town. Now a large sloop with c;innon in her 
l>ow (I believe a twenty-four pounder) approached the wharf. A man 
stood on the quarter-deck, waved his hat, and called aloud, 'The women 
and children must leave thebank,we are going to fire!' I immediately 
took shelter behind Abraham Hew ling's brick store on the wharf, and 
watched their movements. I distinctly heard the word 'Fire!' (Iieing 
not two hundred yards from the vessel). The first shot struck Adam 
Shepherd's stable below the wharf, where several men were standing, 
nil of whom escaped injury. Supposing myself out of danger, I con- 
tinued an attentive spectator to their valiant attack on the peaceful 
city of Burlington. The wind lieing ahead the sloop bad to tack, and 
continued firing unlil she passed the city. Providentially, not one 
huniau being was injured so far as I can learn." 

Public Institutions of Ye Olden Times.— The 

first Burlington market-house was built — after settle- 
ment had advanced somewhat and the condition of 
local traffic demanded it — on High Street, near the 
landing. The second was erected at the intersection 
of High and Broad Streets, and for some years the 
two were contemporaneous, and it is said a rivalry 
existed between them, one of them belonging to the 
city and the other to the township of Burlington. 
During the latter part of the last century the city 
built a long, narrow market-house in the centre of 
Union Street, just between the buildings known as 
Miller's drug-store and residence and the Exchange 
Hotel, with sufficient room on either side for the pas- 
sage of vehicles. The second story of this building 
was once occupied as a city hall. It was torn down 
about thirty years ago, giving place to the brick 
market-bouse farther up Union Street, a portion of 
which is now occupied as an engine-house. 

Formerly market day was a great day in Burling- 
ton, but the traffic gradually passed from the public 
market-house to private stores and stalls. 

In front of the old market-house stood the stocks 
and the whipping-post, where offenders paid the 
penalty of petty crimes in ignominy and physical 
pain ; but these, like many other early institutions of 
old Burlington, have given way before the march of 
progress. The market-houses, the court-house and 
gaol, long since removed to Mount Holly as a more 
central location, and other old-time institutions com- 
bined to give to Burlington an air of briskness and im- 
portance scarcely excelled by the numerous business 
interests of the present day. 

Laws and Ordinances, Etc. — "On the 10th Feb- 
ruary, 1664, the Lords and Proprietors of New Jersey, 
in their concessions and agreements with all and 
every the adventurers and such as shall settle and 
plant there, granted 'convenient proportions of 
lands for highways and for streets, not exceeding one 
hundred/oo/ in breadth, in cities, towns, and villages, 
&c., and for wharves, keys, harbours, &c.' 

" On the 2d March, 1676, the Proprietors of New 
Jersey granted to Thomas Hutchinson, Joseph 
Helmesley, Thomas Pearson, and George Hutchinson, 
Commissioners, authority to select and lay out a 
town in West New Jersey; and in pursuance of that 



authority the said Commissioners selected Burlington 
as the chief town and city therein ; and in 1677, Rich- 
ard Noble, under their authority, made a map of the 
said town, comprising and designating the several lots 
and streets, and among others Broad Street, and on 
the 3d March, 1676, by the concessions and agree- 
ments of the Proprietors, Freeholders, and Inhabitants 
of West New Jersey, power was given to commission- 
ers appointed by them ' for appointing and setting 
out fit places for towns, and to limit the boundaries 
thereof;' and they thereby further granted convenient 
portions of lands for highways and for streets not 
under one hundred foot in breadth, in cities, towns, 
and villages, and also for wharves and harbors ;' and 
declared that all such lands laid out for the said uses 
and purpose should be free and exempt from rents, 
taxes, and other charges and duties whatsoever. 

"In November, 1681, Burlington was declared to 
be the chief town and head of the province, and all 
vessels bound for the province after the 1st February, 
1682, were obliged to enter and clear at the port of 
Burlington. Two annual fairs were then established, 
and it was provided that a highway should be sur- 
veyed and set forth between Burlington and Salem. 

"In May, 1682, the General Free Assembly of the 
Province of West New Jersey, with the consent and 
approbation of the Governor thereof, together with 
the sub-proprietors, freeholders, and inhabitants of 
the said province, did appoint and agree that the 
island of Burlington within the said province should 
from thenceforth be the chief city and town therein. 

" In March, 1683, it was enacted that the limits 
and town of Burlington, as the same were laid out by 
William Emley, by the appointment of the commis- 
sioners for the time being, shall stand and remain to 
and for the use of the freeholders and inhabitants of 
the said town of Burlington. 

" In October, 1693, the town of Burlington was in- 
corporated, and in the act it is enacted that for the 
avoiding of future strife and various controversies 
which thereafter might arise concerning the land and 
soil of the said town that an exact survey of the said 
town be made and recorded, according to those 
bounds and limits which nature seems to direct (viz.) : 
by Delaware River Northerly, Assisonck Creek East- 
erly, and that Run or Channel in which the water 
ebbs and flows, Westerly and Southerly ; which sur- 
vey being made as aforesaid, then the streets of the 
said town shall be laid out as formerly, and no other; 
to the end that the quantity of the whole, and the 
quantity of the public streets, deducted out of the whole, 
being known and ascertained, every proprietor and 
person interested in proprieties may know the exact 
proportion and quantity they ought respectively to 
enjoy out of the remainder." 

The several acts of the proprietors and the pro- 
prietary government granted the streets, to be thus 
designated, to the freeholders and inhabitants of Bur- 
lington. And in pursuance of the act of incorpor- 

ation above referred to a survey of the town was made 
in 1696, and recorded. In this survey Broad Street is 
laid out as it now exists, and thus became vested in 
the freeholders and inhabitants of Burlington City. 

After the surrender of Queen Anne, made by the 
proprietors of New Jersey in 1702, to wit, on the 7th 
pf May, 1733, William Cosby, Esquire, then Gover- 
nor of New Jersey, granted a charter to the city of 
Burlington ordering the boundaries of the city to the 
limits of the township, which charter was afterwards, 
in the year 1748, confirmed by the Legislature. 

"On the 28th of August, 1784, the Legislature of 
New Jersey by act defined and established the city 
and port of Burlington to be 'extending three miles 
in length upon the river Delaware: to wit, one mile 
up the river from the present wharf of the said city, 
and two miles down the river from the same, and ex- 
tending at right angles, one mile from the said river.' " 

On the 21st of December, 1784, the town and port 
of Burlington, as already established by law, of the 
length of three miles on the river Delaware, and such 
part of the said river and island opposite thereto ap- 
pertaining and witliin the jurisdiction of the State, 
and extending from the said river at right angles one 
mile into the country of Burlington, and including 
all the lands, country, islands, harbors, and waters 
within the boundaries aforesaid, are declared a city, 
and incorporated by the name of "the Mayor, Re- 
corder, Aldermen, and Commonalty of the City of 

All the real and personal estate, and all the right, 
title, interest, and property of the corporation of Bur- 
lington thereto previous to the Revolution, is thereby 
vested in the present corporation. 

Following is section first of " A Further Supple- 
ment-to An Act entitled An Act to Incorporate the 
City of Burlington :" 

" 1. Be it enacted hy the Senate and General Aitemhhj of thf Stale of New 
Jersetj, TImt the City of Burlington shall be divided into two Wards, in 
the manner following, viz.; All that part of said City lying north of the 
Camden and Aniboy Riiilro:id shall be the First Ward of said City, and 
all that part of said City lying south of said Kailroad sliall be the Second 
Ward of said City." 

From the City Records. — Concerning the Old Mar- 
ket-Houses, etc. — In September, 1682, weekly markets 
were established at Burlington, and for the better 
regulating and ordering of the fairs within the town 
of Burlington, it was enacted by the Assembly that 
the town of Burlington have liberty, and was thereby 
empowered, "to choose among themselves some per- 
sons to regulate the affairs of the Town in such mat- 
ters as relate to fences, cattle, highways, and all such 
things as usually fall within the compass of ourselves 
in corporation." The following interesting quotations 
are from the city records : 

July 9, 1793. — " William Coxe Esq. beinp duly appointed for that pur- 
pose having presented two personal Deeds to the Mayor, Recorder Alder, 
men & Comnionalty in Common Council assembled one from Kathaniel 
Fi itK and Sarah his Wife for conveying a Lot of Ground in the said City 
for a Market Place and one other from John Uoskins Jun' conveying a 



Lot of Ground contiguous to tlic said Market Place for a public Street 
in tlie uaid City wliicli Dueds are gevorally signed and sealed by the 
Grantors tberein named and attested by Witnesses and were delivered 
by the Grantors fcvurally to tlic said AVilliani Coxe to be by him de- 
livered to the said Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Commonalty in Coni- 
nion C!ouncil Rssembled if tliey would accept tlie same. Therefore on 
motion Itefalreit ti/iammoii«/^ that the said Deeds be accejiled by the said 
Mayor, Recorder Aldermen 4 Commonalty in Common Council assem- 
bled to and for the uses therein BfK'Cified and it is further resolved that 
the Chamberlain do have the said Deeds recoideil in the Section office 
and that the expence thereof bo paid out ef the Monies in his Huuda 
and then to be preserved by him for the use of the Corporation. 

" Retoleed that the Chamberlain be authorized to pay to the Commis- 
Bionere for building a Market House any sum not exceeding the amount 
of twenty Pounds upon an ord>-r given by the Mayor or in his absence 
the Recorder out of any unappropriated money in liis Hands. 

" Refolced that the Recorder Mr. Ellis and Mr. Adams l>e appointed a 
committee to bring in a Bill for regulating the new Market House iu 
Union Street and a(fi.\ing the rates of stallage." 

Ordinances Relative to OmliigUiue DUeat'e. — Aug. 30, 1793.-^" Whereas 
there is great Reason for caution against the malignant Fever or con- 
tagious disorder which prevails in Philadeljihia and it is our duty to use 
every probable means to prevent the same in the City of Builington. 
The Cor|>oration of Burlington aflercollectinp every advice which could 
be obtained recommend to the Citizens of Burlington — 

"1st That all unnecessary intercourse be avoided with Philadelphia, 
that no dry Goods woolen Cloths Woolen, Cottons or Linens or any Pack- 
ages whore Straw, Hay or Shavings are used to be imported within 
twenty days. 

"2i\ That the Master of the Boats which i>Iy to and from Builington 
to Philadelphia be very careful that they do not receive on Board their 
Vessels or bring to this City within twenty days any i'erson or Persons 
but those who api)ear iu good Health. 

" 3d Tliat no Animal or Yegitsable substances be thrown cr permitted 
to lay in the Streets or Allej-s — but that all Appals, Water Melon Rhines 
and substance.s that jnitrify be thrown into the Delaware or buried. 

" 4th That no Water be permitted to stagnate about the Pumps in the 
Street or near any House but that the Wharves, Streets, Alleys Gutters, 
Ditches, Houses and Barn Yards be kept as clean as iios>ible. 

"6th The Physicians iu Burlington are requested to make report to 
the Mayor or Recorder as soon as possible after they shall have been 
called to and visited any Person or Persons who shall have the said 
malignant Fever 

"Signed by order of the Corporation, 

" Boweh REnn, JIfai/or." 

Sept. 10, 1193, an "engrossed bill entitled 'An ordinance for Regu- 
lating the maikets within the city of Builington' was nad and Com- 
pared, on the Question weather the same do pass, it was unanimously 
Carried in the affirmative. Ordered that the mayor do sign the same. 

"On motion Resolvd that Slessrs. Sterling & Adams be appointed a 
Committee to bring in a Bill to Regulate Weights and Measures in this 

" Eefohed, That the Chamberlain be authorized to replace the publick 
Pumps of the City near the Court-House, and the one near his own Door, 
and lay his account before the Board for adjustment." 

Sept. 26, 1793, Mr. Bloomfield presented an ordi- 
nance entitled "An ordinance to restrain the ringing 
of Bells upon unnecessary occasions," which was 
read and ordered a second reading. " A second read- 
ing being had, the said Bill was ordered to be read a 
third time, whicli being had the question was put 
whether the same do pass, it was carried in the 
affirmative as follows : 

" Sesohed, That it is the opinion of this Corixiration that a Town 
Meeting ought to be called, iu order to Collect the sentiments of the 
Citizens as to the mode whic h ought to be adojited for preventing the 
said intercourse, and that the Clerk of this Board be directed to affix up 
at six of the must publick places in this City a Copy of this Resolution, 
and tlie Corporation requested that the Citizens will convene to-morrow 
afternoon at 3 o'cl.jck for the above purpose at the Court House. 

" Betolied, Tliat it l>e recommended to the Wardens and Vestry of the 
Episcopal Church to prevent the Ringing or Tolling of the bells upon 
the Death or Burial of any person «ilhiu this city until the malignant 

Fever shall have ceased, and that the Clerk be directed to serve a copy 
of this Resolve upon the said W'ardens, and advertise the same in three 
of the most publick places in this City." 

Sept. 13, 1797, the following ordinance was passed; 

" WiiERSAS, The City of Philadelphia is at this time ntfiicted by a Con- 
tagious disease, and the Continuance of the entercourse by water between 
this Port and that City is become highly dangerous. Therefore Resolved 
unawimously that from and after the return of the Burlington stage 
Boats now absent, or from and after the expiration of twenty-four hours 
from this time which ever may first happen, all comuiunicalion by water 
with Philadelphia through said Boats shall be stopped, and that from 
and after this day no other shallop or Boat In^m the Cily of Philadelphia 
shall be iierniiited to come to the wharves of this City, or to laud from 
on board sjiid Vessels any goods, wares, merchandise, or Passengers 
within the limits of this Coiporation until further directions shall be 
given in the Premises, of which the Warden of the Port is directed to 
take notice aird govern himself accordingly. Resolved that a copy of 
this Resolution be served oa the owners of the Burlington stage Boats, 
and also fixed up on three of the most public places of this city." 

An act of the State Legislature was passed Dec. 21, 
1784, constituting the town and port of Burlington, 
"of the length of three miles on the Delaware, and 
such part of the river and islands opposite thereto 
within the jurisdiction of the State, and extending 
from the river at right angles one mile into the 
county," the city of Burlington, and authorizing its 
government by a mayor, recorder, and three alder- 
men, annually elective, with power to hold a com- 
mercial court monthly. 

July 4, 1832, the mayor reported to the Common 
Council that he had received information of cases of 
I the cholera having appeared in New York and Phil- 
I adelphia, and of considerable alarm being created 
thereby in those cities, and that he had called the 
I present meeting for the purpose of communicating 
the information to Council and submitting the subject 
to their consideration, and also to request their aid in 
adopting and carrying into effect such measures as 
might be thought advisable and necessary for pre- 
serving the health of the city and preventing disease 
by contagion or otherwise; whereupon after discus- 
sion of the subject, and due deliberation had thereon. 
Council consider it proper for the present to resolve, 
and accordingly it was on motion by them 

" Resolved, that a Committee of Three persons be appointed to act to- 
gether with Phjsiciansof the Port <t Health Officers and the street coni- 
missiouers of this city logo through and inspect the condition of the 
several streets and alleys in this city to give Notice to the Inhabitants 
of the Information communicated to Council concerning the cholera, 
and of the Alarm created, and to Recommend to them the observance 
of the strictegt cleanliness in their Dwellings, and in their Cellars & 
Yards, and the Immediate removal of all nuisances, and offeiicive mat- 
ter or smell from their premises, and to see that the Laws of 4he Cor- 
poration for the Removal of Nuisances be strictly enforced and fulfilled." 

The following is the most important part of "An 
Act to incorporate the City of Burlington, approved 
May 4th, 1851:" 

" 1. Be it enacted hy theSeua'e and General Autemhli/ of the Stati of Xew 
Jerceii, That the inhabitanbi of the city of Burlington contained 
the following limits and boundaries, that is to say : Beginning at a point 
in the middle of the Camden & Aml>oy Railroad, one and a half miles 
weslwaidly from the intersection of Broad and High street; thence (1) 
extending southwardly in a line at right angles with said Railroad ono 
mile ; thence (2) eastwnrdly on a line to strike the southw est corner of 
Blill street and Mount Holly road ; thence (3) slill eastwardly to a point 



-April 6, 1831, 

one mile soutliwnrdly of said railroad ; tlionce (4) nortliwnrdly ou a line 
paniUel to the mngt wcstwardly line lieieof, crossing said Railroad one 
and a quarter miles eastwardly of Paid Broad and Higli Street to tlio 
river Delaware ; lliencc (i) weslwardly down tlie faid river tlie several 
courses f hereof, about two and three quarter miles more or less, to a poiut 
iiitprf.ecling the first mentioned or most wpstwardly line hereof; thence 
(ti) southwardly to the first mentioned corner, and jdace of heginning; 
and also including the whole of Matiiiicunk or Hurlington Island, be. 
and they, and their successors forever, are hereby cuiijlituted and de- 
clared to be a body corporate and poliiic, in fact, and in law, by the 
name style and title of ' The Inhabilauts of the City of Burlington.' 

" 2. And he il enacted, that the s;\id, 'The Inlmbitaiits of the City of Bur- 
lington' and their successors, shall, by this act, l>ecome, and they are 
hereby declared to be, absolutely ami completely vested Vith all the 
lands, tenements, hereditaments, lial.ilities, liancliises, properties, rights, 
ciuses of action, and estate whatsoever, both in law and in equity, v\liicli, 
at the time of passing this art, are vested in or belonging to the City of 
Burlington, as now incorporated by the name of 'the JIayor, Kecorder, 
Aldermen, and Commonality of the City of Bnilington.' 

".3. And be it ennrted, that hereafter there shall be chosen in said citj", 
from among the citizens thereof, one Mayor, who shall be keeper of the 
city seal, three aldermen, eleven ' members of the Common Council, one 
Clerk," one Assessor, one Collector, one Treasurer, two or more Consta- 
bles, one Street Commissioner,^ three Cummi-sioners of Appeal, a?id 
such and so many subonlinate officers as the said Common Council may 
<leem uf cessary toappoint for their own organization, or for the conven- 
ience and well-being of the city. 

"4. And be it enacted, that the annual election in and for said city shall 
be held on the third Tuesday of Maich of each and every year, and at 
such placed as the Common Council of said city shall direct and 
appoint." .... 

Ordinances 'Concerning Railroads. 
it was 

" Refolved, That John L. Harris and William R. Allen be a committee, 
and they are hereby authorized to confer and contract with the proper 
otiicers or agents of the Camden and Aniboy Railroad Company, under 
tiie following stipulations and restrictions : 

" 1st. That for the sum of one hundred dollars to be paid annually to 
the Tieasurer of the city of Burlington, by the taid company, or if they 
choose the priucijial sum paid down that will produce $100 at C per cent., 
the corporation of Burlington will grant them the privilege of construct- 
ing their Railroad from Tatham to Ellis Streets in the centre of Broad 
Street, Provided, nevertheless, that this coriioration will not hold tlu-m- 
selve.s responsible for any rights or privileges which may be vested in 
the Burlington Aqueduct Company, but the said Railroad company shall 
procure profession from the Aqueduct Company at their own risk and 

"2d. There shall be passage ways for ordinary carriages opposite and 
at the intersection of all the streets with Broad Street from Tatham to 
Kllis Streets, both inclusive, and at the intersection of Broad Street the 
said passage way shall be of sufficient width to admit the jiassing of two 
carriages at the same time, and also that the present paved gutter ways 
on Broad and High Streets, shall be arched with substantial mason-woik 
sufficient for the passage of water through the same. 

"3d. The speed of all carriages, including locomotive Engines travel- 
ing on the Railroad from Tatham to Ellis Streets, shall not exceed six 

miles per hour, under the penalty of for each and every offence, to 

be recovered, &c. 

"4tli. There shall be free and convenient carriage ways on either side 
of Broad Street that the beauty and level of the same shall not be de- 
stroyed, and no altei ations shall be made which will produce inconveni- 
ent to the inhabitrtut-i or injurious to their projierty." 

Sept. 19, 1836, "A Committee on the part of the 
Burlington and Mount Holly Railroad and Trans- 
portation Company, by Garrett D. Wall, Esq., their 
chairman, made an application to the corporation for 
the grant of a permis.sion to said Rtiilroad and Trans- 
portation Company to lay the rails through one of 
the streets of the City to the River Delaware. Where- 

' Now twelve members and one at large. Act of March 4, 1878. 
- Now appointed by Common Council. Act of March 20, 1871. 
3 Pamphlet Laws of 1S7C, page 1G3, sectiou 17, etc. 

upon, on motion of the Recorder, it was resolved that 
said Railroad Company have the privilege of laying 
rails through one of the streets of this City without 
paying any pecuniary consideration thereof. On the 
yeas and nays being called upon the resolution, the 
following-named gentlemen voted in the affirmative, 
viz.: John Larzelere, mayor; William R. Allen, re- 
corder; Samuel R. Gummere and Joseph Johnson, 
aldermen; N. W. Cale, Christian Larzelere, Charles 
Vansciver, Noah E. Lippincott, James H. Sterling, 
and Thomas Milnor. 

"A Remonstrance was then presented, signed by 
many of the residents on Main Street, in the city of 
Burlington, against the grant of a privilege by the 
corporation to the Burlington and Mount Holly Rail- 
road and Transportation Company to lay the rails of 
said road down along the line of Main Street to the 
River Delaware. After some discussion, it was on 
motion resolved that the consideration of the matter 
be postponed for a week or ten days until the railroad 
company should cause the way to be made, showing 
the probable course of the several routes of running 
tbeir road contemplated by the company." 

May 2, 1838, Messrs. Deacon, Earl, Gunnell, John- 
son, Wright, and Gauntt, the committee on the rail- 
road question, made a report, which was accepted, 
and the same committee were instructed to mature 
the contract with said company. 

Township Organization. — Burlington was one of 
the original townships, laid out at the time of the or- 
ganization of the count}'. It was incorporated in 1798, 
and its boundaries have not since been changed ex- 
cept by the erection of Florence on the east and Bev- 
erly on the west. 

The first town-meeting was held April 5, 1694, the 
date of the first entry in the township minute-book, 
which reads as follows : 

" By Vertue of an Act of -Assembly formed and contrived for the gov- 
ernment of this Town of Burlington at a session held in the said Town 
the 3* of October, lG9u, the Freeholders and inhabitants of the saidTow.n 
being convened and assembled the o"" day of April, 1C94, in pursuance 
of the Powersaiid Priviledges Granted unto them in and by the said Act 
and in conformity to the same, due regard being had to y Qualification 
of the Electors as prescribed and Limited by the said .\ct, Do choose A 
Elect these officers ful lowing: 

"Richard Basnet, Burgesse or Chief Magistrate for y« town of Bur- 

".John Tatham, Recorder. 

"James Marshall, I (^„„^j„^^ 
" James Hill, i 

"George Hutchinson, Treasuter. 

"James Hill, Town Clerk. 

" Bernaid Devonish, Sergiant, Clerk of the Market, Crycr of the Town, 
and officer to view the Assise of Bread &. Liquor, and to Supervise and 
Examine Weights and Measures." 

From the Township Records. — The following 
extracts from the township records will be found of 
great interest, and will repay perusal. They refer to 
things important, quaint, curious, entertaining, and 
instructive in the early historj' of the township, and 
are arranged chronologically, so that where any one 
extract refers to any other their reflations may be 



easily considered. The spelling, capitalization, punc- 
tuation, and phraseology of the original entries have 
been retained in nearly all cases: 

" At a Town-Meeting held the 2:!'' of April, 1C04, The regulating of 
the market being Considered and Debated, it was Ordered timt no pro- 
visions of any kind whatsoever brouplit into Town and Exi>OBed to 
sale nor any sort of Corn, grain or Pulse slio'U be koUI in the said market 
from the first of April till the last of September before nine of tlie Clock 
in the morning and fiom the first of October till the last of Mardi l>e- 
fore ten of the Clock in the morning, nor after the setting of the sun in 
any season of the year. 

"Then it was pnt to vote whether the Bnrgess with the Recorder, 
Treasurer and Other Officers Chosen and Autborized by the Town for 
that purpose had not power to keep a Court of Record and it past in the 

"It appearing by the Complaint of Abraham Senior Constiible & the 
information of Several Other (lersons, that several persons did misbehave 
themselves and carry themselves after a rude and disorderly manner at 
the house of Josiah Piickitt, one of Iheni being near drunk, and that 
they refused upon his Command to depart the House Allho' upon the 
first day of the week Commonly called the Lords Day ; for which reason 
and other disorders i abuses notoriously known tinto the Court and ft.r 
which the said Jusiali Pricket was not able to make any satisfaction or 
tollerable defense Concerning the Said Disorders; the Court ordered 
that the said Josiah Pricket shall have no longer time to keep a Publick 
liouse than the I4"i day of the next month. Three weeks time at his re- 
quest being allowed him to sell such Liquoi'S as he had then in his 

" At a Town meeting held April 22d, ICIo, Tt was then put to the vote 
whether the act made on the behalf of the Town for incorporating the 
same be deficient and needed amendment and it jiast in the affirmative, 
wherefore the meeting did refer this afl'air unto John Tatliam and George 
Hutcheson who should p[er]use the act and amend the deficiency thereof 
by necessary Supplies and commit the same to willing to the intent that 
it may be recited unto the next meeting that a= far .is the same is a]i- 
provcd off it may be presented unto the next assembly in order to have 
their Sanction thereof." 

" Apiil 20, 1C95, Ordered by the Town meeting that no pferjson shall 
profane the sabbath or first day of the week by Playing thereon or by 
drinking intempenitely or unseasonably or by any other ways or means, 
and also that no Negro shall work on first d.iv.*, and it was likewise or- 
dered Ihat no Negro should neither buy nor sell otherwise than in behalf 
of their masters and having some Certificate from those masters, and 
that such person or p(er)sons as shall buy of or sell to them shall be 
Lyable to the same punishment." 

" By a Town meeting held on the Cth of May, 1095, Ordered that the 
Town Wharf be repaired by subscription, and Ihat Nathaniel Clips and 
Samuel Furuis shall require and collect the said subscriptions."' 

"At a Town meeting held June 17lh, 109,'), It was put to the veto 
whether the order of ye 7lh month, 1G92, whereby it was provided That 
all p[er]son6 not exemiited by Age or Impotency shall after their Resi- 
dence in sayd town for the space of 40 Days be lyable to serve, or to 
Contribute to all and every the Laboui-s and Taxes that by ye town 
meeting f-hall be Enjoyned for the Publick good and benefit of the s^ 
Town and it past in the affirmative. It was further put to the vote 
whether single persons residing 40 days in the said Town shall pay as 
much as householders and it past in the affirmative.'' 

"By a Town meeting held Apiil 201h, 1C9G, il was then put to ye vote 
whether any pei-son not having a Lycence shall expose and sell any 
■strong liquors by the pot at Fair Times, and it past in the negative. It 
was likewise put to the vote whetler any Merchant or other unlycenced 
person shall sell any quantity of Rum or Brandy less than a pint and it 
past in the negative ; and it was ordered that if any Merch' or other un- 
lycenced person shall sdl a less quantity than a Pint of the said Liquors 
that these such persons so offending shall forfeit Ten Shillings for every 
such Lesser quantity so sold the one half to the Buigesse and the other 
half to the informer. It was also ordered by the s'' meeting that no 
person shall ride or gallop during the fair lime betwixt the market 
house and the water side whereas there hath been an order of the Town 
meeting made that no person shall Cumber the streets with any timber, 
wood, stone or other Lumberexcejit materials for immediate building or 
fencing; It is further ordered that such persons as shall offend herein 
by incumbering the streets with such things before prohibited shall 
forfeit upon every Infoimation given upon several and distinct days, 
three shillings. 

"It was ordered by a Town meeting that n Pound should be built for 
the use of the Town, and for to defray the Charges of building thereof 
money shall be Levyed in this wise (viz.) each man shall pay a penny 
for each sheep, sixpence for each beast, and sixpence for each hoi'se that 
he hath." 

"At a town meeting held June 18, 1C9C, the Burgesse was ... re- 
quested to miikc appliCHiion to Daniel Leeds aulS to get the Map of the 
Island and the Town for the use of the Town, and belter information of 
all the Inhabitants touching the bounds of thtir Lands and Lulls." 

"By a Town meeting held December the 29th, 1C97, it was then put to 
the vote whether all persons having houses and Lots fronting high street 
from the river side untutliemaiket house in Burlington shall be obliged 
to repair and make fit for walking the street opjx^site to their respective 
lots and houses on both sides the said street to the distance of ten feet 
to the streetward and also Defend and gard the same by selling np posts 
and rails along by the said repaiied spaces and also keep in good order 
the same from time to time and that the said work be done and finished 
within three months next Cjming and that every person that doth not 
perform accordingly as aforesaid shall forfeit five pounds for every three 
months the same is unfinished afier the Expiration of the B.iyd three 
months next coming and it past in the affirmative." 

"By a Town moeliiig held by the Burgesse and Inhabitants of the 
Town of Rurliugton August the 15th, 1 098, be it enacted by the said Bur- 
gesse and Iiihabitaiits convened as aforesaid and is Enacted by the .\u- 
thority of the same that all and every Negroe that after the Publication 
hereof shall be found wandeiing alHiut within the Limits of the sayd 
Town on fi ret days during the Time of Keligic us meetings and not at- 
tending upon any such meeting or abiding at their respective homes 
or quarters, Shall be ])ut in llie stocks and there continue till tlie said 
meetings are over and that all and every negro or negroes that on first 
day niglits after sunset shall be found wandering about or absenting 
themselves from their respective homes or Quarters^ shall be jiut in the 
stocks there to continue all that Night and on the next day be wliipt at 
their master's Charge, and if it happen that the Master or Masters of 
such Negro or Negro's So oflending be not pie-ent or Resident in this 
Town then such Negro or Negro's to be kept in prison or otherwise in 
safe Custody till his or their M^ister or Pilasters, owner or owners shall 
fetch and redeem him or them by jiaying 2»-. C((. for « hijiping each Negro 
and other Incident charges. Provided always yt this Act shall not ex- 
tend to the punishing of any Negro or Negro's that on any of the sayd 
times and seasons shall be sent and Imployed by his or their Master or 
Masters upon their necessary business and occasions. 

" It was then Enacted by the said Burgesse & Inhabitants, and it is en- 
acted by the authority of the same, that no person or persons, who by 
reason of their poverty, impotency, or insufficiency may be suspected 
will be burdensome or Chargeable to the Town, shall be permitted to 
come and dwell in the same betwixt this and the first of April next, 
without the Consent of the Buige^so and his council. 

"It was likewise then ordered that th^Town wharf should be repaiied 
by sul)6criptions,and Ihat Samuel Fuinis and Matthew Champion shod 
take & gather the said snbscr:iition." 

October the' th, 1C9S, "The Freeholders and aclual Inhabitants of the 
Town of Burlington, hereafter named, being then Convened in the 
Court house of the s* Town. It was rejiresented unto them that John 
Ilollinsliead, who was Chosen Burgesse of the said Town for the Current 
■i'ear Did and still Doth dis iwn the present Governor and Government. 
Whereupon the s^ jiersons did unanimously resolve and Declare that the 
s^ John Hollinshead is by Law wholly disabled and unqualified to act 
any Longer in the said Station and Trust of a Burgesse. It was then put 
to the vote, whether they slionbl pjoceed to a new Election of a Burgesse 
to supply the vacancy occasior.ed l>y the said John Hollinshead's incapa- 
city, and it past in the Affirmative. Whereurnju they proceeded, and by 
plurality of voice did Elect &. Cliiise for the remaining part of the year 
(viz ) until the time appointed for the next new Election These Officers 
following : 

"Electors present, beside the offi- 
cers here named, 

John Tatham, Esq. 
Thomas Potts. 
Peter Rasnier. 
Nath' Douglass. 
Daniel Sutton. 
Joseph White. 
John Ogbor. 
Thomas Clarke. 
James Verrier. 
Samuel Smith." 

Thomas Bibb, Burgesse. 

John Meredith, Recorder. 

Edw'd Hunloke, Treasurer. 

Thomas Revell, 'j 

Joseph Adams, ^Co:men. 

Robert Wheeler,) 
" All which s'' officers were sworn 
or attested to Serve in their respec- 
tive offices by John Talhani, Esq', 
and President of y Governor's 



" \Vlieren8 the former luwn Act for tlie Reg^ilating 4 ordering of 
Fences betwixt neighbour anj Neiglilionr is not Comprt-hensive enough 
to describe unJ Uenionstrale the just intentions tliereof for the better 
Bupply and furtlier Explanation of the deficiency thereof, Be it Enacted 
by the Town Sleeting tliis Day, that all and every person and persons 
using and occupying Lotts of Land within the Town of Burlington, 
Bhnll in all and every of the fences that they joy n upon each other be at 
Equal Charge (hereof, and if any piM-gon shall have fenc'd in liis own 
Lott and done that part which liis joyniiig Neighbor should have done, 
and that Neighbor refuses to do his part ajid lets his Lot lye vacant and 
unoccupied for a Time. Yet it is hereby pi-ovided it enactid that every 
Buch person or jiersons that Let \iU or their Lot or Lotis Lye unoccupied 
and his outside fences not made for some time. Yet when such person or 
pei-Rons shall make up llieir outside fences and wcupy their Lotts, that 
then the occupier anit possessor shall pay to every of the persons they 
joy n with, the \alne of the one half of the said partition fences as y« 
same shall be estimated at that time by two men chosen by the Town 
meeting Yearly and every Year, and if any person shall refuse to pay his 
jiroportion of fencing as is before diiected according to the estimation of 
such two men so Chosen as above, by just Comp'aint made to the Bur- 
gesse of this town that then the said Burgesse shall by his precept to the 
Constable or Constables of the Town of Burlington Levy the respective 
proporliiinable sum of money so esiimated as above upon the Goods and 
Chattels of every possessor and occujiier so neglecting or refusing as is 
before rented by making DistrebS and Sale of such offenders" Goods and 
Cliattels. Also that where any jierson hath joyned with his neighbour 
to make Partition fence between his and bis Neighbour's Lott that in 
Oise he be minded at any time to let his Lot lie, that then he shall let 
his said part of the Partition fence stand for the security of his Neigh- 
bor's adjoining Lott. Past tlieS'f' of May, 1C99, and Thomas Haperand 
Samuel Furnis were appointed liy the then Town meeting to view and 
. ajipraise the sayd partition fences." 

'• By a Tow n meeting held the 'li^ day of November, 1099, Called and 
Convened upon theoccasion of Thonnis Bibby'Bnigesse of the Town of 
Burlington his removal out of the Province iu Order to Elect a New 
Burgesse to Siipidy the Vacancy thereupon following for the Remaining 
part of the Year; There was Chosen by the Majority of votes of the Free- 
holders and Actual Inhabitants of the said Town p'sent Abraham Buck- 
ley, BurgoRse." 

" Burlington the 19 of the 11"" m<> 170| At the Town meeting held 
at the Town house and thence adjourned to Henry Grabbs, and then by 
Majority ol votes that the Town Tax sliould be levyed and paid over 
again for the lelief of the Poor at present. And it is further ordered by 
the said Town meeting That Thomas Gardiner, Samuel Furnis, W™ 
Bustill, and George Willis are appointed to be and api)ear at the Court 
of Quarter S^■^sions of the said Town by themsehes or ly Council to ne- 
gotiate theaffuiis between the s* Town and \Vn> Fisher Concerning the 
maintenance of John Henry and tlie s"* town »t b^ meeting do further 
agree and pioniije to diliay the whole thaiges in y« same proportion- 
able accoiding as every man is Bated to the Poor."' 

" At a Town meeting at Burlington the filth of May, 1705, It's agreed 
by the majority <if the votes That a Bate be layd, and half so much as 
the late rate was for the poor.and for Defraying of the Charges accruing 
or that have accrued on the poors account, itt also agreed at said meet- 
ing that John Willis and Thomas Wetherell be and are Chosen overseers 
of the bignwnys, and Wm. Bustil and Nathaniel Pope overseers of the 
poor for the present year. It's mutually agreed at said meeting Bernard 
Lane givngina [laper not being satisfactory to said meeting. It's further 
agreed at said meeting that Thomas Revell, Robert Wheeler, Thomas 
Gardiner, William Bustill, Daniel Smith, Thomas Scatlergood, and Peter 
Folwell be chosen and ap])ointed by the Town to Lett and Sett out the 
Bridges and Causeways, to be put into repair a.s they were at the Lett- 
ing & according to the fiist Bargain, and also to deal or Call to account 
Bernard Lane in behalf of the Town about the sd Bridges for his de- 
ficiency about repaiiing the same as Lett to him to do, and to give acco' 
to the s'^ meeting. And it's further agreed at the s"* meeting that a Rate 
be made again for the charges thereof according to the agreeiii' made 
with Bernard Lane and Nathaniel Crijips." 

" At at Town meeting held at The Town liouse in Burlington the 2lBt 
of September, 17()5, It was agreed by the s* meeting for Chueing AKSes- 
gors for the Count of y« Prison, and were Chosen George Willi", Isaac 
JIarriol, Saniuil Furnis, and Thomas Scatlergood and Nathan Allen 
Hud Stei)hen Smith were chosen collectors. 

" Application was then made to s^ meeting for leave for stopping out 
tho Tide at Yorkshire biidge, to which the meeting Consented with a 
proviso that the b* work do not put the Town to mare Charge than they 
have usually had at that Bii.lge & Causeway. 

"At our Town meeting held at the Town house y« 22d of 11''' M». 170? 
It was mutually agreed at B'' meeting by majority of votes for Surveyors 
of the Highways Richaid Francis and Samuel Terret Chosen. 

"It's ordered at s^ meeting that an Aasessinent be laid for the poor 
and defraying other charges according to the Rate uiade in Henry 
Grubb's Time. It's also agreed and ordered at said meeting, that all the 
Inhabitants of the Town, y« bounds thereof be summoned to come and 
work at the High ways with their Teames and other hands us the law- 

" Pursuant to an Act for Raising of money for Building and Repair- 
ing of Gaols and Court Houses within each respective County of this 
Pi evince and to Repeal the Act past for that purpose In the Year One 
Thousand Seven bundled Si niue. This ninth day of March, 1713, At a 
Town meeting held here this Day at Burlington Court House Then and 
there was two Assessors, viz., Thomas Wctherill, Eiiianiiel Smith. It is 
the agreement by this Town meeting held this ninth Day of March, 
171.'), That the Cryer then Chosen to do the Town's business shall have 
the Privilege to set up all Stalls used hy Foreigners at Fairs in the 
Place Agreed on by this Town meeting, and that the Town Clerk shall 
be free trom all Duties belonging to the Highways." 

" Burlington y« Uth of the first month Called March, 171|. By Majoi- 
ity of votes at this Tow n meeting it was agreed that the Fairs should 
be kept on tlie Gieeu near the Court House where it was formerly set- 
tled and kept by Act of Assembly in the Proprietor's Government." 

"At a Town meeting liolden at the Court House iu Burlington the 
nineteenth day of July, Anno Domini 1718 ordered that Peter FretwiU 
Richard Wright George Willis Isaac Pearson James Thompson Isaac 
De Cow Thos. Hunloke and Francis and are hereby appointed 
Trustees to Let out or Farm the Highways to such as they can find will 
undertake the same and do agree with whom upon y best Terms and 
make report of their proceedings therein to the next Town meeting." 

"Burlington February 33rd, 1722. ... It is agreed by sd Town meet- 
ing to Lett unto Jacob Doughty to build a pound for the use of the Town 
and that he take and receive the profit of it for fourteen years and to 
leave the said pound at the Expiration of said Town in a good and suf- 
ficient fence for a lawful pound. . . . It's likewise agreed by ^aid tow n 
meeting to allow unto Jonathan Wright, Thomas Scott, Peter Rose 
Hugh McEutchec and Isaac Antrum to assist him in repairing & main- 
taining the Causeway at Yorkshire Bridge, and that Aliraliam Bickley 
and Matthew Champion be appointed to get ye old Bell belonging to the 
Town towards getting anew cast for the use of the said town and make a 
report of tlicir proceedings to the next Town meeting." 

" March 8th, 172^ 'Tis thought proper and most Convenient since the 
two Town meetings are so near one the other for choosing the several 
officers yearly That the said meeting in Febniary be dropt and that tho 
second Tuesday in March be herealter observed as one day for Chu»ing 
all officers iu General, and that is by consent and agreement of this 
Town meeting to be and stand instead of two days as before was accus- 

"March 12, 172f. On a Debate about a Couple of Constables Staves 
for the use of the Constables of Burlington, Resolved by the Town 
j meeting that a Couple of staves l^e provided at the Charge ot the pub- 
lick, and delivered by the Constables going out of their office to their 
! successors, and to remain successively to the set vice of the Town." 
I "March lllh, 1728. On motion for a Bell for the Towns u^^e, upon 
which a liell being produced was purchased by voluntary subscriptions 
j and paid down, which tell was then Delivered to the Cryer and to be 
I accountable to the Town lor the same and Deliver the sjime when dis- 
j missed of his office." 

"At a Town meeting by virtueof a warrant from Twoof his Majestys 
j Justices of the Peace for the County of Bulington. Present Sam' 
Bnslill, Abr. Heulings, Esq', Justices and sundry others Freeholders & 
[ Inhabitants being met A Petition to the Ilonble House of Representa- 
. tives for y Province of New Jersey biing drawn up & openly read Set- 
ting forth the grievances <t Imposilions wliii.h the inhabitants of Bur- 
lington for several years past have laboured under by the overruling 
power of the Country Assessors being nine assessors for y« county ag'< 
the Town's ass' at the aportioning the Quota's in y" Provincial Taxes 
which petition was signed &.c:' 

"September 30lh, 17.KI And foMho better keeping the Peace 

and punishing such as Sabbath breakers Riders & such like disordeily 
doings a proposal being made for a pair of stocks to be erec ted by sub- 
scription and jiast in the affirmative. And a small memoranda being 
then drawn up was subscribed unto <ic., in order for their Concur- 

"Burlington, February the 28tli, 17IJ. At our Town meeting held 
on this day by an agreement of the luhabitants of said Town at a Town 



meeting lielJ here on the first day of March liiBt, Tlmt the Inhabitnnts 
of siiid Town bliould meet jenrly ami every year at the Court House iu 
Biirliiiptoii to Choose Constables, overneer of the r>oor and other officers 
necesfsary on thi' Last Saturday in February only." 

" Burlington, August Cth, nil. At a Town meeting holden here this 
day by vertne of a warr' from Ihiee Justices of the Peace for the County 
of Burlington Quorum uuus to summons said Town in onler to settle 
and ascertain the species now to pass Current Did tlien and there agree 
by plurality, That Gold do pass in all publick payments ot 5;C the 
pennyweight and a grain at 2'^%, and that silver psiss according to the 
Late Queeu Anne's procliiuiation. That Dollars pass at Sshill. according 
to proclamaticn money and that English Copper half pence shall go fur 
pence apiece proclamation money Present Jacob Doughty, Judge Hugh 
Sharp John Alhn Esq" Justices with sundry others Krecholdeis aud 
Inhabitants of said Town at the above order & agreement." 

"March llth, 17;i/5- The pound not being built according to 
Bgreem'in a former Town meeting, its now Resolved that Christopher 
AVetherill Thomas Smith A Joliii Carline do erect <St build the Bame 
forthwith at or near where a jiouiid formerly stood in Broad street near 
tlie House Late Henry Clothier, the fi poimd to be Thirty foot square of 
good & sound stnfT and not under six foot high & the 8'^ undertakers 
bring in their accounts to the ne.xt Town meeting." 

"March 12, ITJO. It is agreed by this town meeting that a New 
bound Book in folio of four Quires of pajier or thereabouts lie provided 
at the publick Clmrge In order to traiibcrilie and liecord All the Pro- 
ceedings that Can be collected out of the former Entries & minutes from 
time to time heretofore made in Town meetings, and that Jos. Scatter- 
good, E«(i', and Mi'. Jo>hna Haper are by this town meeting appointed 
to inspect and Examine the same and to agree with the Town Clk for 
Transcribing and Kecordiiig the Sitid Proceedings fair in s* Bound 

"At a Town meeting held for said City on the 20th day of March 
Anno Dom 1756, puisuant to Advertiscm'. Present, Tho» Scntterg.xid, 
James Sniitli, Iln^h Hartshorne, Eaii" Justices of the Peace of s'^ City 
with sundry others the Frerholders & Inhabitants of said City being 
met proceeded on the matter projwsed on y 'J^^ instant, viz., the erecting 
or building a nnniber of wooden Stalls for the benefit of the City aforeo'^, 
and after Debate Agreed that the Ground be let for the purpose afores*. 
And it was further agreed and Resolved that forty such Stalls be built 
by such pi'rson or persons as the managers, namely, John Bacon, Jas. 
Smith, and Hugh Hartshorne shall agree with for doing thereof free and 
clear of any ex[iences to the town." 

"At a Town meeting held on Tuesday, the fifth of September, 1775, by 
order of the Mayor. Present, Tho' Powell, Recorder, Samuel How, Wil- 
liam Smith, Tho P. Hewliiigs, Alderman, With Several Other of the 
Freeholders and Inhabitants of Said City. And whereas great Damage 
has been Done to the Lower Market House in Said City by persons un- 
known either in the Ni;;ht of the 2'l or morning of the 3'' Instant, and 
a majority of the Inhabitants now met thinking it proper that a Reward 
Should be given to any Person who shall inform of the Perpetrator or 
Perpetrators of the above Fact. Agreed that Ten pounds be given to 
any persun so infoiming upon Conviction of the Offender or Offenders, 
and that said Ten Pounds be raised by a tax on the Inhabitants of this 
city. Dan'l Ei.1,18, Clk." 

At the annual town-meeting of 1709 it was " Resohed, That the Com- 
mittee procure at the expeuse of the Township a pair of And Irous, 
Shovel & tongs & Iron Cup or fender for the Stove, that they cause a 
sheet of Iron to be fixed on the flour befoie the Stove, and the inside o'. 
the Township Boom or City Hall to be painted." 

March 13, 1804. "The meeting taking into consideration the numer- 
ous inconvenience.* attending tlie distance between the present Gaol and 
Court House, and believing that the safety and convenience cf the public 
would be promoted by the Sale of the Gaol and Lot in the City of Bur- 
lington, and by an apinopriatiou of the funds thence arising to the erec- 
tion of a Gaol on the County property near the Court House, in Mount 
Holly, upon a scale adequate to the present purposes of the County ; 

" Jteto'tced, That the Chosen Freeholders of this Township be instructed 
to procure by all proper means the sale of the present Gaol and Lot 
(except such materials as may be useful in the erection of another), the 
funds thence arising to be approinlated with any further sum which may 
be found necessary to the building of a Gaol near the Court House, in 
Mount Holly, on the public property, upon such a scale as may appear 
to the Board of Chosen Freeholders competent to the safety and con- 
venience of the County." 

March 12, ISW. " JietoJieil, That the next annual Election for Town- 
Bhip officers shall be by BuUolt, and the names of the several persons to 

be voted for shall be returned to the Clerk of the Township, on the Sat- 
urday immediately preceding the day of election, whose duty it shall be 
to attend at the City Hall between the hours of three and five o'clock 
on said day, to receive the noiniiiations. An<l to put up one certified 
copy of the nominations so made at the City Hall, and three others in 
the most public places in the Township without delay." 

The Township Civil List.— The following civil 
list, embracing the names of the more important 
township officers, is as complete antd as nearly correct 
as the condition of the records warrant its being made. 
The listsof someof the minor officers are brought down 
only to 1800: 

Thomas Wetherell, 1718-19; George Willis, 1718-19; Abraham Buckley, 
1720-21 ; Richard Smith, 1720-24, 17:51 ; Isaac PeaiSiUi, 1722-2:!, 172.J 
-29, 17:59^1 ; Matthew Champion, 1724; Daniel Smith, Jr., 1725-29, 
17.;0; Abraham ilewling, 17:50, 17G3; William Bickley, 17:50, 1734- 
'35,1737-:58 ; Isaac Deacon, 1731 ; George Satf ertli waite, 17^2 ; Thomas 
Shreve, 17:52-^5; Simon Smith, 1733; Uleb Raper, 173G-38; Rich- 
ard Smith, Jr., 1739-41 ; John Reeves, 1742^4 ; Ralph Peart, 1742- 
4G ; George Eyres, 1745-47 ; IsaJic Connor, 1747 ; Jobhna Rai)cr, 1748- 
49; Joliu Deacon, 1748—19; Joseph Hollinshead, 1750-54; Abraham 
Schuyler, 1750-54, 17G1-C7; Thomas Scattergood, 1 7 5.5-17 GO ; Wil- 
liam Hewliiigs, 1755-GO, 17(.4-GG, 1708-C9, 1771-74 ; James Smith, 
17G1-C2, 1779; Daniel Ellis, 17GC, 17G8, 1783-85, 1788-90; John Hos- 
kins, 17G7; William Smith, 17C9; Samuel -How, 1770-79, 1781-82^ 
Thomas Rodman, 1775-78 ; Josiiih Haines, 1780-89; Thomas Rogers, 
Jr., 1780; Robert S. Jones, 17)-G-87 ; Joseph Smith, 1790-94 ; Andrew 
Ci-aig, 1791; Thomas M. Gardner, 1792; Joseph M. Wallace, 1793-97; 
William Cox, Jr., 1795-98 ; Al.ialiani Stockton, 1798, 181 1-18 , Joseph 
Bloonifield, 1799; Samuel J. Smith, 1800, lSu2; Charles Ellis, 1600-21 ; 
John Fowler, 1801 ; John Hoskins, Jr., 1803^; Amos Hiitchius, 1805 
-10; John Larzelere, 1810-25, 18:50, 1845-4G ; Geoige Deacon, 1822 ; 
Budd Sterling, 1821-25; Caleb Gaskill, 182G-28, 1833-3G; .Michael 
Hays, 1826-27 ; Thomas Hancock, 1828, 1831-37 ; John Sargent, 1828 ; 
Thomas Wetherell, Jr., lS2!t-:il, 1837; Chiistian Larzaleie, 1832; 
William R. Allen, 18.58-42, 1K51 ; John C. Deacon, 1838-40, 1842-43, 
185C, 1858-GO ; William R. Deacon, 1845-44 ; Henry C. Deacon, 1844 ; 
Benjamin Deacon, 184:-iS ; George W. Dobbins, 1847-49; John D. 
Bulling, 1849; Charles Liiijiincott, 185C ; Stacy Dobbins, 1850 ; Archi- 
bald W. Burns, 1852-ii4 ; Thomas Hancock, Jr., 1855 ; Jonathan W. 
Nevins, 1857; Joseph P. Deacon, 18C1 ; Abraham B. Kelley,]8G2; 
Abel N. Troth, 1SG3-G4; E. Budd Marter, 18G5-70 ; Caleb G. Ridg- 
way, 1871-73; Elwood Ri^gs, 1874-75; Stacy H. Ecolt, 187G, 1879- 
82; N. W. C. Hays, 1877-78. 

James Hill, 1C94; John Meredith, 1695-99; Abraham Bickley, 1700; 
John Ogljorn, 17ol; Peter Folwell, 1702 ; Benjamin Wheat, 1703; 
Garvas Hall, 1715-22 ; Rowland Ellis, 1723-62 ; Daniel Ellis, 17g:5- 
79, 1782-91; Jonathan Gruniage, 1780; Abraham Gardner, 1792, 
1795-97, Isjiac Neale, 1793-94; George Swetman, 1798; William 
Woolman, 1709, lS(Ki-2; Robert Pidgeou, 180! ; Stephen C. L'stick, 
1804-20; Amos Hutchins, 1821-33; Joseph L. Wright, 1834 ; Joseph 
L. Powell, 1835-37 ; James W. Griffith, 1838-39 ; James Watts, 1840- 
42; Robert Patterson, 1843^4; Charles Hand, 1845-47 ; Alexander 
A. l.Arz«lere, 1848 ; FiBiiklin Woolman, 1849; Alfred A. Deacon, 
1850; Charles P. Smith, 1851-54 ; William E. Thomas, 1855; Isaac 
D. Eyre, 185G; William F. Smith, 1857; Charles C. Myers, 1858, 
18G0-61; Lewis E. Lippincctt, 1859; Henry B. Good, 1862; J. R. 
Lippincott, 1803-05; Sjimuel Phillips, 18GC, 18G8; Robert N. Fort, 
J8G8-G9; William H. Torr, 1870-72; William II. Antrim, 1873; 
George W. Watts, 1874-76; William W. Slack, 1877-78 ; Addis Hays, 
1879; M. A. Gardner, 1880; J. Frank Budd, 1881-82. 

liichard Wright, 1719-22; Thomas Scattergood, 1723-25, 1728, 1745; 
Isaac Pearson, 1726 ; Rowland Ellir<, 1727, 1729-30 ; lU.bert Smith, 
1731-34; William Bickley, 1735-36; Samuel Scattergood, 1737-44; 
Joseph Scattergood, 174C; Daniel Bacon, 1747 ; Hugh Hartshorne, 
1748,1756-58; B. Bui rd, 17.50; George Eyre, 1751-60; Daniel Ellis, 
1761-76,1784; Samuel Eyre, 1777-78; Thomas Powell, 1779; Richard 
Smith, 1780; Amos Hutchins, 1780; John Rodman, 1782 ; Thomas 
M. Gardner, 1783, 1785-89, 1791-02, 1805 ; John How, 1790 ; Thomas 



Adiims, 1703-94,1797-1804, 1815-19; AbrahHm Gardner, 1705-90; 
Thomas Neal, 1800-14 ; .Tames H. Hewlings, 1820-21 ; Burr Wool- 
man, 1822-31 ; Joseph L. Powell, 1832-33 ; Amos W. Archer, 1834- 
37, 1842; Joseph P. Deacou, 1838-40; William F. Smith, 1841, 1844, 
1840-47, 1850-52, 1859; Joseph W. Griffith, 1843, 1845; Stacy Dob- 
bins, 1848-49; Chauncey T. Booth, 1853-54,1867-68; Charles P. Fort, 
1855-50, 1800; Edward G. Keegan, 1861 ; Hamilton McDowell, 1802; 
Elward EIgg, 18C3, 18C5 ; James Watts, 1805, 1871-73 ; Charles Al- 
cott, 1800-09; S. B. K. Coles, 1870; George Rigg, 1874-75; Charles 
T. Parker, 1870-78; Samuel E. Lippincott, 1879 ; William C. Farmer, 
1880; Joseph L. Wright, 1881; Daniel F. Hammell, 1882. 


Abraham Bickley, 1700; Rich.ird Smith, 1700, 1719 ; Jonathan Wright, 
17J0; Daniel Smith, Jr., 1721 ; George Willis, 1722; Caleb Kaper, 
1723-21; Francis Smith, 1725, 1731; Samuel Scnttergood, 1720-27, 
1729-30; Robert Smith, 1728: Samuel Lovet, 1732-37 ; Joshua Rapor, 
1738-41 ; Joseph Allinson, 1742^4 ; William Scattergood, 17-15: Wil- 
liam Hewlings, 1740, 1747; Abraham Hewlings, 1748; Horace 
AVright, 1750; Juhn Bacon, 1751-52; Samuel How, 1763; Thomas 
Wetlieiill, Jr, 1754; John Hawkins,' 1755; Jonathan Grist, 1750; 
John Taylor, 1757; Christopher W.therill, 1758-69,1708-09; John 
Carter, 1700; Levi Merrill, 1701-07; John Hendry, 1770; Thomas 
Pryor, 1771; Daniel Bacon, 1772-74; John Barker, 1775; Joseph 
Wetlierill, 177C; Isa.ic Collins, 1777; Josiah Haines, 1778-79; Amos 
Hutchins, 1780; James Craft, 1781 ; Thomas Gardner, 1782; John 
Estlow, 1782, 1785-87, 1800; John Rodman, 1784 ; George Painter, 
17S8-S9, 1793; George Hewlings, 1790-91; Israel Tomkins, 1792; 
William Lowdon, 1794-97; Micajah Ellis, 1798-99 ; John Hoskins, 
Jr., 1801, 1800-14 ; William Woolman, 1802-5; Christian Larzalere, 
1816-31; Samuel Rogers, 1832; Samuel Stockton, 1833; Joseph P. 
Deacon, 1834-37 ; James Sterling, 1838, 1808-70 ; William R. Deacon, 
1839 ; James W. Lippincott, 1840-42 ; Lewis C. Leeds, 1843-44 ; Joel 
R. Rakestraw, 1847-48, 1873-75; Henry Lowden, 1849; James P. 
Lowden, 1850-51; Samuel Estlow, 1852; John Gibroson, 1853-50; 
John F. Smith, 18.")7-59; Charles U. Willits, 1800-Cl ; William Lar- 
zelere, ltG2; William S. Coleman, 1803-64 ; Daniel P. Naylor, 1805; 
Charl«!5 Etienger, 1800-07; B. M. Voorliees, 1871-72; George Rigg, 
1870-78; Albert H. Silpath, 1879-82. 


Jonathan West, 1095; Josiah Pricket, 1095; William Bustill, 1699; 
Samuel Gibson, 1699; John Broadail, 1708; Samuel Smith, 1708; 
Joshua Tomkins, 1715; Robert SUrk,1715; William Cutler, 1710- 
17; Solomon Smith, KlO-17 ; Jonathan Wright, 1718-19; James 
Verrec, 1718-19 ; George Willis, 1720; I?a.ic Pearson, 1720: Henry 
Clothier, 1721; Isaiic Williams, 1721; Daniel Smith, 1722; John 
Dummer, 1723; Joshua Ilaper, 1723; Joseph Welsh, 1723; Peter 
Rose, 1T23; George Satterthwaile, 1726; Robert Smith, 1720; Joseph 
Hewllng, 1727 ; Silas Crespin, 1727 ; Samuel Scattergood, 1728, 1731 ; 
Ralph Peart, 1728; Robert Tuckney, 1729; William Snowden, 1729; 
John Gilbert, 1730; William Lyndon, 1730; Joshua Barker, 1731 ; 
Peter Bishop, 1732; N. Lovet, 1732; Micajah How, 1733; Isaac 
Conarro, 1733; John Roberts, 1779-SO ; Joseph Barber, 1779; Samuel 
Stiles, 1780, 1783; John Gallagher, 1781 ; Thomas Rogers, Jr., 1781, 
1783; John Blackwall, 1781; Abbett Williams, 1782 ; Aaron Schuy- 
ler, 1772 ; Benjamin Clark, 1784 ; John Wood, 1784 ; George Smith, 
1785, 1793; John Smith, 1785, 1793; Samuel Allen, 1786; Jacob 
Myers,1780; William Hutchins, 1760; Robert Grunble, 1780 ; Josejih 
Scott, 1787, 1794; Abraham Scott, 1788; Daniel Steverson, 17s9; 
John S. Rogers, 1790 ; Josej/h Autham, 1791; Joseph Richardson, 
1791; Samu.l Rogers, 1794, 1821-28 ; William Cowpeithwait, 1795- 
90; John Stockton. 1795-96; Samuel Lowden, 1790, 1798-1800-3; 
George Smith, 1798; Gabriel Stevens, 1709-1801 ; William Lowden, 
1802-3; John Collins, 1802; Joseph Holliushead, 1804 ; Jacob Mon- 
inglon, 1804-6; M. Pool, 1800-7; Christian Lowden, 1807-8; Samuel 
Howell, 1808-12; Samuel Nailor, 1813; Abraham F. Lusberry, 1814 
-10; William Erwin, 1815-20; Jonathan Deacon, 1829; Moses Lar- 
zelere, 1830-31 ; Daniel Williams, 1832; Barzillia Deacon, 1833; Isaac 
Hancock, 1834-30 ; Lewis C. Leeds, 1837 ; Samuel II. Burr, 1838-41 ; 
Henry Lowden, 1842 ; John R. Tomkins, 1843 ; 'Joel R. Rakestraw, 
1844-40; Robert T. Willits, 1847-49; Richard Hillier, 1850-51; Paul 
Early, 1852-58; John Gibroson, 1859-00; Levi Kimble, 1801-02; 
John B. Haines, 1803 ; Robert S. Kimble, 1804-08 ; E. C. English, 
1809-75; George M. Shislcr, 1870-80; Peter L. Vandergrift, 1681-82. 

John Keal, 1801-3; Amos Hutchinson, 1801-11 ; cniarles Ellis, 1801-23 ; 
Abraham Stockton, 1801-18; John Folwell, 1801-10; George Painter, 
1S04-7; Samuel J. Smith, 1808-9; Thomas Brown, 1810-18; Joseph 
Potts, 1812; Burr Woolman, 1812, 1814-19; George Allen, 1818-19; 
Stephen Morris, 1819, 1821-22 ; John Larzelere, 1819, 1821-22 ; John 
Wilson, 1820; Samuel Stockton, 1820-25 ; Samuel J. Wright, 1820 ; 
William English, 1820-27 ; John H. Fenimore, 1823-26; John C. 
Deacon, 1823-30, 1833-37; Thomas Deacon, 1820-29; John Fort, 
1827 ; Thomas B. Woolman, 1828 ; James Smith, 1828 ; John Rogers, 
1829-30; Samuel J. Smith, 1829-32, 1S34 ; Benjamin D. Hancock, 
1829; Joseph .Johnson, 1830-31 ;Budd Sterling, 1830,1832; Caleb Gas- 
kill,1832 ; Cbristiaa Larzelere, 1832-.3C ; Amor W. Archer, 1833,1838- 
42 ; Samuel R. Gummere, 183:5, 1834 ; William Master, 1S32-35, 1838- 
43, 1847, 1849; John Mitchell, 1836-37 ; Charles Ellis, 1830-38 ; 
Wesley Horner, 1837 ; James Sterling, 1837; Henry Spackins, 1838- 
39; Isaac P.Rodman, 1838-39; George Gaskill, 18.30; Israel Van- 
horn, 1840-41 ; John D. BuHing, 1840-43; James P Lowden, 1840- 
42; Joseph P. Deacou, 1841 ; John Shedaker, 1842-43, 1S45-4G, 1849, 
1873; Franklin Woolnjan, 1843, 1845; .loseidi Johnson, 1843-44, 
1848, 1850; James H. Steriing, 1844; Michaal Hays, 1844, 1848; 
Thomas Wetherill, 1844; George Deacon, 1844; Henry C. Deacon, 
1845, 1850; William H. Lloyd, 1845-47, 1849, 1803-04 ; John C. Dea- 
con, 1840, 1850; William W. Miller, 1840-47; Henry Griscom, 1S47 ; 
Edward Dugdale, 1847 ; John Rogers, 1848; A. L. Shinn, 1848-50; 
John Johnson, 1848, 1860; Jacob Laumai^tei-, 1849, 1865; Lewis C. 
Leeds, 1850, 1858, 1869; Alexander P. Wetherill, 1851-54; Henry 
Lowden, 1861, 1800; John H. Taylor, 1851-54; Elwood Conner, 
1852-60, 1800; John D. Bulling, 1865; James Watts, 185G ; William 
R. Shedaker, 1857-38; Stjicy Hays, 1857; George W. Meyers, 1857; 
Robert A. Updike, 1858-61 ; Stacy C. Scott, 1800, 1800-01 ; Lewis T. 
Price, 1861 ; Samu(4 W. Johnson, 1802; John Larzelere, 1802 ; Wil- 
liam Atkinson, 1802; Samuel E. Hancock, 180.;-05 ; Caleb F. Hen- 
drickson, 1803-64; Ellis R.Oliver, 1805-70, 1874--75, 1877; Joseph 
W. Tallman, 1865, 1807 ; Pearson Rodman, 18(iO-OS ; James P. Dea- 
con, 1808-09: Henry Cooper, 1808-70; N. W. Sooy, 1870-72; N. W. 
C. Hays, 1871-73, 1870, 1878; John L. Dearon, 1871-73, 1878 ; A. N. 
Troth, 1874-75; George Gilbert, 1874-75,1877; Nelson P. Creeley, 
1870, 1878; Hamilton Hill, 1870; George W. Watl>, lb77-80; Alfred 
C. Smitli, 1878; Philip Silpath, Jr , 1879-80; RIdgway Hancock, 
1878-82; Henry K. Hays, 1881-82 ; Elwood Conner, 1881 ; Aaron 
E, Kimble, 1882. 


Christopher Wethei ill, 1695 ; Thomas Raper, 1095 ; Josejili Smith, 1099 ; 
Lawrence Moses, 1099; George Willis, \lw, 1724; Thninas Scatter- 
good, 1700; Solomon Smitli,1716; Jonathan Wright, 1715; Richard 
Wright, 1710-17; Edward Smith, 1716-17; Caleb Rap.r, 1718-19; 
Thomas Thomson, 1718-20; Henry Clothier, 1720, 1729; Thomas 
Humolke, 1721 ; Benjamin Kimble, 1721; James Verree, 1722 ; AUra- 
hain Bickley, 1723; Richard Smith, 1723 ; Thomas S. Shreve, 1724-2.6, 
1730; Thomas Wetherill, 1725; Robert Slack, 1720; Daniel Smith, 
1726; William Collins, 1727 ; Silas, 1727, 1729; James Wel^h, 
1728; George Satterthwaite, 1728; Solomon Smith, 1730; Simon 
Nightingale, 1731; Joseph White, 1731; Edward B. Price, 1732; 
Joshua Baper, 1732 ; Jonathan Wright, 1733; Richard Smith, Sr., 
1733; Jonathan Tliomas, 1749; John TrajMiell, 1749; William T. 
Keeli-B, 1760-62; John Hartshorn, 1750-62; William Smith, 1753- 
64; Joseph Pearson, 1753-64; William Hewlings, 1764; Daniel 
Smith, Jr., 1764; James Smith, 17;>4: Henry Scott, 1754; Thomas 
W. Merrill, 1704; Levi Merrill, 1704; John Rodman, 1779; William 
Hewlings, Jr., 1779-80; Samuel Wetherill, 1780; Thomas Neale, 
1780, 1783-85, 1800; Amos Hutchins, 1782; Thomas Rogers, Jr., 
1782; William Deacon, 1783; John Rogers, 1784-85; Abraham 
Stockton, 1787, 1797; I^aac Wetherill, 1787; Z.Armstrong, 1788; 
Joseph Richardson, 1789; Elwood Collins, 1790-91; Samuil Allen, 
1790-91; Thomas Stewart, 17;U; Thomas Smith, 1705-90; Joseph 
Sprague, 1798 ; William Lowden, 1798 ; John Antrim, 1798 ; John 
Estlow, 1800. 


John Allen, 1712, 1720 ; Samuel Marriot, 1715 ; Thomas Middlcton, 1715 ; 
Caleb Raper. 1710-17, 1728; Thomas Shreve, 1710-17, 1732; Richard 
Smith, 1718-19; Thomas Wetherill, 1720; Abraham Bickley, 182l>- 
22; Matthew Champion, 1721-22 ; Isaac Williams, 1723-24; Henry 
Clothier, 1723-24, 1729; William Cutter, 1725 ; Joshua Raper, 1725; 
Robert Slack, 1720; Daniel Smith. Sr., 1720 ; William Collins, 1727; 



Jonatlinn Wrighi,1727; Samuel Lovet,1728; William Cutter, 17-29; 
JamcsSiiiitli, 17:!0; Ralpli Peart, 1730; Joseph Rockliill, 173G; Ed- 
ward riiTco, 1731 ; SoluuiDii Smith, 1732; William Snow don, 1733- 
34; lioberl Smith, 1781; Andrew Cniige, 1781, 1784-85 ; Isaac With- 
erill, 1783; Al.rahani Stockton, 1783-85; John Nealo, 1780; Sanuiel 
Kogers, 178C; Williim Cooper, 17S7-S8; Abbott Williams, 1787 ; John 
Kftlu", 1788-80, 17'J1. 18tK); William Smitli, 178'.>-9i) ; Israel Tom- 
kins, 1790; Micajab KIlis, 1791-93, 1798-99 ; Thomas Stewart, 1792; 
John llosUiiis, Jr. ; 1792, 1801 ; Thomas M. Gardiner, 1792-93 ; John 
Stockton, 1791; Ileury Burr, 1795-9C; John Craft, 1797; Thomas 
Neule, 1798-1800. 

■William B. Price, 1854; James Aaronson, 1854 ; Joseph L. Powell, 1855, 
ISGU; Robert I'ittnian, 1855; Samuel W. Earl, 1855, 18C0 ; John D. 
Burling, 1855; Josiiih Bartlett, 1855; William E. Boulton, 1850, 
18G0; John M. Brown, 1850, 18G0 ; Robert T. Willits, 18GU; David 
V. Lnkens, 1801 ; Joel K. James, 18C2 ; I. KingdoD, 18G3, 18G5; S. 
B. K. Coles, 1^05 ; Joseph L. Powell, 1870; Samuel D. Naylor, 187(1; 
Geoigo Ri^rg, 1870, 1880; James O'Neal, 1870; Jediah Tajlor, 1870; 
Warden S Stiles, 1874, 1882; Daniel P. Nii^lor, 1880; Joseph L. 
AV right, 1860; Franklin Hancock, 1880; Nelson B. Curle.v, 1880; B. 
B. Bunker, 1881; William S. Johnson, 1881; Chailcs T. Parker, 

Municipal Org-anization. — Burlington was first 
laid out as a town in 1677. Corporation privileges 
were granted to it in 1693, and in 1695 the corpora- 
tion was further regulated by a supplementary act. 
The following record appears in the township minute- 
book under date 1733 : 

" Bi.RMNGTON, .lanuarv 15, 1733. — At aTown-meetinglieM at y Conrt- 
lioii»e By virtue of a warrant under the Hands and Seals of Three of 
His BIiij'." Justices of (he Peace for the county of Burlington {Quorum 
u«i(«) setting forth the necessity of some further Rules A' ordinances for 
y better Government and regulation of the said Town, &c. But more 
particularly to Address His Excelli?, the Govcrnour of this Province of 
New Jersey, Ac, acknow edging his kind and generous offer to restore 
uutoy town of Burlington its antient Bights and Priviledfees in Grant- 
ing a Charier for Incorporating the said Town. The Inhabitant:^ being 
met and a rough draught or heads being brought & ordered to be reail, 
which was read accordingly, and the several grants & Liberties therein 
Cuntained were paragraphically read over again, and after Cons-idering 
and thorotighly weighing the same were unanimously agieed ui)i)n and 
Consented to. The old bounds of the s^ Town agreed u]>on to stand 
and to be the bounds and Limits of the City of Burlington u ithout anj- 
Extention, and jiersons were appointed to ascertain the said Bounds & 
Limits, and also the Committee that was ageed upon to draw up the 
heads and prepare the s"* Charter be appointed to Recoiucnd the same 
to His Excellency the Gov. for his ai)proliation and also to Return His 
ExccU'J the Hearty Thanks of this Tow n-meetiug for his favour to the 
Town iu the Premises." 

The following is a copy of the act of May 17, 1733, 
incorporating Burlington and defining its boundaries, 
as set forth in the records of Burlington township : 

" We have willed ordained and elected and by these Presents for us 
our heirs & successors. We do will ordain & Elect our taid Town of 
Burlington into a cily which saidcity shall extend the limitsand bounds 
BSthe said tow u is already laid out — that is to say — Beginning at the 
River Delaware at a Walnut Tree for a corner just below ye Bank, at 
the outside bounds and most westerly side of Doctor John Hodman's 
LaDd,aud runs from thence along by the side of said Rodman's Laud a 
South & by East course so far as said Rodman's land continues that 
course and then etill uiHin the same course Until it tall upon ;Mill 
Creek, and from thence it is bounded up by said Blill Creek until it 
comes to the Bridge railed Kimball Biidge, and from thence it extends 
from the said Bridge along a Lane and Lade out road ; which 6;iid Lane 
or road beats fioni the i-aid Bi idge about NorUi E isterly filteen degrees 
to the head of the said Lane where theie is a Gate fixed «S: where it piiKs 
on John Antrum's Land & from thence it extends on forward to the 
uutsidc bounds of Springfield Town Bjunds: Including within our 
boundaries Caleb Emerson's farm or plantation or ye major part of his 
Imi'rovcmeiits oud from thence along by Springfield toiiiid* according 

as their patent setts forth, until it falls upon Assissunk Creek, and then 
over the Creek and so on up the said creek the several courses thereof 
unto Jonathan Wright's Corner Tree at the Said Cieek, being a crooked 
Birch Tree for a corner, and from thence it extends a North & by West 
course until it falls upon Delaware River against a Chestnut Tree being 
for a corner v» ith several Letters and the date of the year, and a little 
to the Eastward of the Widow Pedgeou's Housij, and Red Cedar Tree 
being there also Diarked.and from thence it is bounded dowu the said 
River Delaware the several courses thereof to the coruor Tree first 

"The foregoing Bounds of this City — now the Township of Burling- 
ton — is truly extracted from — 'A Copy corrected and examined by Caleb 
Raper and Isaac De Cow' — of the oiiginal Letters Patent, Dated at the 
City of Perth Amboy the Seventh day of May, in the seventh year of 
the Reigu of King George the Second. 

"By Jamfs Batte.n, roirn Clerk. 

"June, 1823." 

CivU List, 1784-1851. 

Bowers Reed, 1785-94 ; Joseph Bloonifield, 17n5-l?0n; James Steiling, 
1801-C; William Coxe, 1807-13; Joseph Mclhaiiio, 181G-23: Wil- 
liam Griffith, 1824-20; John L. Han is, 1827-33, John Laizelere, 
1834-30; Samuel W. Eail. 1837-41; Williaui R. All.-u, 1S42-50. 

James Sterling, 1785-94 ; William P. Sprague, 178.V88; J.din Hondiy, 
1785-89; William Smith, 1789-1804 ; William G.xe, 1790-91 ; Fred- 
erick T. Kisselman, 1792-93; Thomas Adams, 1794-18J3; Andrew 
Craig, 1795-09; John Elton, 1801, 1803, 1805; Saim.el Feninioie, 
1805-7; Charles Ellis, ]8li7-15; George West, 1814-17; Georpo 
Allen, 1818-27; Joseph Milh-r, 1822-32; Chrisiian Lirzelere, 1824- 
28; Walton Wilson, 1S2S; William R. Allen, 1829, 1831; John Lar- 
zelere, 1829-30, 1843; Samuel R. Gumm-re, 1833-37, 1840: Samuel 
R. Wetherill, 1834-30, 1838-43; 'Joseph .Johnson, 18„7-*o, 18.50; 
Archibald W. Burns, 1841; Thomas Milnor, 1842-45, 1847; John 
Larzelere, Jr., 1844, 1848; Daniel Vansciver, 1848; Lawrence C. 
Wetherill, 1845, 1847; Thomas B. Woolman, 1848-49. 

"Mr. Stiles," 1785; "Mr. Schuyler," 1785; "Mr. Smith," 1785; "Mr. 
Mitchell," 1785 ; Joshua M. Wallace, 1785, 1788-.-9, 1797-98 ; " Mr. 
Jones," 1785; Thomas Rodman, 1780, 1790; John Neal, 1780-88, 
1791-1803, 1807; Abraham Hewling, 178G; Andrew Craig, 1780-87; 
Thompson Neal, 1780-87 ; William Cooper, 1780-87 ; Williatn Smith, 
1787-88,1791; Jacob Meyers, 1787; Rol^prt S. Jones, 1788-90; Wil- 
liam Norcross, 1788; Solomon Ridgway, 1788; Richard R. Smith, 
1789; John Elton, 1789, 1791-92, 1709-1800; John Ilollinsheal, 
1789, 1794; George Painter, 1789, 1795-90, 1800-1, 180G-7; Daniel 
Ellis, 1790, 1793-94; Daniel Bacon, Jr., 1700; Ellis Wright, 1790; 
James Craft, 1790; Micajah Ellis, 1701-92, 1795-1805 ; Thomas M. 
Gardiner, 1791-92, 179C; Joseph Mcllvaine, 1701-93; Fiedeiick 
Kisscluian, 1791 ; Tliomas Adau's, 1792-93; William Griffith, 170;- 
97; Isaac Neal, 1794; E. Hartshorne, 1794 ; Samu.-I L Smith, 1795; 
Daniel Smith, Jr., 1795; William Mcllvaine, 1790-97, 1709; Charles 
Ellis, 1797-1802, 18(.H-G, 1824-25, 1827-28, 1818; Thomas Smith, 
1798, 1801-4; Nathan Rockliill, 1798 ; Amos Hutch. ns, 1709-1811 ; 
William Coxe, 1800; Oakey Ho.iglaud, 1807; Abiaham Stockton, 
1807-12, 1814-15,1817; George West, 1808 ; George Aaronson, I8118 
-9; Stephen C. Uatick, 1809-10; James Sterling, 18U»-11, 1820, 1835 
-30, 1830; George Allen, 1810-10 ; John Hoskins, Jr., 1810-14, 1810- 
22, 1827-28; Henry Burr, 1811-15; Samuel Stockton, 1812-10, 1^22- 
20, 1834; Christian Larzelere, 1814-10, 1822-23, 1820, 1833, 1830; 
Burr Woolman, 1815-18, 1820; William Hayes, 1810; John Larze- 
lere, 1810; George Deacon, 1810, 1818, 1820-23, 1820, 1829-35, 1837, 
1839; Charles Ellis, 1817, 1810; John Wilson, 1818, 1820-21 ; Caleb 
Gaskill, 1818, 1823-25, 1827-29 ; John Deacon, 1818, 1830 ; Josejdi Mil- 
ler, 1818; James H. Hewling, 1819; Budd Sterling, 1819-23,1827-20 ; 
Stephen Morris, 1820-21; John H. Fenimore, 1821,1824-25; Peter 
Baiker,1822; Samuel Blynmore,1822 ; Thomas Fen more, 1823 ; Wil- 
liam R. Allen, 1824-25, 1827-28; John Birkey, 1824,1820; Robert 
Thomas, 1825 ; William H. Coperthwaite, ISiG ; Walter Wilson, 182") ; 
SamuelR. Gummere, 1827-28; Samuel Rogers, 1828; Samuel W. El rl, 
]830-32,1834-35;JoEephJohuson,1830-35,184i, 1840, 184S; Benjamin 
Gauutt, 1830-32, 1837; James Gunnel, 183l>-32. 1834-35, 1837, 1830- 
40; Joseph L. Wright, 1831; Adam Price, 1832; Charles Vausiiver, 



1833; Jolin P. Fining, 1834, 1837; Daniel Vansciver, 1835 ; Nathan 

W. Colp, 1836, 1840 ; Tliomas Milnor, 183G, 1838; Noah E. Lippin- 
cott, 1836, 1838; David Vansciver, 1837, 1830-40; Aarnn Hiitcliiiis, 

1837, 1830, 1844, 1847 ; Amos W. Archer, 1838, 1800 ; George Gaskill, 

1838, 1844; John Larzelere, Jr., 1838, 1847; Mill am yiiicksall, 183'J; 
"William R. Deacon, 1840, 1844; Lewis C. Leeds, 1840, 1842, 1817-48; 
James Eyre, 1840, 1843; Archibald W. Burns l*'''!. 1843, 18fil ; 
Tliunia-Bodth, 1841-42; William J. Allison, 1841-42; Jacob Jlitcliell, 
1841-42; William Najlor, 1841; James lIcKee, 1841; Joseph Kor- 
lin,1842; Kobert T. Willitte, 1842; Isaac Haines, 1844-45; Joseph 
L. Powell, 1844; Tliomas Seaman, 1844-45; George W. Myers, 1845; 
John Mitchell. 1845; Joel E. Janes, 1845; Joseph W. Lippincott, 
1845 ; Ira B. Underbill, 184G ; Samuel W. Earl, 1840; It^aac Uodman, 
184G; Joseph L. AVi igbt, 184G; J. shua W. Collett, 184G ; Garret D. 
Wall, 1847-48; Joseph Kerlin, 1847; Charles II. Fenimore, 1847; 
Elias E. Boudinot, 1848; Peter Whitehead, 1848; Edward Morris 
Jr., 1840; Juseiih Keilin, 1840; Joseph P. Deacon, 1840; James W. 
Wall, 1840-50; John liodgcrs, 1840; Franklin Gauutt, 1850. 

James W. Wall, 1851-54; Archibald W. Burns, 1855-57; William R. 
Allen, 1S58-G2; Henry Holleuback, 18G3-GG ; Joseph L. Powell, 18C7 
-60,1873-75; Henry Moffett, 18C8-72; Hamilton McDowell, 1870- 
78 ; George Bigg, 1870-82. 

Joseph Johnson, 1851, 1853, 1850-60; William F. Smith, 1851 ; Joseph L. 
Wright, 1851 ; Charles Lippincott, 1851, 1853; Henry Holleuback, 
1851 ; ArcbibaM W. Burns, 1S51, ISCH; Lewis C. Leeds, 1851, 1853- 
64,1806,1800; Woi drop J. Hall, 1851 ; Elwood Conner, 1801, 1853-54; 
George W. Meyers, 1851; William R. Deacon, 1851; William R. 
Allen, 1852; Charles II. Fenimore, 1852; William A. Rogers, 1852; 
Tb.)masSi-aniaii,lb02; ICdwanl T. liorden, 1852; James McKee, 1802; 
Levi Kimble, 1852 ; David D. Blitchell, 1852 ; Elias Howell, 1852-54 ; 
Joel R. James, 1852 ; Samuel W. Earl, 1853; Elias E Boudinot, 18.53; 
A. L. Shinn, 1853, 1850 ; Samuel K eys, 1 853-54, 1850-.58, 1800; David 
Vansciver, 1853-54, 1856; Thaddeus S. Woolston, 1853; 1855, 1857- 
58: Cliancpy T. Booth, 1854, 1868; Hamilton McDowell, 1854, 1850; 
John Silpath, 18.".4, 1S07, 1800; John Larz.-lere, 1854-57, 1861 ; Sam- 
uel K. Piickelt, 1855; Henry Louden, 1855-50; John Mitchell, 1855, 
]8:,T; James Watts, 1805-00; Thomas Rubb,1805; Franklin Giaintt, 
1865-50, ISCl, 1M<'J, lfc73; John Kodgeis. 1665; Jacob Laumaster, 
1855; James W. Wall, 1850, 1800; Fredrick Eugle, 1856, 1858, 1801 ; 
Nathaniel W. Fenimore, 1857; Thomas Conwaj', 1857; John D. 
Moore, 1857, 1864; Nathan Harper, 1857-58; William E. Boulton, 
1857, 1864 ; W. West King, 1858, 1861-62, 1860, 1871 ; David R. Neall, 
1808; John B. Ri.bertf, 1808-00,1^72; J. Howard Pugh, 1858-09, 
1864; William Garwood, 1860; David D. Mitchell, 1800; Charles 
Lijipincott, 1860, 1802; Nathan Sisom,18G0; Nathan T. Higbie, 1801; 
John Abeicruuibie, ISIjI; Levi Kimble, 1801-02; John M. Higbie, 
1801; Charles Ettengor, 1801-63; Amos Hutchins, 1861-03, 1867; 
David P. Lukens, 1862-63; Joseph R Ivins, 1862-63: Edward T. 
Bonleii, 1802-03; John P. Fining, 1802-03; Benjamin Sprague, 1802 
-63,1868-60; Samuel E. Wiight, 1862-03; A. M. Huily, 1804-00; 
David Uarnier, 1804; Alfred Inglin, 1804-65; John F. Louden, 1804 
-05,1867-08,1871: John Rogers, 1804; William A. Stirling, 1864; 
Isaac J. Smith, 1864; Edward B. West, 1804 ; Jonathan M. Roberts, 
1865; Edward Morris, 1865; John Bloomliead, 1865-66 ; Edward B. 
Grubbs, Jr., 1865, 1807; Benjamin A. Lippincott, 1805-60; Joseph E. 
Taylor, 1805; Charles A. Walters, 1866-06, 1808; Horace Grant, Jr., 
1805; Charles Schermerhorn, 1800; Charles S. Gaui;tt, 1806; Nicho- 
las W. Sooy, 1800; Samuel B. K. Coles. 1806; John G. Burling, 1866 
-68; Samuel Burns, 1867; F. B. Lippincott, 1867 ; James W. Feni- 
more, 1SG7; Nathan Sisom, 1807, 1800, 1870; John Silpath, 18C8; W. 
E. Scheimerhorn, 1807; William Neilson, 1808; James Birch, 1868; 
John Larzelere, 1868; Charles S. Gauutt, 1868; Samuel D.Burns, 
18C9; Caleb G. Ridgway, 1868-71, 1873, 1875; Hamilton McDowell, 
1800; James O'Neil, l»i.O, 1873, 1875, 1877; John H. Eaton, 1860; 
David H. Losey, I860: William Pearce, 1860; Bloomfield Sisom, 1870; 
Ale.xander Martm, 1870; Nehemiah Sleeper, 1866-08,1870-71, 1873; 
Charles S. Gauntt, 1871 ; John D. Martus, 18';i; Griffith W. Lewis, 
1871 ; William R. Bishop, 1871 ; John Broorahead, 1871 ; William F. 
Le Roy, 1871, 1874 ; James H. Park, 1871, 1874 ; J. L. Scverns, 1872, 
1874; J. W. Goodenough, 1872; Addis Hays, 1872, 1874; Samuel 
rhillii)e, 1872, 1876; Albert G. Shaw, 1872; Thomas Cliver, 1873; 
Richard Lucas, 1873; Ellis L. Hubbs. 1874 ; Philip F. Silpath, 1868- 
GO, 1874-76 ; Jauies Aaronson, 1875 ; John Magraw, 1870 ; Alexander 


Martin, 1870, 1870, 1870; Joseph B. Flanignn, 187C ; James Willitts, 
1876; Robert Wawkey, 1876; Samuel H. Ubier, 1877 ; Joseph Par- 
rish, 1877; John A. Vandergrift, 1877 ; William H. Kimball, 1877, 
1882: William A. Stinenk, 1877-78, 1881-82; Charles E. Allen, 1878; 
Ebazer Horner, 1878; Nallian Haines, 1878. 1880 , Aaron Hutchins 
1878; John T. Sevcrns, 1878; N. Haines, 1870; Cliarles Eltinger, 
1870; H. Moftet, 187!r; G. W. Watts Sliippen Wallace, 1870, 1882; 
Edward S. Lansing, 1870 ; William E McNeal,1870; Albeit G. Shaw, 
J. Frank Biidd, 1S70, 1882; Lewis Vanschnyver, li>7U; De Laiicey 
Walker, 1880; Isaac Kimble, 1880; William C. Hancock, 1880; 
Franklin Hancock, 1880; Charles P. Earner, 1881; John Fenimore, 
1881-82; Ellis R. Cliver, 1881-82; W. II. Kimball, 1881 ; R.Frank 
Wood, 1882; J. Reading Ivins 1882; Thomas H. Sprague, 18S2; 
Franklin G. Woodington, 1882; Decatur Abdill, 1882; Samuel E. 
Lippiucott, 1882. 


John P. Fining, 1851; Amor W. Archer, 1851; Joel Rakestraw, 18,51; 
John L. Powell, 1862, 1855, 1868, 1804, 1871-73 : William D. Choese- 
nian, 1853, 1866; William B. Price, 1804; John M. Brown, 1856, 
1850; Jonathan W. Nevins 1857; John D. Bloore, 1860, 1802; ILini- 
ilton McDowell, 1862-64; James H.SIetes, 1802, 1863 ; Joel R. Janus, 
1862; William E. Boulton, lh05; Jabez Kingdou, 1860; Robert!. 
Willitts 1807, 1870, 1870; Paul Early, 1SG8; Silas P. Cook,18(i0; 
John C. Smith, 1S71-73; George Kigg, 1873; Charles Harper, 1873; 
Daniel P. Naylor, 1873, 1874 ; John W. Cook, 1875 ; Alexander Mar- 
tin, 1877; Joshua Taylor, 1878; Charles P. Farner, 1880; James L. 
Erlton, 1881. 


Charles P. Smith, 1851-54; William E. Thomas, 1856,1860; Lewis E. 
Lippincott, 1856; William F. Smith, 1857, 1858; John P.Good,180u- 
63; J. Rnsling Lippincott, 1864, IStJO; Samuel Phillips, 1860; Bloom- 
field B. Sisom, 1807-60; William H. Torr, 1870.1872; William II. 
Antrim, 1871-73; Daniel P. Naylor, 1870; J. Russell Batten, 1880; 
John A. Armstrong, 1881 ; Sheldon S. Davis, 1882. 

Chancpy T. Booth, 1851, 1852, 1800; David R. Noal, 1853, 1854; Nelson 
W. Deacon, 1855-57 ; Amos HutchiiiF, 1858, 1850; J. RusjcU Batten, 
1801, 1802, 1870, 1871, 187.0; John A. Jliller, ISOi'-CO; D.uiiel F. 
Hainnifll, 160G-08; Benjamin F. Rue, 1800; Janiet Sterling, 1872, 
1874; Charles P. Earner, 1870 ; Winfield S. Epler, 1877; EJwaid C. 
Warren, 1878-80; Henry Lowden, 1881-32. 

Michael Sheraelia, 1851, 1S52; George W. Meyers, 1803; George F. Sil- 
jwith, 1804; Samuel Pew, 18:5, 1800; Michael W. Keegaii, lS."i7 ; 
Charles Thoip, 18,j8, 1850; Stncey L. Burr, 1860; A'.iraham R. Alli- 
son, 1861, 1862; J. Wesley Goodenough, 1864 ; James .\arouson, 18C0, 
1870; Daniel F. Hamnell, 1871; Isaac T. Smith, 1872-74 ; Blouni- 
ficld Sisom, 1875, 1870; Albeit H. Silpath, 1877; J. Rusling Lippin- 
cott, 1805; Benjamin SiJiague, 1806, 1807; Beujauiin F. Rue, 1870 ; 
Thomas B. Allison, 1880, 18s2. 



Mount Lebanon Encampment, No. 7, I. 0. 0. F., 

was instituted June 12, 1844, with the following char- 
ter members: Amor AV. Archer, Joseph L. Powell, 
David P. Lukens, George Dugdale, Samuel Fort, 
Henry Grim, Lewis C. Leeds. 

The following were the first officers chosen : Amor 
W. Archer, C. P. ; Jos. L. Powell, H. P. ; D. P. Lu- 
kens, S. W. ; G. Dugdale, J. W. ; S. Fort, Scribe ; 
H. Grim, Treas. 

The officers in May, 1882, were as follows: John L 
Shinn, C. P. ; William M. Jeffries, H. P. ; P. F. Ben- 



nett, S. W.; John M. Wright, J. W.; George A. Al- 
linson, Scribe; Hugh Armstrong, Treas. 

The membersliip is one hundred and five. Meet- 
ings are held in Odd-FelIo>vs' Hall, on the first and 
third Mondays of each month. 

Phoenix Lodge, No. 92, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted 
March 12, 1849, with seven charter members, as fol- 
lows : John Rodgers, EUwood Conner, George Dug- 
dale, David P. Lukens, David D. Mitchell, Joseph 
Butcher, Jacob Mitchell. 

The first officers elected were as follows: Jacob 
Mitchell, N. G. ; John Rodgers, Y. G. ; Jesse R. Sher- 
man, Sec; Joseph Butcher, Treas. 

Plioenix Lodge has a membership of one hundred 
and eighty-five, and meets Monday evenings in Odd- 
Fellows' Hall, in Union Street. It has paid out in 
benefits about two thousand dollars, and has a cash 
surplus on hand of nine thousand three hundred 

The officers in May, 1882, were William O'Don- 
nell, N. G.; Charles W. Gardner, V. G. ; George A. 
Allinson,R. C. ; Ellwood Conner, F. C. ; Daniel P. 
Naylor, Treas. 

Burlington Lodge, Ho. 32, F. and A. M., was in- 
stituted June 21, 1854, with tiie following members: 
Elias E. Boudinot, John W. Kelly, Thomas Neall, 
William R. Allen, Lewis Gotta, Ellwood Conner, 
Richard B. Westbrook, Aaron E. Ballard, John Rod- 

The following were the first officers : John Rod- 
gers, W. M. ; Richard B. AVestbrook, S. W. ; John W. 
Kelly, J. W. ; Ellwood Conner, S. D. ; Aaron E. 
Ballard, Sec. ; Lewis Gotta, Treas. 

The membership in May, 1882, was one hundred 
and two, and the lodge was officered as follows : H. 
S. Haines, W. M. ; Samuel Phillips, S. W. ; J. A. 
Armstrong, J. W. ; H. Armstrong, Treas. ; C. T. 
Parker, Sec; R. Hepworth, S. D. ; P. F. Richards, 
J. D. ; G. W. Firing, S. M. of C. ; A. K. Ashby, J. 
M. of C. ; J. R. Dubel and J. S. Adams, Stewards; 
LeAvis Gotta, Treas. 

Regular meetings are held in Odd-Fellows' Hall, 
on the second Tuesday of each month. 

Boudinot Chapter, No. 3, R. A. M., meets in Odd- 
Fellows' Hall on the fourth Tuesday of every month. 
It was instituted in February, 1856, with the follow- 
ing charter members and first officers: Ellwood Con- 
ner, H. P. ; W. W. Goodwin, K. ; Seth Thomas, S. ; 
H. McDowell, Treas. ; John F. Kelly, Sec. 

The officers in May, 1882, were the following: H. 
Armstrong, H. P. ; E. M. English, K. ; S. C. Hassin- 
ger, S. ; R. Hepworlh, C. of H. ; .Lames Shaw, P. S.; 
AV. A. Barrows, R. A. C. ; G. W. Fireng, Treas. ; C. 
T. Parker, Sec. ; H. P. Vandegrift, M. of 1st V. ; G. 
W. Fireng, M. of 2d V.; Alios, M. of 3d V.; J. P. 
Severns, Chap.; Lewis Gotta, Treas. 

Lenni-Lenape Trihe, No. 12, 1. 0. of R. M.— This 
tribe of the Improved Order of Red Men was insti- 
tuted Jan. 18, 1858, with the following charter mem- 

bers : Hugh Armstrong, William S. Coleman, Alfred 
Inglin, William Limeburner, Isaac R. Perkins, Rob- 
ert T. Willits, Charles Willits, John D. Moore, M.D., 
David D. Mitchell, Thomas B. Sherman, Joseph . 
Marlin, James Willits, Lewis T. Price, Richard B. 

The first officers were as follows: William Lime- 
burner, S. ; I. R. Perkins, S. S. ; H. Armstrong, J. S. ; 
R. AVilmot, P. ; James Willits, C. of R. ; Alfred Ing- 
lin, K. of W. ; R. T. Willits, 1st S. ; J. D. Moore, 2d 
S.; D. D. Mitchell, G. of W. ; William S. Coleman, 
1st W. ; L. S. Price, 2d W. 

The following officers were serving in May, 1882: 
Frederick E. Crawford, S. ; E. M. English', S. S. ; 
Landrick Leeson, Jr. S. ; R. B. Prince, P. ; J. B. 
Cramer, C. of R. ; F. G. Woodington, K. of W. ; 
George A. Allinson, 1st S. ; Frederick Peter, 2d S. ; 

F. L. Stiles, G. of W. ; Henry Purdy, G. of F. ; 
Spencer T. Woodington, 1st W. ; Edward Bowen, 2d 
W. ; Nathan Smith, 3d W. ; Augustine Thwaites, 4th 
W. ; John Post, 1st B. ; E. S. Conrow, 2d B. ; Daniel 
Cobb, 3d B. ; Samuel Green, 4th B; S. T. Wooding- 
ton, I. B. Cramer, and T. H. Sprague, Trustees. 

Helena Commandery, No. 3, K. T., was insti- 
tuted Jan. 27, 18G0, under a charter granted by B. B. 
French, Grand Master of the United States, to The- 
ophilus Fisk, Charles G. Milnor, and W. W. Good- 
win. The present membership is fifty-three. The 
commandery meets on the first Tuesday of each 
month in Odd-Fellows' Hall. The officers in May, 
1882, were as follows : Walter A. Burrows, E. C. ; R. 
Hepworth, G. ; W. AV. Slack, C. G. ; H. S. Haines, 
P.; E. M. English, S. A^^ ; S. C. Hassinger, J. AV. ; 

G. AV. Fireng, Treas. ; C. T. Parker, R. C. ; F. Roth 
and C. Ross Grubb, S. B. ; L. Brewin, AV. ; L. Gotta, 

Hope Lodge, No. 13, K. of P., was instituted by 
Samuel Reed, Supreme Chancellor of the world, July 
6, 1868, with the following charter members and first 
officers : George AVells, C. C. ; Frank H. Fry, V. C. ; 
Sheldon S. Davis, R. ; John R. Dubel, Treas. ; John 
F. Pew, J. G. ; Griffith AV. Lewis, G. ; Harry A. Steel, 
F. S. ; Harry K. Stevenson, O. G. ; AVilliam Conrad, 
V. P. ; and Lewis Gotta. 

The membership of Hope Lodge in May, 1882, was 
one hundred and fifty. Meetings are held every 
Thursday evening, over the engine-house of Hope 
Steam Fire-Engine Company. The officers at the 
date mentioned were Tliomas K. Prickett, C. C. ; 
AVilmer Reed, V, C. ; Sheldon S. Davis, K. of R. S. ; 
AVilliam D. Prickett, M. of F. ; D. AV. Powell, Treas. 
and M. of E. ; AVilliam Atkinson, Jr., M. at A. ; 
Harry Carter, P. 

Friendship Conclave, No. 48, Improved Order 
of Heptasophs. — This organization was instituted 
March 10, 1882, with twenty charter members and 
officers as follows : Franklin Gauntt, M. C. ; George 
Rigg, A. ; William A. Stineruck, Provost; William 
C. Earner, P.; Jacob Greenwald, F. S. ; Charles T. 



Parker, Sec. ; Leander Brewin, Treas. ; Richard Hep- 
worth, Insp. ; Thomas K. Wallace, W. ; John L. 
Vennor, C. ; Thomas Mann and Ellwood Conner, 
Trustees; E. F. Rink, M. 

The membership is twenty-five. Meetings are held 
at the Burlington Coffee-House, on High Street, on 
the third Monday of each month. 

Parker Grubb Post, No. 16, G. A. R.— This post 
was instituted May 28, 1880. The first officers elected 
were James L. Estlow, Com.; John I. Shinn, Sr. 
Vice-Com. ; William E. Shinn, Jr. Vice-Com. ; Shel- 
don S. Davis, Adjt. ; Thomas K. Prickett, Q.M.; J. 
S. Adams, Sergt. ; William H. Allinson, Chap. ; John 
Fisher, O. of D. ; and Charles M. Terry, O. of G. 

The present officers are John I. Shinn, P. C. ; 
William F. Britton, Sr. V. C. ; Charles Terry, Jr. 
V. C. ; Slieldon S. Davis, Adjt. ; Thomas K. Prickett, 
Q.M.; William H. Allinson, Chap.; S. W. Abdill, 
0. of D. ; and John Stowell, O. of G. 

The membership in May, 1882, was ninety-five. 
Regular meetings are held at the Knights of Pythias' 
Hall, in the Hope Engine-House, every Monday 

Prior to the organization of this post two others 
enjoyed a brief existence. The first owed its incep- 
tion chiefly to the efforts of Capt. Samuel Phillips, 
but lived hardly long enough to receive notice. The 
second was some time later organized, under the 
name of "Joseph W, Allen Post, No. 9," and offi- 
cered as follows : F. W. Milnor, C. ; L. C. Reeves, 
V. C. ; W. F. Miller, Jr. Y. C; L. Brewin, Adjt.; 
W. A. Samson, Q.M. 

Building and Loan Associations. — The City of 
Burlington Loan and Building Association was or- 
ganized in 1868, with J. B. Roberts as president, R. J. 
Dutlon as treasurer, and H. Moffet as secretary. The 
present officers are James O'Neil, president ; J. 0. 
Glasgow, treasurer; and F. C. Woolman, secretary. 
The capital of the association is $75,045.10 ; the 
number of shares is 757, which are owned by 163 
shareholders. The first issue (1868) has matured; a 
second issue will mature about eight years hence. 

The Farmers' and Mechanics' Building and Loan 
Association was incorporated April 1, 1871. The 
principal incorporators and first officers were J. H. 
Park, president; Nathan Haines, treasurer; and 
Henry S. Haines, secretary. The capital of the as- 
sociation is $113,072.15; the number of shares, 856 ; 
the number of shareholders, 175. The present officers 
are Francis W. Milnor, president ; Nathan Haines, 
treasurer ; Henry S. Haines, secretary ; Ehvood Con- 
ner, Alfred Inglin, Wilbur Watts, Leander Brewin, 
Hugh Armstrong, Noah E. Wright, John R. Dubel, 

The Friendly Institution.— Adopting as a motto 
an expressive sentiment from Cowper's beautiful ode, 
" Charity," — " Shame on those hearts of stone that can- 
not melt in soft adoption of another's" sorrows, — this 
philanthropic institution was founded in 1790 by some 

ladies, all of whom now "rest from their labors." 
Free from sectarianism, its charities have been dis- 
pensed unostentatiously in relieving more particu- 
larly the necessities of humanity not witiiin the scope 
of municipal attention. Worthy ones have been the 
recipients of the free-will offerings disbursed judi- 
ciously by the almoners of the" Friendly," who give 
their time and services in the dispensing of its chari- 
ties. Language fails to express the inestimable bless- 
ings flowing from the workings of this institution. 
Since the incorporation of the "Friendly," in 1802, 
there have been but three treasurers, viz. : W. Allin- 
son, Robert Thomas, and R. J. Dutton. The present 
officers are Miss M. M. Gummere, secretary ; Miss 
Sarah R. Smith, assistant secretary ; Miss E. E. Gum- 
mere, stewardess ; R. J. Dutton, treasurer. 

The House of Industry. — This benevolent institu- 
tion, its laudable and special object the employment 
of respectable and elderly women during the winter 
months, was founded by Mrs. E. Hinchman in 1860, 
and incorporated in 1862. The number of its mem- 
bers is limited to thirty. About January 1st the 
doors of the house on Stacy Street, very generously 
presented to the society by Mrs. Eliza P. Gurney, are 
opened by the matron under instructions from the 
society, and women deemed worthy are received and 
furnished with sewing, etc., a good dinner being pro- 
vided daily for them, and twenty-five cents a day 
paid to each, the ladies of the society superintending 
their work. The garments, etc., made by the women 
are sold for the benefit of the house, which is sup- 
ported by donations. 

The officers are Miss S. R. Smith, secretary ; Mrs. 
E. McNeal, assistant secretary; and Miss M. M. 
Gummere, treasurer. 

Military Organizations. — An early and Avell-rc- 
membered military organization in Burlington was 
the New Jersey Guards, organized in 1846, with J. 
Jones as captain, Joseph Hayes as first lieutenant, 
and Samuel Garwood as second lieutenant. The com- 
pany consisted of about sixty men, and held its first 
regular parade Independence day, 1846. Some mem- 
bers saw service in the war with Mexico. In 1847, 
Capt. Jones was accidentally shot. He was succeeded 
by Capt. William Hayes, who soon died, and the 
command devolved upon First Lieut. Joseph Hays, 
who is still living in Burlington. The company dis- 
banded about 1848 or 1849. 

The Marion Rifle Corps was organized about 1855 or 
1856. The captain was Hamilton McDowell; George 
C. Burling was first lieutenant, and Joseph Hays 
second lieutenant. The organization continued until 
about the time of the outbreak of the late civil war, 
when a goodly number of the members joined the 
Union army. 

The Burlington Library. — This venerable insti- 
tution was founded in 1758. A well-preserved volume 
bears upon its title-page the following words: " Min- 
utes of the Library Company of Burlington : Extract 



from every flower its cwcct." In November, 1757, as 
appenrs from the minutes, "several inhabitants of 
New Jersey, thinking that a Library Company in the 
city of Burlington would be of great benefit to the 
members, as well as the public in general, did speak 
to the number of sixty, who formed themselves into a 
company and agreed to pay ten shillings per annum 
in support of the library." Jan. 1, 1758, John Read- 
ing, president of His ]\I;ijesty's (King George II.) 
Council, and commander-in-chief of New Jersey, was 
tendered a vote of thanks by the Library Company 
ior endowing the same with a charter, granted by 
His Majesty, and the freedom of the library was put 
at his service. As far as can be ascertained, no de- 
scendants of the some seventy earliest officers of the 

the one made in Burlington, Jan. 16, 1759, at a cost 
of thirty dollars. In 1767 the company occupied 
Robert Smith's house, now the site of Messrs. Dan- 
iels' store. From thence the company removed to 
their own building on Office (now Library) Street. 
The lot was presented to the company by Governor 
Joseph Bloomfield, and the sum of fifty pounds was 
agreed to be paid in paper money for the little build- 
ing, thought to be the same as the one used now as a 
barn. There the company remained until its removal 
in 1864 to their present building in West Union 
Street. The old building on Library Street once 
narrowly escaped destruction by fire from the burn- 
ing of a barn on Governor Bloomfield's property, ad- 
jacent to the library. The first books were donated 


library are at present residing in this city, except 
Mrs. J. L. Wright, Mrs. George, Miss Kinsey, Miss 
iS. R. Smith, Dr. Charles Ellis, and the families of 
Thomas and Pearson Rodman. 

The first meeting of the directors was held in No- 
vember, 1758, in the parlor of Thomas Rodman's 
liouse, now No. 129 High Street. The company 
agreed to pay him five dollars a year for the use of 
his best room, in which they would meet and keep 
their books. Here the charter A\as discussed and ac- 
cepted. The rules and by-laws were drawn up and 
adopted, and with but few amendments are in force 
at the j)resent time. The officers were elected for 
»)ne year, and the seal, which every volume in the 
libr.iry now bears, is the- same (except the motto) as 

by the members and their friends. Tlie earliest gift 
was that of a so-called " pistol-piece" from Ebenezcr 
Large, whose name and descendants now are un- 
known, but worthy of iionorable mention from his 
noble request that the " pistol-piece" should be sold, 
and with the amount realized "a copy of the best 
Bible should be purchased and placed in the Burling- 
ton Library." Mary Lovett (a daughter of Samiul 
Lovetl, one of the earliest settlers, per the ship 
"Kent," in 1677) donated to the library the sum of 
twenty pounds. Great care was taken in crediting 
every gift, with full particulars. Some curiosities 
presented in 1799 are noted .as having been brought 
" five liundred leagues west of the Missouri River." 
Some Chinese figures are mentioned as being "com'- 



pletely dressed in the style of China." Among some 
books ordered to be purchased in 1802 was a copy of 
the "Life of Gen. George Washington," the first 
published. William Sorsby, a very eccentric char- 
acter, and of whom or his descendants nothing now 
is known, bequeathed to the Library Company his 
Windsor chair, his walking-stick, ornamented with 
large brass-headed tacks, and his portrait, drawn by 
himself. A donation from Horace Binuey of two 
hundred dollars toward erecting the present library 
building was handsomely acknowledged. 

Many years since Mr. James Hunter Sterling, a very 
prominent and highly esteemed Burlingtonian, and a 
director of the Library Company twenty-three years, 
bequeathed five thousand dollars to the Library Com- 
pany for the purchase of books. This noble bequest 
was left with the stipulation expressed in his will that 
the company should erect, within three years of his 
decease, a building (dimensions being stated), and in 
an eligible location for their purposes. The one the 
company now occupy was erected by subscriptions 
from the citizens in 1864, and is in conformity with 
the proviso of the testator. The library-room is ad- 
mirably arranged and very attractive, but unfortu- 
nately DOW grown too small, new works being con- 
stantly added, and its crowded shelves already hold 
over ten thousand volumes, very many of which are 
of rare value and of great age. Among the oldest 
books is a Latin work, published in 1529, and a " vul- 
gate" edition of the "Biblia Sacra," 1706, besides 
many very valuable pamphlets and papers of an early 
issue. Among a number of portraits gracing the 
walls are those of His Majesty George IL, who granted 
its charter; Governor Joseph Bloomfield, a very dis- 
tinguished public and private citizen ; Samuel R. 
W^etherell, president of the company thirty -six years ; 
William J. Allinson, the once eminent Dr. N. W. Cole, 
another president, Thomas Milnor, and William R. 
Allen, for twenty-nine years a director of the library, 
and twenty-five years mayor of the city. 

A writer has justly said, " Among the founders of 
the Burlington Library were men whose names the 
people of Burlington will not willingly suffer to die, 
and among its officers in successive generations were 
illustrious and good men whose names and fame are 
identified with history." The present officers are 
Richard F. Mott, president; Samuel W. Taylor, sec- 
retary : William R. Burr, treasurer; Mrs. E. J. Thomas 
and Miss Laviuia Wright, librarians. 

The Burlington Savings Institation.— In 1857 a 
few thoughtful and far-seeing gentlemen of Burling- 
ton conceived the idea of endeavoring to aid the work- 
ing-people of the city in saving their surplus earnings, 
and keeping them where they could accumulate in- 
stead of being wasted in extravagance or dissipation. 
Acting promptly upon the thought they procured a 
charter from the Legislature, and organized under the 
above title. The original incorporators were Ira B. 
Underbill, Aaron Hutchins, Samuel W. Taylor^ Frank- 

lin Woolman, Dr. Joseph W. Taylor, Frederick F. 
Bainbridge, Dr. Franklin Gauntt, William Bislioj', 
and Amos George. 

Every precaution for safety which the experience 
of similar institutions had shown to be advisable was 
adopted. Investments were permitted only on secu- 
rities of unexceptionable character. The managers 
received no compensation for their services, and were 
strictly prohibited from borrowing the funds, or par- 
ticipating in any way in the profits of the business, the 
whole being divided among the depositors semi-annu- 
ally, in May and November, reserving only a reason- 
able contingent fund as a guarantee against loss. 

The need of such an enterprise was at once recog- 
nized, and the confidence of the community in its 
management manifested by the deposits, which began 
to flow in gradually at first, but steadily increasing to 
the present time. The expenses of the institution 
have been very small, the only persons receiving any 
salary being the president and treasurer. 

Ira B. Underbill was the first president. At his 
decease, in 1858, William Bishop was elected to the 
position, which he still continues to occupy. Robert 
Thomas was the original treasurer and secretary, and 
fulfilled the responsible duties of the office with great 
prudence and fidelity until his death in 1879, for some 
time without any compensation. He was succeeded 
by the present treasurer aud secretary, Richard F. 

In 1876 the institution purchased a lot of ground 
on High Street, at the corner of Smith's Alley, and 
in 1880 erected a neat and substantial three-story 
building of brick, with stone trimmings, containing 
a handsome office for its business, as well as a dwell- 
ing, store, and several large rooms for other purposes, 
forming at once a prominent ornament to the city 
and a source of revenue to the association. 

At this time (1882) the deposits amount to over 
two hundred thousand dollars, invested largely in 
United States, city, and township bonds, and first 
mortgages on real estates worth at least double the 
sum loaned. 

The managers have always been among the most 
substantial and capable business men of the city. The 
present board is constituted as follows : 

President, William Bishop; Vice-President, Frank- 
lin Woolman. 

Managers, John Mitchell, Charles S. Gauntt, Noah 
E. Wright, Dr. J. Howard Pugh, Rowland J. Dutton, 
Francis W. Milnor, and Charles S. Taylor. 

Treasurer and Secretary, Richard F. Mott. 

The Burlington Bank was chartered in the year 

The first regular meeting of the stockholders was 
held at the City Hotel (now Belden House), May 3, 
1855. A committee was appointed to examine and 
obtain the prices of the difl'erent locations offered for 
a site for a banking-house, and to obtain plans for said 



At a meeting of the directors held May 24th, the 
committee on location for a building reported in 
favor of a lot offered by Samuel W. Taylor, at the 
corner of High and Union Streets, which was pur- 
chased for the sum of two thousand dollars. 

The notes of the bank were printed by Draper, 
Welsh & Co., of Philadelphia, at a cost of one thou- 
sand dollars. 

The first officers of the institution were the follow- 
ing: President, George W. South ; Cashier, George 
Gaskill ; Teller, John Rodgers. 

Robert B. Aertsen was elected Jan. 22, 1856, to 
succeed George Gaskill as cashier, resigning Sept. 
19, 1856. 

He was followed by John Rodgers, who continued 
in office until Feb. 28, 1865, when he resigned to 
accept the position of secretary of the Morris Canal 
and Banking Company, office at Jersey City. His 
faithfulness to the interests of the bank was certified 
to by a series of complimentary resolutions, which 
were engrossed and forwarded to him. Samuel Scho- 
field was elected to succeed him. 

Owing to the decision of the Secretary of the 
Treasury not to consent to banks having so small 
a capital as fifty thousand dollars organizing as 
national banks, and the State taxes and other ex- 
penses increasing, it was resolved to go into liquida- 

On May 21, 1865, at a meeting of the directors, it 
was resolved to call a meeting of the stockholders to 
consider and decide upon sale of entire stock of the 
bank to parties ready to purchase, it being consid- 
ered by the directors to be better for the stockholders 
than going into liquidation. 

The stockholders' meeting as called by the directors 
was held April 3, 1865. One thousand four hundred 
and fifty-six shares were represented in person or by 
proxy. Resolutions were passed offering the stock of 
the bank to a party who had applied for it at thirty 
dollars per share, on condition of his accepting in 
ten days from date, otherwise the board of directors 
are ordered to proceed into immediate liquidation. 

At a meeting of the board, April 14th, information 
being given that the person to whom the offer of the 
stock was made had virtually declined to accept the 
terms, they decided to go into immediate liquidation. 

The board at their meeting on the 18th of April 
passed the following resolution, viz.: 

" liesohed. That out of respect to the memory of onr honored and la- 
mented cliief mngistrate, Abraham Lincoln, wiio fell hy an aseasfiin's 
hand on the evening of the 14th inst , this bank Bhall be closed to-mor- 
row, tlie 19th inst., on which day the funeral will take place." 

On Sept. 1, 1865, the banking-house was sold to S. 
W. Taylor at public sale. 

On May 11, 1867, the final meeting of the directors 
was held. 

After attending to the duties incident to closing the 
affairs of the bank, the following preamble and resolu- 
tions were offered and approved, viz. : 

"WiiEHEAS, nt this meeting we officially clos? the business of the 
Burlington Bank, and upon the payment of the dividend of surplus this 
day declared the duties of the officers will cease ; 

" Ili'soh ed. That while we legret our separation, tlie thanks of the 
Board are hereby tendere^l to Joseph Askew, Esq., our president, for the 
faithful and impartial discharge of the onerous duties devolved upon him 
in his official ca[)acity. 

" Reeohcd, That the thanks of the president, directors, and stockhold- 
ers are due to Nathan Haines for his faithfulness and ability as teller, 
and his able administration of the affairs of the bank during his casli- 

" Hexohed, That we cheerfully bear our testimony to the uniform 
courtesy and affability exhibited liy 5Ir. Haines in the disdiarge of his 
official duties, and the deep interest he has alwaj's shown in the success 
of the bank, and we now assure him of our continued confidence in his 
ability and integrity." 

The Mechanics' National Bank.— The Mechanics' 
Bank of Burlington was organized under an act of the 
Legislature passed March 5, 1839. The commissioners 
were William R. Allen, George Gaskill, Thomas 
Milnor, John Roberts, and Isaac Marter. The capi- 
tal stock was $50,000, divided into two thou.sand 
.shares, which were subscribed for by two hundred 
and sixty-two stockholders. 

The first board of directors, elected April 26, 1839, 
was composed as follows: William R. Allen, Samuel 
R. Gummere, John Hulme, Thomas Dutton, James 
Sterling, Caleb R. Smith, Thomas Milnor, John C 
Deacon, Aaron Wills, Peter H. Ellis, George D. Smith 
Charles Ellis, M.D., George Gaskill. 

The first officers were elected April 29, 1839: Wil 
liam R. Allen, president; Archibald W. Burns 
cashier ; Joseph W. Griffith, clerk. The bank opened 
for business July 9th following. Nov. 24, 1863, John C 
Deacon was elected president. His successor, at pres 
ent in service, was John Howard Pugh, M.D., who was 
elected Jan. 15, 1869. June 17, 1845, George Gaskill 
was elected cashier to succeed the first incumbent of 
that office, and was succeeded by James Sterling, who 
was elected June 14, 1850. Nathan Haines, the present 
cashier, was elected Jan. 15, 1869. Joseph W. Grif- 
fith was succeeded as clerk by George Gaskill, who 
was elected Dec. 26, 1840. The third clerk was James 
Sterling. He was succeeded by Noah E. Wright, who 
was elected June 21, 1850, and he by Charles G. 
Milner, elected Oct. 12, 1852. 

May 16, 1865, by authority of the stockholders, the 
bank was reorganized as a national bank, under the 
name of the Mechanics' National Bank of Burlington, 
and the capital was increased to $100,000, by taking 
$50,000 from the surplus, and making the par value of 
the stock $50, instead of $25. In January, 1869, the 
management was materially changed, the board of 
directors being reduced to seven in number, and the 
following-named gentlemen were elected as such : J. 
Howard Pugh, M.D., Samuel Rogers, William Gar- 
wood, Franklin Woolman, John J. Woolman, John 
Mitchell, and William Bishop. F. P. F. Randolph 
was chosen teller, and Charles M. Harker book-keeper. 
Since that date the only changes in the officers and 
employes of the bank have been a change in book- 
keepers and three successions to the directorship, oc- 




casioned by two deaths and one resignation. The 
officers and office employes in 1882 were J. Howard 
Pugh, M.D., president ; Nathan Haines, cashier ; F. P. 
F. Randolph, book-keeper; Frank Murdock, messen- 
ger. Tlie directors were J. Howard Pugh, M.D., Wil- 
liam Bishop, Franklin Woolman, William Garwood, 
Richard F. Mott, Ezra Budd Marter, Charles S. 
Gauntt. The stockholders numbered eighty-four. 

Losses sustained by the bank in 1868, brought its 
capital at the close of that year to about par. Through- 
out the various financial revulsions to which the 
country has been subjected since the bank's organi- 
zation, its credit has always stood high, and it has 
done a safe and profitable business. For the last two 
years its line of deposits has much increased, averag- 
ing from $200,000 to $250,000. The surplus fund is 
$25,000. The stock, when in the market, brings thirty 
per cent, and upward more than par, but it is rarely 
offered for .sale. 

In the matter of exchanges and interest charges, it not been the policy of the management to pursue an 
exacting course with the bank's customers, but rather 
to seek its prosperity in the prosperity of the business 

Nathan Haixes, cashier of the Mechanics' Na- 
tional Bank of Burlington, N. J., was born at Woods- 
town, Salem Co., Dec. 31, 1833. His early education 
was obtained in the schools of his native place, and 
at the Chesterfield Academy, then conducted by the 
eminent teacher, Henry Ridgeway. 

For five winter terms he was a teacher. On Aug. 
8, 1860, he came to Burlington, and fur three years 
was a clerk in the drug-store of William Allinson. 
In the spring of 1863 he was chosen teller, and after- 
wards cashier, of the Burlington Bank, and retained 
the latter position until the business of that institu- 
tion was closed, on Sept. 1, 1865, in the mean time re- 
maining with Mr. Allinson and superintending his 
drug business. For two years following he acted as 
secretary and treasurer of the Philadelphia and Bos- 
ton Oil Companies, in their office in the former citj', 
when, in January, 1869, he was elected cashier of the 
Mechanics' National Bank in Burlington, which posi- 
tion he has held since, and honorably discharged its 
duties. He has been identified with the interests of 
the city locally as its treasurer for two years, treasurer 
of the school fund for seven years, and member of the 
Common Council for four years, three years of which 
time be was its president, and acted in that capacity 
when the city water-works were put in. He has also 
been treasurer and director of the Farmers' and 
Mechanics' Building and Loan Association since its 
organization in 1871. Mr. Haines married, March 
19, 1868, Sallie W., daughter of William Garwood, a 
prominent shoe manufacturer of Burlington. 

The Haines family is of English origin, and Rich- 
ard Haines with several brothers came to America 
during the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
His son Abram had a son Benjamin, who was born 

March 8, 1725, was twice married, and had children, 
— Abram, John, Mary, William, Job, and Benjamin, 
of whom Benjamin was grandfather of our subject, 
born in 1765, and died in December, 1821. He was 
a member of the §ociety of Friends, a farmer, and 
resided in Medford township, where he reared chil- 
dren, — Empson, born in 1796; Benjamin, 1797; Na- 
than, 1799 ; Rachel, 1801; Elizabeth, 1803; Abram, 
1805; Mary, 1807; Clayton, 1809; Rebecca, 1811; 
William, 1813 ; and Samuel, 1816. Of these, Emp- 
son, the father of Nathan Haines, was born in Med- 
ford, Feb. 23, 1796, and spent his boyhood on the 
farm. He was apprenticed to learn the carpenter's 
trade, which he learned and followed for many years. 
Soon after his marriage he settled in Salem County, 
N. J., where he became the leading contractor and 
builder of the county. In 1840, relinquishing this 
business, he carried on farming in that county, and 
was known as a representative agriculturist until 
1854, when he purchased a farm in Burlington 
County between Florence and Columbus, upon which 
he resided until 1866, and sold it to Joseph W. Tall- 
man, who owns it in 1882. Removing to Mount 
Holly, Mr. Haines lived in comparative retirement 
until his decease, which occurred suddenly while on 
a visit to Norristown, Pa., Sept. 27, 1878. 

He was an active man, possessed of strong charac- 
teristics, an old-line Whig, and became a member of 
the Republican party upon its organization. He ad- 
hered to the religion of his ancestors (Quaker), and 
was known as an honest, liberal, and upright citizen. 
His wife, Rachel, daughter of Joseph Buzby, of Ran- 
cocas, survives in 1882, and was born March 11, 1801. 
Their children are Emeline, wife of Allen Garwood, 
of Eddington, Pa. ; Benjamin, served his time in the 
dry-goods house of Sharp, Lindsley & Haines, Phila- 
delphia, and died at home in 1841 ; Empson Kirby, 
a farmer near Norristown, Pa. ; Charlotte C, died at 
the age of fourteen years ; Nathan, subject of this 
sketch; Mary, wife of Barclay Jones, of Fellowship, 
Burlington Count\'; Amos W., a farmer of Media, 
Pa.; Joseph Henry, of Norristown, Pa., a farmer; 
Clayton, a dealer in shoe manufacturers* goods, of 

The Burlington Fire Department. — Under date 
of March 8, 1742, the following entry appears in the 
township records: 

" Il's also agreed at this Town meeting that Samuel Staltergood Ue aji- 
pointed and ordered to provide a couple of good substantial Ladders sucli 
to be forty foot long for tlie use of the City in case of (ire and that one 
be lodged in the upper market stalls A the other in the lower market 
stalls and that the said Ladders be under the Care of the s^ Siimuel 
Hunt and that the e^ Scattergood bring iu his acco« of s* Ladders when 
made & finished to the May Kecord' or any of the Aldermen of said 

Early in the history of Burlington's improvements 
primitive bucket companies were formed, which were 
succeeded, as the records of the city show, by com- 
panies with small hand-engines, known as the " Wash- 
ington," the " Fulton," and the " City." The sur- 



viving members of tliese companies were prominent 
in effecting the fir-t permanent organization in 1795, 
when the Endeavor Company was formed with tlie 
foHowing members: 

Samuel Rogers, Tiiomas Smith, John Haskins, Jr., 
"William AUinson, Daniel Smith, Jr., Abel Pitman, 
Robert Smith, Jr., Amos Hutchins, William Griffith, 
Samuel Totten, John Griscom, David C. Cowpland, 
Elijah Condon, William Smith, Matthew Rockhill, 
H. W. Atkinson, John Craft, Henry Burr, Jr., Joseph 
Mcllvaine. Joseph Smith, Jr., Thomas Hancock, 
William Ridgway, Caleb Engle, Caleb Castill, Joseph 
Burr, Robert Cox, Caleb Gaskill, Josiah Castill, 
T'riah Castill, J. M. Burrows, William Cosume. 

The company first met in the school-house. Each 
member was required to pay a fee of one dollar when 
he joined, and to provide himself with a leather 
bucket, on which his name was painted, and which 
he kept at his house ready for instant use. In 17%, 
Thomas Smith and others were appointed a com- 
mittee to purchase ladders for the use of the company, 
and in 1797 reported that "pales had been purchased," 
and the ladders would soon be in readiness. 

In January, 1797, a committee was appointed to 
take up a subscription to raise funds to purchase an 
engine. Its members were Robert Smith, Jr., Daniel 
Smith, Jr., and William Allinson. Robert Smith, Jr., 
and John Griscom were appointed to contract with 
Samuel Briggs, fire-engine maker, of Philadelphia, 
for "one of his third-rateengines, price £150." March 
12, 1798, an engine was bought and housed, and was 
soon lettered, " The Endeavor Fire Engine.'" 

Jan. 8, 1798, the first regular engine-house was 
built in front of the Friends' meeting-house on 
High Street, a verbal contract having been made 
between the Endeavor Fire Company and the Friends' 
Meeting that it should be removed whenever such a 
measure should be thought desirable by the Friends. 
The old engine-house on Broad, near Wood Street, 
was built in 1857, on a lot granted by the Friends 
upon condition that the building should be removed 
upon three mobths' notice. The present brick engine- 
house of this company in the market-house on Union 
Street was built about thirty years ago. 

The Endeavor's liibcock chemical engine was pur- 
chased in Philadelphia, March 9, 1874, at a cfxst of 
$2.!>00. The old hose-carriage, purchased with the 
first engine, was sold in 184G for four dollars. The 
hose-carriage now in use was purchased of George 
Ruble, of Philadelphia, for $148, and is provided 
with two hundred and fifty feet of small and five 
hundred feet of large hose. 

This company is known as Endeavor, No. 1, and 
has a membership of forty-five and the following offi- 
cers (May, 1882): William M. Jeffries, president; 
David Griscom, vice-president; Henrj' H. Kelly, 
secretary; William R. Bishop, treasurer; William 
H. King, foreman. 

In 1849 there were four members of the old Wash- 

ington Engine Company who favored a continuance 
of the organization, and exerted their influence to 
keep it up. These were Edward Connor, Franklin 
Gauntt, Joseph Butcher, and E. G. Wright. Charles 
C. Myers, Anthony Smith, Charles L. Shepherd, 
James Marter, John P. Fireng, William S. Howe, 
and William C. Fenimore, seven young men of Bur- 
lington, attached themselves to the company April 
12th of that year, and the organization took the name 
of the Washington Engine and Hope Hose Company. 
The company had in its house, at the corner of York 
and Union Streets, the old "city" engine built by 
Pat Lyons, of Philadelphia, and, it is claimed, the 
first ever purchased by the city of Burlington, and 
an old hose-carriage, previously the property of the 
Hope Hose Company, of Philadelphia, the first 
"spring" carriage built in that city. Soon the lot 
on which the engine-house stood was sold, and un- 
able to get another, the company disbanded and gave 
up its property to the city. Aug. 12, 1850, it was re- 
organized as the Hope Hose Company. In June, 
18C9, it consolidated with the Fulton Engine Com- 
pany and was reorganized as the Hope Fire Com- 
pany. That year the present engine-house was 
erected on High Street. It is a brick structure, 
sixty by twenty-one feet, three stories high, and cost 
$G500. In 1871 the "Amoskeag" steamer now in use 
was purchased of the Hope Hose and Steam Fire- 
Engiue Company of Philadelphia, and in 1872, by 
an act of the Legislature of New Jersey, the name of 
the company was changed to The Hope Steam Fire- 
Engine Company. It has (May, 1882) a membership 
of ninety, and is officered as follows: E. Allen Horn, 
president; James Burkmire, vice-president; Sheldon 
S. Davis, secretary ; G. W. Fireng, treasurer ; Law- 
rence Tucker, foreman ; James W. Horn, engineer. 

The Mitchell Steam Fire-Engine Company, named 
in honor of John Mitchell, of Burlington, was organ- 
ized July 17, 1874, with the following nembers, ten 
in number: David Van Slyke, president; Luther M. 
Abdell, vice-president; Joseph F. Mount, secretary; 
Thomas Stokeley, treasurer ; William R. Schuyler, 
William Rambo, C. R. Prickett, Robert Sampson, 
Robert McConnell, William A.Nixon, foreman. The 
engine-house of this company, at the corner of Fed- 
eral and Lawrence Streets, a two-story brick building, 
was erected in 1875 at a cost of about $5000. The 
engine, a La France steamer, was bought of the La 
France Manufacturing Company, of Elmira, N. Y., 
and cost $S500. It is provided with five hundred feet 
of rubber and leather hose. The company has (May, 
1882) a membership of sixty, and its oflScers are as 
follows: John S. Parker, president; Thomas Baker, 
Sr., vice-president; William M. Abdell, secretary; 
William Randall, treasurer ; William H. Rambo, fore- 
man; H. Phillips, engineer. 

The Young America Fire Company was formed 
Aug. 4, 1869, by the consolidation of the Young 
America Hook-and-Ladder Company, organized Sept. 



26, 1857, and the old Franklin Engine Company. 
The first oflScers of the Young America Hook-and- 
Ladder Company were Hamilton McDowell, presi- 
dent; George C. Burling, secretary ; Joseph Butcher, 
treasurer. The first officers of the Young America 
Fire Company were George C. Burling, president; 
E. F. Perkins, vice-president; William S. Coleman, 
treasurer; W. H. Antrum, secretary. The hose car- 
riage was bought in 1871 of the Fairmount Fire Com- 
pany of Philadelphia, at a cost of about $600; the 
hook^and-ladder truck Sept. 28, 1872, of C. Shantz, of 
Philadelphia, for $1250. The engine-house of this 
company is a two-story brick building. No. 28 Broad 
Street. It was built in 1870, and with the other prop- 
erty of the company is valued at $G000. The officers 
of the company, which has a membership of eighty- 
one, are Samuel W. Stockton, president; William E. 
Pricketf, vice-president; Albert H. Silpath, treas- 
urer; Frank B. Stockton, secretary; Decatur Abdell, 
foreman ; Frank G. Holloway, assistant foreman. 

The Burlington Fire Department, as it is now con- 
stituted, was organized January, 1877. The first and 
only chief to date is W. M. Jeffries, who has been re- 
elected since that time, having won the confidence 
and esteem of the firemen and the citizens generally. 
Besides the chief, the present (1882) board of engineers 
consists of' Lewis Vanschuyver, first assistant ; John 
K. Vansciver, second assistant ; and Frank B. Howell, 
third assistant. The estimated value of the real estate 
and apparatus of the department is thirty thousand 
dollars. The force consists, besides the board of 
engineers, of two hundr,ed and forty-five men, includ- 
ing officers of the companies. The companies are 
composed of good, reliable men, many of whom have 
seen years of service. The oldest fireman in the city 
is Franklin Woodman, who has been in active service 
thirty-five years. The apparatus consists of two 
steam fire-engines, one chemical engine, one hook- 
and-ladder truck, and four hand hose carriages. 
Tiiere are two thousand six hundred and eighty feet 
of hose in the service. The engine-houses are all in 
good condition. The city is well supplied with facili- 
ties for the extinguishment of fires, the fire hydrants 
numbering eighty-eight, and the Delaware, Assiscunck 
Creek, and other water flowing nearly around the 
more thickly settled portions. In addition to the 
pumping capacity of the engine at the water-works of 
nine hundred gallons a minute, the volume of water 
elevated to the resorvoir can be forced by an ingeni- 
ous and simple arrangement direct into the street 
mains and a stream thrown from the hydrants over 
one hundred feet in height. 

The Firemen's Relief Association of Burlington, 
participating in the benefits of the Firemen's Relief 
Fund of New Jersey, was originated May 16, 1879, 
with W. M. Jeffries as president, AVilliam A. Stine- 
ruck as vice-president, George A. AUinson as secre- 
tar3', and Franklin Woolman as treasurer. John S. 
Parker has succeeded William A. Stineruck as vice- 

president, otherwise the official list remains (1882) 
the same. 

The Burling^ton Water-Works.— Early in the 
present century it became apparent that the high 
lands immediately south of the city of Burlington 
possessed -springs of water of unusual abundance, and 
at such an elevation as to make it possible to conduct 
a supply thereof to the city suQioient for the ordinary 
domestic needs of its people. Oct. 31, 1804, William 
Coxe, Thompson Neale, Abraham Stockton, and John 
Hoskins, Jr., obtained from the State Legislature a 
charter authorizing them to take measures to effect 
the purpose mentioned, under the name of the Bur- 
lington Aqueduct Company. It is believed that an 
additional incentive to the undertaking just at that 
time was found in the fact that the city of Philadel- 
phia, then grown greatly in population, was about to 
substitute new iron pipes in Market Street for the 
wooden logs, which for nearly seventy years had con- 
ducted water from the works at Centre Square, and 
offered for sale these logs, which seemed just adapted 
to the purpose designed by Burlington's pioneers. 
They were accordingly purchased and laid from the 
reservoir at the springs (on the lands of John Rogers 
and George G. Wetherill) to the city, and through 
High and East Broad Streets. The supply obtained 
was insufficient for anything beyond the merest do- 
mestic service, and such a measure as fire protection 
therefore would be entirely out of the question, but 
nevertheless a few fire-hydrants of a rude pattern 
were placed on these lines. 

Baths were a luxury few could enjoy. Those even 
who had means to pay and leisure to wait for a flow 
into bath-tubs, myst be sufficiently lowly-minded to 
content themselves with bathing in the lower stories 
of their houses, while some found it expedient to use 
their basements for that purpose. 

The rules of the Aqueduct Company were neces- 
sarily rigid regarding the. use and waste of water; 
and so exclusive were the privileges given, and so 
stringent their regulations, that great care was re- 
quired to avoid a violation of them, and once a 
prominent citizen, an inn-keeper, was fined five dol- 
lars for giving drink to a horse from a pail. 

In 1843, Thomas Dugdale, then a very enterprising 
citizen of Burlington, having built a large number of 
houses, chiefly in the easterly portion of the town 
where he had his residence, desiring to increase the 
supply of water to his own home and others, laid 
small iron pipes along such streets as he was improv- 
ing and connected them with a pump on the present 
site of the water-works, which was worked by the 
steam-engine of his grist- and saw-mills on the site 
of the terra-cotta works of Henry Apple. This 
action of Mr. Dugdale met with the disapproval and 
remonstrance of the Aqueduct Company, who stated 
their objections so strongly and publicly that the 
people, who felt glad to see a prospect of a greater 
abundance of water, petitioned the Common Council 



to allow him to lay pipe through other streets for 
general supply. This permission was granted, one 
of the conditions being that the city should have the 
use of twenty-five fire hydrants supplied without cost 
to the city from the pipes thus laid. 

In the winter of 1844 the mill referred to, by which ' 
the water had been forced into the mains, was burned, j 
and early in 1845 the easternmost portion of the high I 
building containing the tanks was constructed, and 
in it were placed the seven iron reservoirs still in use 
by the city. 

In 1848, the demand for water having increased 
greatly, and the proceeds from the works having be- 
come remunerative, Mr. Dugdale made overtures to 
the Aqueduct Company for the purchase of all their 
property and franchises, and succeeded in making 
such terms as led to his sole proprietorship of the 
same, which in 1860 became the property of the 
newly-organized Burlington Water Company, by 
whom the works were controlled until the recent pur- 
chase by the city. It was in 1848 that the western 
portion of the reservoir building was erected and the 
large main reservoir placed therein, a larger engine 
being obtained to raise the water thereto. 

As the growth of the city demanded a greater 
supply of water, the inadequacy of that furnished by 
the old system became more and more apparent and 
embarrassing. Complaints became common against 
the company, until, after a succession of losses by fire, 
due mainly to the want of water with which to extin- 
guish them, culminating in the disastrous conflagra- 
tion of Dec. 10, 1876, the spirit of the citizens became 
sufficiently aroused to take such action as led them, 
after several public meetings, to adopt the provisions 
of the act which the Legislature had passed, enabling 
cities to obtain a supply of pure and wholesome water. 

Several plans for the accomplishment of this end 
were devised, but it was finally thought expedient to 
purchase from the Burlington Water Company all 
their property and rights, and to improve and extend 
their works in such a manner as to meet the wants of 
the town. This was accordingly done, and March 22, 
1877, a deed was executed and delivered to the city 
treasurer, granting all the possessions held by said 
company under their charter, inclusive of the rights 
and leases in the lands furnishing the spring water 
from the hills, for the sum of 825,000, the issue of 
bonds to the amount of $G5,000 having been previ- 
ously authorized for these purposes by a popular vote. 

At the meeting of Common Council next succeed- 
ing this purchase an ordinance was passed creating 
a board of water commissioners to manage and con- 
trol the works, and defining their duties and powers. 
Alexander Martin, James O'Neil, Henry S. Haines, 
Richard F. Mott, and Caleb G. Ridgway were ap- 

During the first year of the pub'.ic administration 
it became apparent that steps must be taken at once 
for obtaining a greater flow of water through the 

public mains, and after delays and diflSculties it was 
determined to lay new mains through most of the 
streets, and to purchase a new engine and pump, 
which was done, and the new engine began its regular 
duty on the 2d day of March, 1878. - The completion 
of the new building and the new machinery made 
possible the demolition of the unsightly structure 
formerly containing the old boiler, and enabled the 
commissioners to erect a neat little building about 
the stack, and to improve that part of the grounds 
formerly covered by the old building. Notwithstand- 
ing this improvement in the appearance of the prop- 
erty, its narrowness on the front next to Pearl Street, 
and the obliquity of the west line, adjoining the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church, lessened its 
beauty and utility to such an extent that it was 
thought proper to recommend to Council the pur- 
chase of a strip of ground from the church. This was 
done at a cost of three hundred and twenty-five dol- 
lars, after which a neat iron fence was built along the 
entire front. Substantial and sightly fences of wood 
were built on either side, the lawn was laid in grass, 
the front was paved, and young shade-trees were 
planted in front and on the side next to the river. 
On the river front, the proximity of the cemetery be- 
longing to the church mentioned, and the dilapida- 
tion of its inclosures, led the commissioners to erect 
a substantial stone wall around the north and «ast 
sides thereof, and a dock owned by Mr. Joseph Van- 
degrift in immediate contact with the wharf property 
belonging to the works was purchased, at a cost of 
four hundred dollars, and measures were taken to 
strengthen the reservoir building. 

The present works consist of one Worthington 
compound duplex engine of five hundred thousand 
gallons capacity, and one eight horse-power high-pres- 
sure engine and pump capable of raising two hundred 
thousand gallons in twenty-four hours, both supplied 
with steam from a tubular boiler of forty horse-power. 
The storage capacity is about eighty thousand gallons, 
and consists of iron reservoirs contained in brick 
buildings, and resting on foundations of substantial 
masonry. These, when in service, provide a head of 
water averaging fifty feet. 

The eflSciency of the works for fire purposes has 
been greatly increased by the introduction of Birken- 
bine's patent fire protector, by means of which water 
can be thrown directly into the mains at a higher 
pressure than that due to the height of the reservoirs. 
The whole cost of the works to the date of the fourth 
annual report of the board of water commissioners, 
March 1, 1881, was 864.600.66. 

The Burlington City Gaslight Company.— The 
Burlington City Gaslight Company was founded in 
1852, chiefly through the instrumentality of Franklin 
Woolman, and manufactures gas of the best quality 
for about one hundred and fifty street lamps, and for 
business and domestic use. 

The capital of the company is fifty thousand dol- 



lars, the number of stockholders is thirty, and the 
par value of the stock is twenty-five dollars per share. 
The officers are (1882) Richard F. Mott, president; 
Franklin Woolman, secretary and treasurer; Edward 
Morris, superintendent. 

Manufacturing and Industrial History. — A pot- 
tery, the property of Daniel Coxe, which, with " all 
the tools" and a dwelling, was sold in 1691, was one 
of the earliest manufacturing interests at Burlington 
of which any record has been handed down to the 
present generation. A nail-factory, the property of one 
Littell (an ancestor, it is said, of the senior member of 
the firm Littell & Gay, -pubVishers of Lifteirs Living 
Age, and the founder of that famous periodical), was 
established in 1690. Other enterprises followed. In 
1698 the town was mentioned as having " large timber 
yards," "malt-houses," " cloth-workers, who make 
very fine serges, druggets, crapes, camblets [part silk 
or worsted and part camel's hair], and good plushes 
and several other woollen cloathes, besides linen," 
and "most sorts of tradesmen," whose wages were 
" upon the same foot with the Pennsylvanians."^ 

Ship-andBoat-Buildixg.— The width, depth, and 
bed of the Delaware River fronting Burlington being 
remarkably favorable for the building and launching 
of vessels of various tonnage, this industry dates from 
a very early period. Writing of Burlington in 1698, 
Gabriel Thomas said, "Several fine ships and vessels 
(besides Governor Coxe's own great ship) have been 
built there." 

In November, 1744, the privateer-ship "Marl- 
borough" was launched at Burlington. This vessel 
was, no doubt, built at an old ship-yard which for 
mapy years was kept up in front of Mrs. Shippen's 
residence on the bank. On its site more than twenty 
feet of water now stand at high tide. At the time the 
"Marlborough" was launched, George II. was at war 
with both France and Spain, and the ocean was the 
great theatre of conflict. The "Marlborough" was 
taken to Philadelphia, probably as soon as launched, 
and there fitted for sea with great expedition, as 
would appear from the fact that the following adver- 
tisement was published little more than a month after 
the launch : 

"Now fitting outfor acruising voyage nguinst His Majesty's Enemies, 
ami will sail w itli the utmost Expedition, the sliip ' Matiboroirgh,' Cliris- 
toplier Clymer, commander, burden 230 Tons, to carry 18 carriage- and 
24 gwivel-guns, witli 150 men. All gentlemen sailors, and others, in- 
clined to enter on board said sUip, may repair to the commander afore- 
said, or to the Pewter Platter in Front Street, where the articles are to 
be seen and signed by those who have a mind to go the cruise." 

About the middle of February, 1745, with the full 
complement of one hundred and fifty men, the " Marl- 
borough" cleared from Philadelphia for a cruise. This 
vessel was owned by a stock company, the total num- 
ber of shares having been thirty-two. Who the share- 
holders were it would probably be impossible to as- 
certain. The " Marlborough" captured several sloo^JS 

^ Gabriel Thomas. 

and schooners, and was afterwards sold at public sale 
in Philadelphia. 

In 1796 a boat with side-wheels was built in Bur- 
j lington, which plied for a year between Burlington 
and Philadelphia. In later years, among others, 
Elias Streker and Daniel Vansciver were largely 
engaged in boat-building. Streker's ship-yard was 
on the site of the Bishop's wharf, Yan.sciver's near 
the junction of the Delaware River and Assiscunk 

In 1832, Abner Durell established a ship-yard in 
Burlington, and built the "Samuel Emlen," a sloop 
of sixty tons burden, for Caleb Smith, Charles Van- 
sciver, James Eyre, and Isaac Marter. Mr. Durell 
has since built many smaller craft, such as yachts 
and skiffs. James W. Fenimore, once an employe 
of Mr. Durell's, began business on his own account, 
and both he and Mr. Durell enjoy an extended and 
enviable reputation as boat-builders, their "crack" 
sailers and light-oared boats having won many a 
broad pennant and cup, and being in constant de- 
mand during the boating, bathing, and fishing sea- 

The Manufactuke of Shoe.s. — For nearly forty 
years the manufacture of shoes has been one of the 
leading industries of Burlington. A former heavy 
trade at the South in ladies' boots and shoes of a 
superior quality has been superseded by the manu- 
facture of ladies', misses', and children's shoes, the 
high reputation of which has secured for the makers 
a large and increasing trade in all parts of the Union, 
as well as in Cuba, Mexico, and other foreign mar- 

The pioneers in shoe manufacture were George P. 
Mitchell, David Mitchell, William Garwood, Aaron 
Hutchins, and Noah E., Benjamin, and Joseph Lip- 
pincott. Tiie business was begun about 1828 by 
George P. Mitchell and the Lippincotts. The former 
was manufacturing until 1835, the latter for some 
years afterward. 

In 1833, David Mitchell began manufacturing 
women's and misses' shoes on Delaware Avenue, re- 
moving later to the corner of High and Pearl Streets, 
where he continued business until a few years ago. 

Aaron Hutchins opened a factory on Pearl Street, 
in 1833, making women's and misses' shoes, which 
he sold principally in Philadelphia until 1840, and 
from that time on until the outbreak of the Rebellion 
in the South and West. In 1845 his son, Henry 
Hutchins, became his partner, and the firm was styled 
A. Hutchins & Sou until 1861, since when Mr. 
Hutchins has been sole proprietor, and is now the 
oldest shoe manufacturer in Burlington who is in the 
business at this date. William Garwood is living, 
but has retired. In 1839, Mr. Hutchins removed his 
factory from Pearl Street to High. In 1847 a factory 
was built at the corner of Pearl and Stacy Streets. 
There it remained until 1865, when it was removed to 
its present location on Penn Street. Previous to the 



late war, when a large Southern trade was to be supplied 
and little or no machinery was used in shoe manu- 
facture, seventy-five men and about the same number 
of women were employed. Since the war children's 
and a few women's shoes have been m.ide, the trade 
being in the Middle States and elsewhere. William 
Garwood began manufacturing women's and misses' 
shoes on Delaware Avenue, and did an extensive 
business until the war cut off the Southern trade. 
Thomas Stokely was at one time a prominent shoe 
manufacturer. Since the time when the early shoe 
manufacturers above referred to began business in 
Burlington, there have been numerous manufacturers 
on a scale large or small who have competed with and 
succeeded each other so rapidly that their names are 
in many cases forgotten. Few of these, however, 
opened factories until after the war. Since that time 
the development of the business has been rapid and 

The enterprise of G. W. Lewis & Co., manufactu- 
rers of women's, misses', and children's shoes, was 
founded in 1874 by G. W. Lewis, who began business 
in a small way on Broad Street above York. He 
suddenly removed to Delaware Avenue, and seven 
years later to the corner of York and Barclay Streets. 
Steam-power was introduced in 1878, and in the fall 
of 1881 the business was removed to its present quar- 
ters on Library Street ; eighty hands are employed. 

In 1870, James Harris began the manufacture of 
women's hand-made shoes at the corner of York and 
Barclay Streets. Later he introduced the manufac- 
ture of children's shoes. In 1878 he removed his 
establishment to the corner of Broad and St. Mary's 
Streets, where it has siuce been located. About twelve 
hundred or fifteen hundred pairs of women's and chil- 
dren's shoes are turned out weekly, and many turned 
shoes and slippers are made. It is believed more 
" white work" is made at this factory than at any 
other in the Union. In 1872 Mr. Harris set up a 
Goodyear machine for putting on the soles of sewed 
shoes (the only one running a crooked needle), and 
now holds the oldest lease for the use of this machine 
in existence. It had been tried by some of the lead- 
ing manufacturers of Philadelphia, New York, and 
New England without satisfactory results, and it re- 
mained for Mr. Harris and other manufacturers of 
Burlington to attest its practical value. Mr. Harris 
employs about -thirty hands, and does a steadily in- 
creasing business. 

In January, 1875, Kimble <fc Co. established a shoe- 
factory in Market Place. Six months later it passed 
into the ownership of Kimble & Weeste, two of the 
members of the former firm. At that time the fac- 
tory was removed to its present quarters over the En- 
deavor Eugine-House, on Union Street. Infants' shoes 
are made. About a score of hands are eniployed out- 
side and inside, and an annual business of about 
$30,000 is done. 

The manufactory of William Abdell is located on 

Lawrence Street, and was established in 1876. In- 
fants' and misses' shoes are made, principally for the 
Eastern trade. Four machines are used. 

Rogers & AVoodington began the manufacture of 
children's fine shoes, October, 1S79^ Their factory is 
at No. 10 East Broad Street. Fifty hands have been 
employed. Goods are shipped South and West. 

The firm of R. T. Wood & Co., manufacturers of 
children's and infants' shoes, has succeeded to the 
business established by the late R. T. Wood, at 113 
High Street, in 1867, and is under the management 
of R. F, Wood, son of its founder. In 18(39, Mr. 
Wood removed his factory to No. 6 East Broad Street, 
and in 1874 to the Wright building, where he intro- 
duced steam-power, prior to its introduction by any 
other shoe manufacturer in the city. In 1877 he died, 
and in 1879 the firm of R. T. Wood & Co. removed 
the factory to the three-story brick building on Broad 
Street, then just erected by J. H. Birch, and since 
occupied by the company. This establishment, when 
running at its full capacity, employs seventy hands, 
and does a large and increasing business, manufac- 
turing principally for the Western trade. 

T. P. & S. S. Smith, manufacturers of women's, 
misses', children's, and youths' shoes, 325 Arch Street, 
Philadelphia, established their factory at the corner 
of Pearl and Tatham Streets, Burlington, in 1881, in 
buildings which had been erected by Charles P. Ear- 
ner in that and the previous year, — three-story brick 
structures fifty feet by one hundred and twenty-seven 
and forty feet by fifty respectively. The factory, which 
has a capacity to turn out one thousand pairs of shoes 
per day, is provided with steam-power, is heated with 
steam throughout, affords employment to one hundred 
hands, and is under charge of J. B. Iredell and Jonas 
Wood, two experienced manufacturers. This firm 
manufactures all kinds of wooden boxes in which 
shoes are packed for the trade. 

W. T. Bunting, on Broad Street, began business 
some years ago, and is rapidly pushing himself for- 
ward among the foremost of the Burlington shoe 
manufacturers. J. M. West, on Pearl Street, is one 
of the best known and most enterprising shoe men in 
tlie city, and Samuel Phillips, on Stacy Street, is well 
and favorably known, having been some years en- 
gaged in shoe manufacture, formerly on Union Street, 
west of High. In various parts of the city some of 
the processes of manufacture are carried on in private 
houses, and new factories are opened from time to 
time on a more or less extensive scale. One of the 
latest is that of Aaron Burr, manufacturer of chil- 
dren's shoes exclusively, who began business on Pearl 
Street early in 1882. In the aggregate some four 
hundred hands are constantly employed in the vari- 
ous factories, and during busy seasons many others 
work at their homes, the various parts being prepared 
for them. The weekly aggregate product of the sev- 
eral factories is nearly twenty thousand pairs of shoes, 
the grand total for the year falling little, if any, short 



of one million pairs, the annual sales amounting to 
more than five hundred thousand dollars. The busi- 
ness of shoe manufacture is conducted by thoroughly 
practical men, with skilled employes in every de- 
partment, and every facility for prosecuting their 
trade advantageously, and there cannot be a question 
as to the rank the shoemakers of Burlington are des- 
tined to attain among the many others of the United 

Caxxees of Vegetables and Fruits. — The 
first to introduce the business of canning fruit and 
vegetables in Burlington, and it is claimed in New 
Jcrsiy, was Timothy Gilbert, in 1861. James P. 
Lowden became his partner in the enterprise a little 
later, and subsequently the share of Mr. Gilbert was 
purchased by John F. Lowden. In 18G5 James P. 
Lowden sold his interest to Nehemiah Sleeper, and 
in 1866 Lowden & Sleeper were succeeded by Ne- 
hemiah Stephen, G. W. Aldricb, and S:imuel Wells, 
who sold out to S. E. Aldrich in 1875. Mr. Aldrich's 
factory is located on York Street. He employs two 
hundred hands during the busy season, canning all 
kinds of fruit and vegetables, which are shipped to 
New York and Philadeli)hia. 

In 1864, William S. King began to manufacture 
canned goods in Burlington. At his death, in 1872, 
he was succeeded by his son, Charles S. King, who 
sold the establishment, in 1880, to Githens & Rexsa- 
mcr, manufacturers of the celebrated " G. & R." 
canned goods and bottled honey, which are shipped 
jjriiR-ipally to Philadelphia. This firm employs a 
large number of hands, twelve being required to 
turn out flic cans in which their goods are ]iacked, of 
which twenty-five thousand of various sizes are made 
weekly. The factory is on York Street. 

Tiie business of Kirby Brothers, manufacturers of 
canned goods and pickles, at the corner of High and 
Belmont Streets, was founded in 1867 by C. H. Kirby, 
who was succeeded in 1867 by C. H., G. B., and C. B. 
Kirby, under the firm-name of Kirby Brothers. They 
^mploy one hundred and fifty hands at busy times, 
canning fruit and vegetables, making pickles, and 
manufacturing cans. Their goods find ready sale in 
the markets of New York and Philadelphia. 

The canning establishment of William H. Birkmire 
n-&s started on Stacy Street in 1870, and removed to 
Federal Street in 1878. During the fruit season one 
;iundred hands are employed in the factory proper, 
md fifteen in making cans, of which five hundred 
housand are made annually. 

During the latter part of February each year the 
;anners announce their readiness to contract with 
armers for the number of acres of the different vege- 
ables, etc., each firm think their trade will require, 
he price also being stipulated per pound or measure, 
^rior to the opening of the canning season, which is 
ibout five months, commencing with asparagus, and 
•losing with pickles and jellies, artisans are employed 
naking cans and packing-cases. Of the former some 

adepts turn out one thousand a day, being nearly 
seven hundred more than the liveliest can-maker could 
possibly handle during the early years of the business 
without the ingenious labor-saving tools and ma- 
chinery of to-day. Qf the latter thousands are made 
also for the canners at the extensive steam wood-work 
mill of Severns & Son. 

The aggregate capital invested is about two hundred 
thousand dollars, which is expended in vegetables, 
tin, cases, labor, labels, and other incidental expenses. 
At least fifteen hundred acres of land were required 
for the growth of the past season's vegetables. The 
great advantages of a cash home market and stipu- 
lated prices is largely appreciated by growers. The 
soil in the vicinity of Burlington is conceded to be 
admirably adapted for growing vegetables, and par- 
ticularly tomatoes, which are notably more solid than 
grown elsewhere, a very important feature when used 
for canning. Six hundred bushels, it is said, have 
been grown to the acre in this section. 

The Manufacture of Carriages. — In 1863, 
James H. Birch, a native of Burlington, leased a shop 
on the corner of Broad and Library Streets, and en- 
gaged in the manufacture and repairing of wagons 
and carriages. He soon began in a limited way the 
building of light-top wagons of a specified weight, 
quality, finish, and cost. His flattering success in- 
duced his continuance and exclusive attention to 
his specialty, and he stands to-day without a peer 
in liis chosen branch in this country, carrying on 
a very extensive business, which has doubled every 
year during the past ten years, his carriages finding 
rapid sale, wholesale and retail, in all parts of the 
Union, and his career being an instance of what may 
be accomplished by tact, industry, and indomitable 
perseverance. In 1860, Mr. Birch built the frame 
building one hundred feet by forty feet at tiie rear of 
his block on High Street, and removed thither from 
his former quarters. Subsequently he added a wing 
sixty feet by forty feet. In 1881 he erected his three- 
story brick manufactory, one hundred and fifteen feet 
by fifty feet, on Library Street. The manufactory of 
Mr. Birch affords employment for forty men, and 
ranks among the leading industries of Burlington and 
the surrounding country. 

In 1874, John Craft, who during a career of eigh- 
teen years at Columbus had won an enviable repu- 
tation as a builder of fine carriages, bought a lot on 
Broad Street, below High, on which he erected a 
three-story brick factory, eighty feet by forty feet, 
where he has- continued business since 1875, taking 
rank with the best carriage-builders of New York 
and Philadelphia, his carriages commanding a steady 
demand from all sections, and receiving during the 
past fifteen years the first premiums at the Burling- 
ton County Agricultural Society's fairs. Every car- 
riage is manufactured under the personal supervision 
of Mr. Craft, who is well versed and practically expe- 
rienced in every branch of the business, gifted with 



fine taste, employs skilled artisans only, and is thor- 
oughly apace with all the constant improvements in 
his line. Mr. Craft has also been awarded first pre- 
miums at the New Jersey State Fair, where his work 
has been placed in competition with that of the recog- 
nized leading carriage-builders of New York, Cam- 
den, Trenton, Philadelphia and Eastern Pennsylva- 
nia, Wilmington, Dol., and other places. 

In the manufacture of other styles of vehicles, both 
light and heavy, there are makers in Burlington 
whose work challenges competition with any other 
in New Jersey. Many merchants' delivery wagons 
made here are specimens of thorough workmanship. 
Of these classes of wagons those made by Ellis L. 
Hubbs, successor to Abraham Clime, and Robert 
Hawkey are worthy of note. 

Foundries. — Most eligibly located for the prose- 
cution of his extensive business on Pearl Street, near 
the Delaware River, and some distance east from the 
centre of the city, the foundry of A. H. McNeal, es- 
tablished in 1872 by John McNeal & Sons, is unri- 
valed in capacity and appointments for the manufac- 
ture of iron pipe, from the largest calibre to the 
smallest, and general castings of all forms and dimen- 
sions. Erected in 1871-72 in a most substantial man- 
ner, of stone from Lambertville, and architecturally 
pleasing to the eye, the works are a very attractive 
feature, and financially a valuable acquisition to Bur- 
lington. In 1876 the firm of John McNeal & Sons 
was succeeded by that of McNeal & Archer ; the lat- 
ter, in 1880, by A. H. McNeal & Brother, who were 
succeeded in 1881 by A. H. McNeal, the present pro- 
prietor. The number of hands employed at this 
establishment is two hundred and fifty. A specialty 
is made of cast-iron water, gas, and flange-pipes, 
sugar-house, large cylinders, and heavy castings, and 
general foundry work is done. 

The Carbon Stove Company was organized in 1868, 
bv a number of capitalists, who began business in the 
large building now occupied by the National Bureau 
of Engraving, and in 1879 were succeeded by the 
Burlington Stove and Heater Company, the partners 
in which were Charles T. Earner, Edward N. Cohen, 
and L. O. Davis. This company erected the present 
works on Tatham Street. In 1881, Mr. Earner with- 
drew, and the company by the acquisition of other 
members was constituted as follows : Edward N. 
Cohen, L. O. Davis, George Johnson, F. P. F. Ran- 
dolph, and Henry S. Haines. The factory of the com- 
pany is of brick one hundred and sixty feet by three 
hundred, and in and about it two hundred and eighty 
liands are emi>loyed. Furnaces of various sizes and 
styles, ranges, cook, and parlor-stoves, wire-fence 
work, plumbers' supplies, and every kind of castings 
are manufactured. The untiring supervision of those 
most largely interested, the employment of the best 
workmen, and the turning out of first-class goods at 
economical prices have placed this enterprise among 
the foremost of its kind. 

The BuBLiNGiox Terra-Cotta Works. — Pot- 
tery and terra-cotta manufacture has never been a 
distinguishing feature of Burlington's industries, ^et 
as early as 1691 a property was sold in the place 
which was described as "a dwelling-house and pot- 
tery-house with all the tools." At various times years 
ago small pottery enterprises are said to have been 
started with more or less success. It was not until 
1875 that a factory of magnitude demanding clay as 
its "raw material" was established. That was the 
terra-cotta works of Charles Mills, from Chester 
County, Pa., in a building in the western part of the 
city, where for a short time previously advertising 
fans had been made. In 1877, Mr, Mills was suc- 
ceeded by Theodore P. Apple, who, Nov. 1, 1877, 
purchased his present property and fitted up his 
works on Pearl Street, where he manufactures drain, 
sewer, and flue-pipe, chimney-tops, and smaller arti- 
cles, of clay brought from Woodbridge, N. J., em- 
ploying several hands and a steam-engine of good 
capacity. Mr. Apple's office and salesroom is at 6G8 
North Broad Street, Philadelphia. 

The Steam Wood-Work Factory of J. T. 
Severks & Sons. — This enterprise was established 
in 1861 by Severns & Sherman. In 1866, Mr. J. T. 
Severns became sole proprietor. In 1872, Joseph P. 
Severns was admitted to a partnership in the concern, 
and the business was carried on by J. T. Severns & 
Sons until 1881, when the style of the firm changed 
to J. T. Severns & Sons, by the admission of Al- 
bertus L. Severns. AVith an experience of twenty- 
one years and long established in an extensive and 
well-arranged building on Delaware Avenue, the facil- 
ities of this firm are unsurpassed for turning out sash, 
blinds, shutters, doors, the exterior and interior wood- 
work for either dwellings and churches or wood fit- 
tings of any description. The firm are the patentees 
and manufacturers of the Burlington fruit-box, which 
in durability and carrying capacity is pronounced by 
experienced growers of small fruit decidedly superior 
to any other box in the market. Messrs. Severns & 
Sons have furnished the interior and much of the ex- 
terior wood-work for several churches in this county. 

The Straw Bottle-Envelope Factory. — For 
eleven years past Mrs. William F. Tillinghast, assisted 
by her son, has conducted successfully the manufac- 
ture of straw wrappers for bottles, commercially 
known as ''straw envelopes." In 1870, Mr. Tilling- 
hast (now deceased), believing that by economizing 
manual labor straw envelopes could be manufactured 
both in quality and price, fully equal to the importec 
article, invented and patented an ingenious machine 
for the purpose, and the business he established has 
grown to be the largest of its kind in the country 
The work is not laborious, and is mostly perfornie( 
by -young boys -and girls. About thirty hands an 
employed, and the business is not limited to "ain 
particular season of the year. About forty thousanc 
envelopes is the weekly product of the factory. 



Floxteixg- and Grist-Mills. — The old Hopkins 
grist-mill was erected prior to the Revolutionary war. 
The earliest ownership established by any record ex- 
tant was that of Ellis Wright, in 1808. In 1863, 
Christopher Eigg purchased the property of the 
Wright estate, tore down the old mill and built the 
present one a few rods farther down the creek. He 
was succeeded by his sons, Edward and George Rigg, 
who in 1877 put in a thirty horse-power steam-engine, 
doing away with the water-power previously in use. 
The mill contains three runs of stones, and is run as a 
merchant mill. It is located in the southeastern part 
of Burlington township. 

The Mitchell mill, at the head of Wood Street, was 
originally established by William Griffith as a woolen- 
factory. It was afterwards converted into a grist-mill, 
and came into the possession of the late Garret D. 
Wall. It has for many years been owned and oper- 
ated by John Mitchell. 

The flouring-mill of Ashby & Brother was built by 
E. L. Ashby, father of the present proprietors, in 
1880. It is located at the corner of York Street and 
Delaware Avenue, and is a three-story brick build- 
ing, forty-four feet by forty, containing three runs of 
stones driven by a forty horse-power steam-engine. 
A specialty is made of tlie manufacture of Ashby 
Brothers' brand of improved flour, but a general 
custom business is done. 

The National Bureau of Engraving and 
Manufacturing Company. — At the corner of 
Broad and Tatham Streets, near Assiscunk Creek, 
are located the extensive works of the National 
Bureau of Engraving and Manufacturing Company, 
whose general office is at 107 Second Street, Phila- 
delphia, which were established in Burlington in 
1879. The company is duly incorporated according 
to the laws of the State, and its business is under the 
management of H. Pennington, president, and Joseph 
R. Carpenter, secretary and treasurer. A large num- 
ber of skilled workmen are employed, and there are 
in almost constant use twenty or more of the most 
approved type-presses, ten lithographic, and over 
sixty plate-printing presses, bronziug-machines, and 
all the various and latest appliances for the thorough, 
economical, and expeditious production of ornamental 
engraving and printing in all their branches. The 
lithographic and typographic work of this company 
challenges competition with any other at home or 
abroad. Their business in the engraving and print- 
ing from steel plates bonds, certificates of stock, 
checks, etc., and in lithography and ornate labels, 
simple and elaborate show-cards, and typographical 
labels in colors is very heavy, and embraces a trade 
with the largest and closest buyers in all the States 
and foreign countries. Manufacturing their own 
inks and also every article requisite in so large a 
business, their factory embodies many establish- 
ments complete in one. Conducted by thoroughly 
experienced and courteous proprietors, this industry 

is a very important feature in the interests of Bur- 


Burlington Island and the Public Schools of 
the City and Township. — The following extract 
from the colonial laws indicates the original owner- 
ship of Burlingtou Island, and whence the city of 
Burlington obtained its title thereto, and the purpose 
to which it was dedicated : 

" Act Vlll. And for the encoui-aging of learning, and for the better 
educiitiou of youth : Ee it hereby enacted and agreed liy the Assembly 
aforesaid, tliat the Island called MaUiiiicunk [now called Matinicnnk]. 
late iu possession of Robert Stacy, with all and every appurtenances is 
hereby given, and from henceforth and forevir herealter be, and remain 
to nod for the town [city] of Burlington and for others concerned therein 
within the 1st and 2nd Tenths, the rents, issues and profits thereof and 
therefrom, yeai ly arising to be emfiloyed for the maintenance of a bcIkmiI 
for the education of youth within the said town [city], and on the 1st 
and 2nd Tenths."! 

Thus it will be seen (and to the same effect is a 
tradition whicli has long passed current in Burlington) 
that Robert Stacy owned Matinicunk Island; and 
with a view to the advancement of civil liberty and 
public enlightenment, he made over his title to the 
Colonial Assembly for the purpose of maintaining 
schools in the city. It is supposed that soon after 
receiving this gift the authorities of the city dedicated 
Stacy Street in honor of the memory of this good and 
enlightened man, of whom little is known, but who 
is supposed to have been a member of the Society of 

The following records from the township minute- 
book detail an early plan for a public school to be 
sustained by the island fund : 

"At a Town meeting held March 11, 17G7, in and for the City of Bur- 
lington, on tlie secuud Tuesday in March, pui-suant to the Laws of the 
Province of New .Jersey in such Cases Lately made & Provided. ... A 
proposal was now made for Instituting a public and Free School in tho 
City of Burlington, and that the rent of the Island should be applied to 
the use of tlie Free School for which purpose Ihe said Island was vested 
in the Town of Burlington, whicli being Considered, and many having 
spoken their sentiments thereon. It was unanimously agrred that tho 
Mauagers now Chosen do retain in their bands the rents and jirofits of 
the said Island arising after the 25"' Instant to and for the use Last 

"Richard Wells, Daniel Ellis, William Dillwyn, Isaac Ihielings, John 
Lawrence, Samuel Alliii.son,andSaninel How wa8ai)|Kiinted n Conimiitee 
to Diaw lip & Digest the scheme or plan of such schools as shall appear 
to them most Likely to advance the good purposes of useful education 
it Instruction. 

" Dan'l Ellis, Clk." 

"At a general or annual Town meeting held in and for the City of 
Burlington on tlie fourth Day of Way, 17(i7. The Committee appointed 
at Ihe Last Town Meeting to Diaw up and Digest the Scheme or Plan 
of a School made Ihe following rejiurt : 

"'We, the Biibsciibei^, tho Conimitlee appointed to Consider it Draw 
up a plan for a school iu the City of Biiilington, having several tiniog 
mot thereon and Maturely Considered the same, do report that we are 
unanimously of opinion that the establishment of n good school for tho 
Education of youth in the said City w ill be of great use to the luhabit- 
ants of Burlington, as well as O.h.Ts, and allho' the Act of Assembly of 
1082 gives the rents of the Biiilington Island for the usoof such a sclmol 
in general, yet a.s Ihe Citizens of Burlington from a Charitable Desire that 
Orjihan Children and those whoso parents are not able to pay for their 
schooling shall receive the Benefit thereof It was agreed and Declared 
that the said routs shall be DisiKjsed and npiilied for the education of 

' Sec Coloui il L.Tws, Sept. 2C, 1CS2. Spiccrand Lcaming, p. 4Co. 



•uch children only, we lliink the same bIioiiU be applied to no Other 
use, and that it l>e reconieiided to tlie overseei'S Cliosen for tlie eaid 
Island to educate tlie eniJ Poor Childien iu the school when estaMished, 
at least iintill u iiiiijurit.v of the Citizens of Burlington shall be of opin- 
ion that a separate school for Cliaritj- gcliolars will be most useful and 
advantageous. That in Consequence thereof we liave in llie Artikles 
herewilh presented Said Nothing of the rents of the said Island as we 
tliink agreeable to the Act of A ssvmbl)- aforesaid the Disposition thereof 
to the good pur|iose8 therein Expressed, To which the resolution or gift 
•foresaid of the Town btdongs to the overseers of Ihe said Island Chosen 
as mentioned in the said ai t is no wa.vs Inconsistent. That we think a 
school for the Equal and united Education of Kich and Poor « itliont 
Distinction will be most Likely to promote and nnikc so good an Insti- 
tution Flourish and increase, Especially in its fir.'^t es^taldishment, and 
when an luconvenienre Appears we liave pro\idid in the Articles for 
»ny reformation or alteration that may be thought Necessary. 

'• ' Jonx Lawrence 
"' D.iMF.L Elms 

" 'Signed with an Exception lo '• ' Samuel How- 

uniting the schools & Stocks "'Isaac IIi'f.lingr 

"'Rich'' Wrtis. "'AViii.iam Dii.lwyn 

" ' BunLixGTON, May y 4<k, 1707 '"Samuel Allinsox,'" 

" It was now unanimously agreed that the rents of the Builingtun or 
liattiuicunk Island shall be forever hereafter applied to the schooling 
such Orphan children and the Children of th< se persons who are not 
able to pay for their Education as are the most proper Objects of Charity 
in the Town of Burlington and Others Concerned within the fiist and 
Second Tenths and It is Itecommendcd to the MunogeiTi or Overseers of 
tlie Said Itland h'-reafter Appointed to lilace the said Children for their 
Education in llie School Already Agreed on and that is Expected to be 
Established in Burlington for the Education of Youth to be Called and 
known by the name of the Burlington Free School as soon as the 6;inie 
shall be formed. And until the foundation of the said Free School to 
apply I he rent of the Current year in the same manner but to such other 
good school as shall be in Burlington. " Dax'l Ellis, Clk." 

"At the annual town meeting held at the city hall in Burlington 
Warch 11th, IMIO, it was 

" itooherf, That the Managers of the Island and Freeschool be re- 
quested to report to the next annual Town meeting in writing, the sys- 
tem which has been adopted in managing the Freeschool and such im- 
provements as may be made; together with the state of the Funds, 
and generally such circumstances relative to the Ins^tiltitioii as to them 
may appear lo be interesting and proper to be laid befoie the Meeting." i 


confuiinity with a K.-solnlion of the Town Meeting last year, the man- 
agers of the Free-school Report, That the wlude revenue of the Island 
amounting to Xb^O annually is a]iplied to the schooling of the children 
of the Tow n, twenty-five of whom are generally on the List, and fre- 
quently one or two more. It has of late been the practice of the man- 
agers to agree with the mister quarterly, and they occasionally visit 
the school to inspect the progress of the children in their studies. A 
LegTicy of £20i» was left to the Freeschool by Mary Coxe, the Interest to 
be employed iu schooling children, or thePiincipal in building a school- 
House. As it did not appear best to enlarge the scho(d at that time, a 
part of this sum has been expended in part payment for a Lot, on which 
jt was contemplated at Some future period to erect a School-House, the 
residue remains on Interest. 

"With respect to that part of the Minute of the Town Meeting which 
relates to alteration or improvement in the Management of the School, 
Hie Managers are not aware that much is now wanted. After the ex- 
piration of the present Leases of the Island, which will he on the 25th 
of March, 1818, the inciease<l revenue will in all probability render an 
eulargemeut of the plan of the school necessary and proper. 

" Amo8 Hutchin 
"Abraham Stockton 
".loiiN Harkins, Ju.N' 
" J. McIlvaine 
" Wm. Allinsox 
"S.J. Smith. 
" BuBLiNG" March 1807. 
" Rough statement of the Funds of the school : 

Amt. Income. i Expenditure. 

Kent of the Island 8213.33 I In schooling children $213.33 

liiterestof the nnappropri- Interest of purchase money 

ated part of Mary Coxe's of the Lot 24.60 

legacy 2C.83 j 

" Note— The cost of the lot was fiJOO ; $150 of which was paid on cxe- 
cntion of the deed. The residue to be paid some years hence, the man- 
agers paying the interest annually." 

"March 12th, 1811. 

" On motion of William Coxe, Esq , Resolved that it be a Standing Reg- 
ulation iu the government of the Free School ofihis Town-hip, that no 
child be continued in said sclioid, who is not in the Habit of attending 
some place of worship on the Sabbath; and that the Managers be in- 
structed to inform the parents of the children now iu the school for 
their government." ' 

Report of the Managebr of Island and Free School. — "We the 
Subscribers, managers of the Burlington Island and Free School, lie- 
port that we have leased to Daniel Williams and James S. Woodward the 
said Island for the term of Five Years, for the sum of Seventeen Hun- 
dred Dollars, and the Fishery thereon for one hundred and fifty Dollars, 
making together Eighteen hundred <t fifty Dollars per year (the Man- 
agers to be at the expense of pmling the buildings and fencings on sjiid 
Island in Tenantable repair). We also rejioit that we have received of 
the Tow nsliipSlC^.SO for gravel had some years back, and that there was 
a balance in the hands of the Managers on Settlement the 24th of April, 
1818, of f40.22^. Making, together with the rent, the sum of Si053.74!^. 
We further Report that we have made the following repairs, Ac, &c., 
viz.: Purchased 4.3UO cedar Rails, built two new corn ciibs, and tlupr- 
oughly repaiied the two houses on said Island. All of which, including 
the Teachers' wages for C2 scholai-s, amounts to Sll'J7.20^^, Si 123 85 of 
which has been paid, and there is due to sundry persons the sum of 
$873.41 J/4, which sum the balance of rent whith will be due the 2Jth In- 
stant, will i>ay and also leave a balance in favor of the Island of |oC.40j/^. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

" Burlington, March 9, 18rj. 


"Abraham Stockton. 
"Naihanif.l W. Cole. 
"THO.MAS Adams, 
"bveb wooi.max. 
"George Allen. 
"Joshua R. Smith." 



"The Managers of the Island and Free School Report 
"That they have been attentive ihiiing the Past year to the diitiesde- 
volved upon them, w hich a reference to their mimitcs. mvw on the Table 
subject to the Inspection of the meeting, will incire clearly demonstrate. 
"In pursuing these duties tiny ha\e lound them arduuusand import- 
ant. The Island is in it.self a very Valuable Estate, and by tin ir judicious 
management and Improvement, w hich lime. Care, and Patient Persever- 
ance Can alone eflect, it will be found fully competent to answer the de- 
sign of the Benevolent donor in affording the Benefits of School Learn- 
ing to all the Poor children of this City and Prove a Blessing of Great 
Imporlanee to the community. In order to a greater number of Scholai-s 
the Methodist Uld Sleeting llou<clias been rented for 3 years, at $15 per 
Annum, and occupied as the school-room since the [blank] of [blank] 
month, 1821, When under the Tuition of Edward Ei win, we hope that 
considerable improvement has been made in the order, Discipline, and 
General Management. Yet we are aware that much greater improve- 
ments may yet be acconiplifhcd by further continued patient and close 
attention The Island Farms have been Leased for 5 years from the 2.")lh 
of the Present month, to John B. Burr and Francis B.and William War- 
ner, step Brotheis, young men of good character, from Springfield. They 
are to pay $7(10 in money and SjOO in Improvements per Annum, the 
said Improvements to be mutually agreed upon between the tenants and 
the successors of this Board, as well as the price to be allowed for making 
them. The Father, William Warner,a Respectable and Competent man, 
is bound as joint surety with them for the fulfillment of the Terms, and 
we Anticipate with Satisfaction that the next Board of Managers will 
have in their power under their management of the Farm to make a 
favorable report to the next Town Meeting relative to the Branch of the 

From the records above quoted it is certain tliat 
rents accrued early in the present century for the 
support of the school or schools ; but after that ol 
1682 no legislative action was taken concerning the 
island and schools until Nov. 16, 1824, when the State 
Legislature passed "an act to incorporate the mana- 
gers of the Island School Fund for the education oi 
youth in the town [city] of Burlington." In October. 



1848, by act of the Legislature, the island managers 
were combined jointly with the public school trus- 
tees for all general school purposes for District No. 1, 
within theboundsof the city — managers seven, trustees 
seven, — but in matters pertaining to the control of the 
island the managers act by themselves, turning over 
all proceeds to the public schools, and so save taxa- 
tion in the district named. Most of the State school 
districts are taxed to erect school buildings, but by the 
generous gift of Mr. Stacy, District No. 1 has been 
saved this expense, except in the case of the colored 
school, for which a tax of three thousand dollars was 

The Stacy Street school building, owned by the 
city, was erected about forty years ago. Ten years 
later the island managers erected the St. Mary's Street 
building, costing six thousand dollars, and some four- 
teen years since the managers paid two thousand five 
hundred dollars for the Federal Street building for 
colored children. About 1878 the island managers 
erected the York Street public school building at a 
cost of six thousand dollars. 

In • 1853 the Legislature authorized the island 
managers to sell the south half of the island. It 
brought at public sale over twenty thousand one 
hundred dollars, Elias Boudinot, Charles Lippincott, 
and J. P. Fireng and others being among the highest 
bidders. The following year these parties formed the 
Matiuicuiik or Burlington Island Land Association. 
The association paid ten thousand one hundred dol- 
lars down and gave a mortgage for balance, which 
proceeds tlie managers have invested on the Hays and 
Gardiner farms. The interest is paid to March 25, 

In November, 1881, there being no tenant, the 
managers commenced foreclosure proceedings. The 
property was going to waste, and the principal and 
interest were in danger. In February last, however, 
by mutual agreement between the managers and a 
Mr. Brock, of Philadelphia, representing the Island 
Loan Association (who as president thereof had con- 
veyed the title to Mr. Evans, of the same city), the 
latter paid one thousand dollars on the principal of 
ten thousand dollars, and six hundred dollars interest 
up to March 29, 1882, leaving in the hands of the 
managers nine thousand dollars in bonds on the 
southwest half of the island. 

The island managers are elected by the people 
from the best representative men. They give their 
time and labor gratuitously for the public welfare of 
our city, in the growth and advancement of our free 
schools, and yet but few people are aware of the work 
and care taken by these gentlemen. The present 
board is constituted as follows: Hon. Caleb G. Ridg- 
way, president ; John McNeal, John Broomhead, 
Richard F. Mott, George Rigg, El wood Conner, and 
Henry Hollemback. George Watts is secretary and 

The establishment of free schools in Burlington 

was, as has been seen, nearly contemporary with the 
beginning of its civilization. History and tradition 
both bear honorable record of the teachers of an early 
date, " The names of Rowland Ellis, Staughton, the 
Hanckels, and Pik«," and later those of William 
Lowden, William F. Smith, Davis, and others are re- 
called as those of " principals of high scholastic at- 
tainments and thorough disciplinarians." 

The only building now standing to remind the resi- 
dent of the schools of the early period is the "o!d 
free school building" on the northeast corner of St. 
Mary and Broad Streets, owned by St. Barnabas' 

The present public school system, so ably and 
thoroughly conducted, was organized in 185G, mainly 
through the instrumentality of John Griscom, LL.D., 
with the co-operation of Hon. Thomas Milner, Wil- 
liam R. Allen, Thomas Dutton, and others. 

Since 1867, Mr. Wilbur Watts, a native of Burling- 
ton, has discharged the onerous and responsible duties 
of principal of the schools of the city of Burlington 
and of the boys' grammar school to the satisfaction of 
all classes. The other schools of the city and town- 
ship are in charge of able and experienced instruc- 

The township of Burlington is divided into four 
school districts, under the public school laws of the 
State, known as " Union District, No. 1," " Irick Dis- 
trict, No. 2," "Mitchell District, No. 3," and "Oak- 
land District, No. 4." The statistics of these several 
districts, from the last published report of the State 
Board of Education (1880), are as follows : 

Union Didrivf. — Amount received from all sources 
for public school purposes, $5869.03; value of school 
property, $31,000; number of children of the school 
age, 1700; number of teachers employed, 1 male and 
13 females; salary of male $100 per month, salary of 
females (average) $40 per month. 

Irick District. — Amount received from- all sources 
for public school purposes, $382.26 ; value of school 
property, $1000 ; number of children of the school 
age, 114; number of teachers employed, 1 male; salary, 
$40 per month. 

Mitchell District. — Amount received from all sources 
for public school purposes, $300; value of school 
property, $2500; number of children of the school 
age, 100 ; number of teachers employed, 1 female ; 
salary, $33 per month. 

Oakland District. — Amount received from all sources 
for public school purposes, $300; value of school 
property, $400; number of children of the school 
age, 60 ; number of teachers employed, 1 male ; 
salary, $30.44 per mouth. 


Friends in Burlington. — The settlement of Bur- 
lington having been eHiected by Friends, their history 
in West New Jersey is largely dependent upon the 
records of that meeting. These have been kept with 



■wonderful care and accuracy considering the disadvan- 
tages of tlie situation in early years. Burlington and 
Salem, intimately connected in their early history, 
are the oldest settlements on the east banks of the 

The company of Friends landing at the former 
place from the ship "Kent" in 1G77 comprised two 
hundred and thirty Quakers, half of whom were from 
Yorkshire, the rest Londoners. Tlieir first gather- 
ings for worship were under one of the ship's sails 
used as a tent. As houses were built they met at 
each other's dwellings, and thcTi in a house on what 
is now Broad Street, adapted by alterations for the 
purpose. In 1682 proceedings were begun for a new 
meeling-house, exclusively for purposes of worship. 

shape with the main building. It was of frame, the 
site being nearly the same as that of the present one 
on High Street, except that it stood slightly farther 
west and south. The house remained untouched for 
one hundred years, when in 1785 the present brick 
building was erected immediately in front of the old 
one, and the material in the original employed in 
putting up the school-house on York Street, the prop- 
erty of the Preparative Meeting. 

The first entry on the books of the meeting runs as 
follows, viz. : 

"Since by the pood providence of God, many Friends witli llieir fam- 
ilies liMve tiaiisporled tlieinstlves into tliis province of West Jersey, the 
Kaid Fiiends in lliese upper parts liave found it needlnl, accoiding to 
llie ])iaclice in tlje place we came from, to settle Monthly Meetings for 
the well-ordering of the affairs of the church; it was agned that ac- 
coidiiigly it ghimld he done, and accordingly it 
was done the lo"> of 6 nio. 1C7S." 

Yearly and Quarterly Meetings 
were soon established, the first an- 
nual gathering being at the house 
of Tliomas Gardiner, 28th of Gth 
month, 1G81. It opened with the 
title, " A General Yearly I\leeting 
held for Friends of Pennsylvania, 
East and West Jerseys, and of the 
Adjacent Provinces." Until the 
new ineeting-house was finished the 
meeting continued to be held at the 
same place. Thomas Gardiner died 
in lGf)4. He held several positions 
of trust in tiie province, and was a 
valuable member of the community. 
The exact location of his house is un- 
the contractor for tiie building being Francis Collings. certain ; it was probably on High Street above Broad. 
Upon its completion in IGS.j it was discovered to be ' About 1690 the Yearly Meeting began to be held at 
too cold for Use in winter; consequently five years Burlington and P]iiladcl}'hia alternately, and in 1760 
later (1690) they made a brick addition capable of it was permanently transferred to the latter ])laco. 
being warmed from a large fireplace, on the hearth The first meeting referred to occupied four days witli 
of which blazed an enormous wood fire. its transactions, and was adjourned to meet in seventh 

month of the following year. 

For many years the Quarterly Meeting 
was held at the house of William Biddle 
(frequently written Bcedle), probably until 
about 1711. After that date it met alter- 
nately at Burlington and Chesterfield until 
1827. William Biddle's house was at 
Mount Ho]ie, near what is now Kinkora, 
and as Friends were widely sei)arated, 
many of them were obliged to travel very 
long distances in order to attend. The 
trans.actions of the first Quarterly Meeting 
are recorded with the following preamble : 

"WiiERF.AS, tlic Yearly Meeting saw it necessary yt 
there should lie Quarterly Meetings Uept in several places 
JlwLNLs .Vt.h.l..N^-.,v,loL, ..ou. i„ Ihis Province of West New Jeisey; and yt this Quar- 

The original structure was a remarkable affair, an *"'>■ Meeting of Friends for Dm iington and y Faiu should i.eheidat 

. * • *• 1 f .1 *• ,■ -i the house of William Beedle in Mansfield (being pretty near y nmldle 

ancient painting done at the time representing it as ^^ ^^.^^^^^^ u-ionging to i.) at y t mes hereafter mentioned, vi... upon 

hexagonal in form, with the roof of a steep pitch, , the last second d^y of the 9 mo: last second day of y v.: mo; last second 
surmounted by a sort of cupola, corresponding in day of y ;i njo, and y last second day of y C mo. and to begin at y IC" 




lioui-, wliiuli said conclusion of y Yearly Meeting y Friends of tliis 
uiecliiig are 8iiti?fied with. 
"John Curtis', Clerk. 

"20 of 9 mo, 1G81." 

Burlington Monthh' Meeting comprised the Partic- 
ular Meetings held at Siiackainaxon and Chester, Pa., 
Rancocas, and Friends situated about the Falls, Hoar- 
kills, and Newcastle, also those on Long Island, who 
in 1681 "desired to be considered members of this 
Monthly Meeting." 

In 1080, Burlington Monthly Meeting addressed to 
London Yearly Meeting the epistle received by them 
i'rom Friends in America. It is quoted at length in 
Bowden's " History of Friends in America," page 
402. In 1682, Christopher Taylor and Samuel Jen- 
nings were appointed to draw up an answer to a let- 
ter received from George Fox inquiring as to the state 
of the meeting. His reply was written and " left with 
Samuel Jennings to send it safe to George Fox, and 
was directed to John Bringhurst, at y* Book in Gra- 
cious^ Street, London." Several other epistles were 
also received from George Fox, three of the original 
copies, bearing date respectively 1075, 1077, and 1082, 
being now in possession. Tiiey are addressed to 
"Thomas Olive, William Peachee, and William 
Cooper, to be disperst abroad among Friends." 

Tlie meeting began at this time to grow very rapidly, 
and soon^issumed its largest proportions. TJiere are 
some interestingly quaint minor details noticed in the 
minutes, as for instance : " Peter Woolwet is willing 
to make Graves. . . . and Friends are willing to see 
him paid an old English shilling for such mens or 
woinens graves, yt may not be paid for by ye persons 
yt employ him." Bernard Davenish in 1089 and 
James Satterthwaite in 1095 succeeded to the posi- 
tion of sexton. The Quarterly Meeting records in 
1681 have notice of an interesting meeting with the 
Indians by means of a native interpreter. 

A statement presented by William Dockwra to 
the Lordsof Trade, sitting at Whitehall, London, dated 
September, 1699, states the number of freeholders in 
West Jersey to be eight hundred and thirty-two, 
whereof two hundred and sixty-six are Quakers, and 
adds that "the Quakers are more numerous in Bur- 
lington County than in all the other couutys." (See 
New Jersey Archives, vol. ii. p. 305.) 

In consequence of this increase in numbers. Friends 
began to build meeting-houses in other parts, and with 
permission and aid of Burlington established separate 
meetings. These were respectively at (1) Springfield, 
(2) llancocas, (3) Mount Holly, (4) Shrewsbury, (5) 
Trenton, and (0) Crosswicks. 

Of course many by this time had arrived who were 
not Friends. These were chiefly of the Churcli of 
England. The Rev. John Talbot, with George Keith 
(a Separatist who was in 1092 disowned by Philadel- 
phia Monthly Meeting), viewed the increasing number 

1 Grace CLurcli Street uow,— ^. J. C. Hire. 

of Friends with great intolerance, in consideration of 

their peaceable behavior. The former was rector of 

St. Mary's parish; the latter, having joined the 

i church, was returned by the "Society for Propagat- 

i ing the Gospel in Foreign Parts" as their first Amer- 

j ican missionary. The controversy raised by them 

' was allowed to pass unnoticed by Friends, who 

; quietly declined to reply to their hot attacks. Friends 

I were shortly after granted permission by Governor 

Robert Hunter to affirm instead of taking the usual 


In 1729 steps were taken, by appealing to the As- 
sembly, to have the evil effect of fairs remedied. 
These had been instituted in 1701 by law, and were 
held quarterly, the market days in West Jersey being 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays. Each fair 
continued for six days, and was regarded of sufficient 
importance to warrant the adjournment of Monthly 
Meeting on that account. Tlie last instance of this 
action, which continued for many years, is noticed in 
eighth month, 1741. At this time thirty and forty 
representatives were frequently sent to attend the 
Yearly Meeting. 

An interesting little building has recently been de- 
molijshed, which deserves some passing notice ns 
having had valuable associations. This is the small 
English-brick building once standing near the corner 
of Pearl, on High Street. It was the ofiice of Samuel 
Jennings, Governor of the province and Speaker of 
the Assembly. The first Continental money of New 
Jersey was afterwards printed there, and in 1705 
Smith's '■ History of New Jersey" was also published 
at the same place. Isaac Collins (who in 1770 became 
king's printer) made it his office, and before the 
school-house was finished in York Street it was tem- 
porarily occupied for the purposes of a school. 

The outbreak of the Revolution brought great dis- 
turbances on the peaceable community. The occu- 
pation of Philadelphia by Gen. Howe, in 1777, pre- 
vented access to that place, and property of all sorts 
was confiscated. The meeting-houses at Burlington 
and Trenton were occupied by the militia, and much 
destruction of goods and estate followed the quarter- 
ing of troops at those places. 

The record at that time of the number of members 
in Burlington Monthly Meeting and the Particular 
Meetings composing it is as follows, viz. : 

Pmlin^toii Partic\ilar Mcetlns; Ifirt 

OlilSiniMijfiilcJ lu; 

Jt.iiiciicas let 

Upper Springfield .5 

Jliiii>ficM no 

Jlunbticld Neck tio 

Total 5ST 

The uneventful history of Burlington Electing 
during the present century requires little comment. 
The war of 1812 made some disturbance, but far less 
than the previous great struggle. Schools were care- 
ful! maintained by Friends, and many able teachers 
I have been among those cm])loyed in them. The mar- 



riages in Burlington up to the present date have been 
regularly recorded, and it is to be regretted that no 
authentic list of the ministers of that meeting is ob- 

George Fox was " born in the month called July," 
then the fifth month, old style, in the year 1624, at 
Drayton-in-the-Clay, now called Fenny Drayton, 
Leicestersliire, England. His father was a weaver by 
trade, an upright man noted for his probity, and his 
mother a pious woman, sprung from the stock of the 
martyrs, and" accomplished above most of her degree 


in the place where she lived." They were members of 
the Established Church, and endeavored to educate 
their children in conformity with its doctrines and 
mode of worship. From his childhood George " ap- 
peared to be of another frame of mind than the rest of 
his brethren, being more religious, inward, still, solid, 
and serving," as appeared by the answers he would give, 
and the questions he would ask in relation to divine 
things. He abstained from the sports of childhood ; 
was treated with great tenderness by his parents, who 
encouraged his serious deportment and pious dispo- 
sition. His school education was limited, but it ap- 
pears that he learned in youth " to read pretty well 
and to write sufficiently to convey his meaning to 
others." Some of his relatives observing his serious 
deportment wished that he should be educated for 
a priest, a term then applied to ministers of the Es- 
tablished Church, but others advised adifferentcourse, 
and finally it was concluded to place him with a man 
who was by trade a shoemaker, who dealt in wool and 
kept sheep. During a part of his minority George 
wuo cmj loyed as a shepherd, a business well adapted 

to his contemplative spirit, and, as William Penn 
observes, was " a fit emblem of his future service in 
the church of Christ." Being impelled by a sense 
of duty to withdraw from the companionship of men, 
in the year 1643 he left his relatives, and traveled to 
Lutterworth and Northampton, making some stay in 
those places, and thence passing on he arrived in 
Buckinghamshire the following year. During this 
journey he kept aloof from all society, sometimes 
seeking retirement in his chamber, and often walking 
in the fields or in the chase to wait upon the Lord. 
At this time he was subjected to much mental suffering 
through deep religious exercise, for although he had 
led a life of remarkable purity he found within him- 
self a conflict between the powers of light and of 
darkness, he was assailed by strong temptations, and 
the enemy of his soul rose like a flood to overwhelm 
him. At this time he read the Scriptures diligently, 
and prayed for divine aid to open their hidden 

Proceeding on his journey he came to London in 
the year 1644, at which time the city was the focus of 
intense excitement concerning religion and govern- 
ment. The celebrated Long Parliament and the 
Westminster Assembly of divines were both in ses- 
sion. Having driven the king from his capital and 
overthrown the hierarchy of the Anglican Church, 
they were now engaged in framing another'system of 
church government and civil polity. The Presbyte- 
rians were the most powerful of the Puritan sects, 
were exceedingly zealous in their religious exercises, 
and so rigid in their principles that they resorted to 
coercive means for the suppression of what they called 
heresy, and accordingly passed persecuting laws. 
The Baptists were then the most tolerant of the 
prominent sects, and George Fox found tenderness of 
feeling among them, but could not join them in re- 
ligious profession. He soon after returned home at 
the solicitation of his distressed relatives ; was advised 
by some to become a soldier, by others to marry, both 
of which propositions grieved him. He remained 
about home for a year, during which time he had 
many conferences with ministers, but failed to receive 
the consolation sought for. After a time he ceased to 
attend the parish church, which displeased his rela- 
tives, but he showed them from the Scriptures that 
there was an anointing within man to teach him, and 
that the Lord would teach his people himself. " Hav- 
ing removed to another place he found a people who 
relied much upon dreams. He told them that unless 
'they could distinguish between dream and dream 
they would confound all together, for there are three 
sorts of dreams: multitude of business sometimes 
caused dreams, and there were the whisperings of 
Satan in man in the night season, and there were 
speakings of God in man in dreams.' These people 
afterwards advanced in religious experience and be- 
came Friends." He was led by a sense of duty to 
travel to various point-, where he met friendly and 



religious people. He fasted much, walked abroad in 
solitary places, sat in hollow trees and secluded places, 
reading his Bible. Thus he grew in knowledge of 
divine things, not by a reliance upon any man, book, 
or writing, "but through the operation of divine 
grace in the soul." The long and painful exercises 
through which he was passing were designed by In- 
finite Wisdom to qualify him for the work of the min- 
istry, to which he was called by the Great Head of the 
church in the year 1647. His communications at first 
were short, but impressive and powerful, and his chief 
concern was to call their attention to the word or 
spirit of God manifested in the soul, which he usually 
designated by the expressive scriptural term, "the 
true light that lighteth every man that cometh into 
the world." 

During the years 1647 and 1648 in many places 
meetings of Friends were gathered, who were led to 
relinquish their dependence on outward observances, 
and to receive with gladness the message of George 
Fox, that "Jesus Christ teaches his people himself 
through the influence of his light, spirit, and power." 
Tiie effect of his preaching was so great that many 
ministers of note became able coadjutors with him, 
and large meetings of Friends were established in 
various parts of the kingdom, numbering about forty 
thousand members. He held meetings at private 
liouses, by the roadside, on the hill-top, or on the 
rocks, as well as traveled in Holland, Germany, and 
America, exhorting people to "mind the light within." 
He was frequently imprisoned for uttering what he 
believed to be tiie truth. At other times be was 
stoned, beaten with clubs and Bibles, placed in stocks, 
and sometimes committed to houses of correction. 
He has left a journal, which, with many papers on 
religious topics, are highly valued by Friends and 
others. William Penn, who was long and intimately 
acquainted with him, in his writings says, " He was a 
man that God endowed with a clear and wonderful 
depth, a discerner of others' spirits, and very much 
the master of his own. And his ministry and writings 
show they are from one that was not taught of man, 
nor had learned what he said by study. He had an 
extraordinary gift in opening the Scriptures, but above 
all he excelled in prayer. The inwardness and weight 
of his spirit, the reverence and solemnity of his ad- 
dress and behavior, and the fewness and fullness of his 
words have often struck even strangers with admira- 
tion, as they used to reach others with consolation. 
Thousands can truly say he was of an excellent spirit 
and savor among them, and because thereof the 
most excellent spirits loved him with an unfeigned 
and unfading love." He died on the 13th of the 11th 
month, 1690, being then in the sixty-seventh year of 
his age, having been a minister over forty years. 

Burling-ton Friends' Meeting.— In most Friends' 
Meetings after 1827 there was a separation ; such was 
not the case with Burlington, as nearly all the mem- 
bers remained with the Orthodox branch. After a 

time, however, a few Friends rented the old cocoonery 
then standing on East Union Street, about where the 
Methodist Church now stands, until in 1845 the pres- 
ent convenient brick edifice was built on Main Street. 
John Parrish and Lydia P. Mott were ministers. 



Among those who were members may be noted 
Thomas Zell, Thomas Hopkins, Dr. Chas. Ridgway, 
Empsom Haines, and Uriah Costell, who with their 
families and others made the meeting number about 
forty. The meeting is now small. 

St. Mary's Church.— On the 13th of July, 1695, 
"several persons in and about Burlington, together with 
John Tatham, Edward Hunloke, and Nathaniel West- 
land," bought a piece of land on Wood Street, near 
Broad, for a " Christian burying-ground." On the 
16th of September, 1702, this ground was enlarged, 
and the whole fenced in. On the 29th of October the 
missionaries, Keith and Talbot, reached Burlington. 

Keith's " Journal" says, — 

" November 1, Sunday. We preached at the Town-House, at Burling- 
ton (the Church not being then built), and we had a great Auditory of 
diverse sorts, sduic of the Church, and some of the late Converts from 
Quakerism. Mr. Talbot preached before Noon, and !• in tlie afternoon. 
My text was Jolin xvii. 3. Col. Hamilton, then Governor of West Jersey, 
was present hotli Forenoon and Afternoon, and at his Invitation, we 
dined with him. 

"Feb. 21, Sunday, 1702. I preached at Burlington, in West Jersey, on 
Rom. X. I, 8, 9 and, Feb. 22. I baptized llie wife of Mr. Kob. VVlieelcr 
and his three children and fiveotliers: in all, 9 persons. Ho and his 
wife had been Quakers, but are come over to the Church." 

On the 6th of March the land adjoining the " Chri.s- 
tian burying-ground" on the south, being the lot on 
the corner of Wood and Broad Streets, was bought by 
Nathaniel Westland, Robert Wheeler, and Hugh 
Huddy, as " ffeoflees in trust for the erecting of a 
Church and other buildings, as occasion may serve 
for Charitable uses," "for the Sum of Twenty Pounds 
of Currant Silver money within the Province." 

On the 3d of May, 1703, Mr. Talbot writes : " I was 
at Burlington last Lady day, and after prayers we went 
to the Ground where they were going to build a Church, 
and I laid the first stone, which I hope will be none 
other than the House of God and Gate of Heaven to 
the People. Coll. Nicholson, Governor here, was the 



chief founder of this as well as many more ; and in- 
deed he has been the benefactor to all the Churches 
on this land of North America. God bless this Church 
and let tliem prosper that love it. We called this 
Ciiurch St. Mary'.«, it being upon her day." 
Keith's "Journal" says, — 

"Aiigu$t 22, Suniiny, 1703. I preached at the New Church at Biirling- 
ton, on 2 Sam. xxiii. 3, 4. My Lord Corubtirij was prespul and many Gen- 
tlcni"n who accompanied him, hoth from Neic Yuri:, and the two Jerseys 
having liis Commission to be Governor of T>V^( and East Jersey, Read 
Ht the Town House there, f=ome Days before. It was the first Sermon 
that was Trcached in that Church." 

On the 2d of April, 1704, Nathaniel Westland, 
Hugh Huddy, Robert Wheeler, William Budd, and 
tliirteen others sent a petition to England that the 
Rev. John Talbot " may receive orders to settle with 
us, and indeed he is generally so respected by us that 
we should esteem it a great happiness to enjoy him, 
and we have great hopes God Almighty will make 
him very Instrumental not only to confirm and build 
us up in the true orthodox doctrine, but also to bring 
many over from the Quakers." 

Keith's "Journal" has this minute: 

" Mr. Talhol lias Baptized most of tliem wlio have been Baptized, since 
onr .\rrival among them, and particularly all the CbiMrcii, V«)th 3I;iles 
and Females of \yiltiam Duild, who fornieily was a Quaker-Preacher, hut 
is come over from Quakerism, to the Church, with divers others of the 
Keiglilonrhood, in the Conntry about the Tow n of BiirHn'jIou, who come 
usiuilly to the Church at Burliiiglon on the Lord's-Uay ; some of them, 
S X, Eight, and some of them Ten, or Twelve Miles, and some of them 

On the 2d of November, 1705, fifteen of the clergy, 
including several of the Church of Sweden, met in 
Burlington, when an address was drawn up. signed, 
and sent to the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, in which these are the opening Avords : 

" The presence and assistance of a Suffragan Bishop 
is most needful to ordain such persons as are fit to be 
called to serve in the sacred Ministry of the Church. 
We have been deprived of the advantages that might 
have been received of some Presbyterian & Inde- 
pendent Ministers that formerly were, and of others 
that are still willing to conform & receive the Holy 
Character for want of a Bishop to give. The Bap- 
tized want to be confirmed. Their presence is neces- 
sary in the Councils of these Provinces to prevent 
the inconveniences which the Church labors under by 
the Influences which Seditious Men's Counsels have 
upon the public administration, &. the oppositions 
wliicli they make to the good inclinations of well-af- 
fected people. He is wanted not only to govern and 
direct us, but to Cover us from the Malignant Eflfects 
of those misrepresentations that have been made by 
some persons empower'd to admonish and inform 
against us who indeed want admonitions themselves." 

This address, with a letter commendatory of Mr. 
Talbot, was sent by his hand to England. He re- 
turned to America in 1707-8, and " acquainted us that 
l»e had presented our luimble Address to Her Maj- 
esty, and the other Letters that we sent, and that Her 

Majesty had been graciously pleased to give us Lead, 
and Glass, and Pulpit Cloth, and Altar Cloth, and a 
Silver Chalice, and Salver for the Communion Table 
and a Brocade Altar Cloth, and that she had also sent 
Lead, and Glass, and Pulpit Cloths, and Altar Cloths 
for the Churches of Hopewell and Salem, which we 
received by the hands of the Honorable Col. Robert 
Quarry. He also brought us an Embossed Silver 
Chalice and Patten, the gift of Madam Catharine 
Bovey, of Flaxley." 

Jan. 25, 1709, a charter was granted to "The Min- 
ister, Church wardens and Vestrymen of the Church 
of St. Mary in Burlington," by which "the Rev. Mr. 
John Talbot, Rector, Mr. Robert Wheeler, and Mr. 
George Willis, Church-Wardens, and Col. Daniel 
Coxe, Lieut.-Col. Huddy, Alexander Grifl^th, Her 
Majesty's Attorney-General, Jeremiah Bass, Her Maj- 
esty's Secretary of this Province, and sundry others 
were constituted a Body Corporate." 

In April, 1711, the church received from the Hon. 
Col. Robert Quarry "the gift of a large silver Beaker 
with a cover well engraved for the use of the Com- 

Oct. 29, 1712, Governor Hunter, in behalf of the 
S. P. G., consummated the purchase, for " £600 ster- 
ling money of England," of "the mansion-house and 
lands" for a bishop's seat. This property a few years 
before was described as "the Great and Stately Pal- 
ace of John Tatehani, Esq., pleasantly situated on the 
North side of the Town, having a very fine and de- 
lightful Garden and Orchard adjoyning to it." Its 
domain of fifteen acres was bounded on the north by 
the Delaware River, on the east by Assiscunk Creek, 
on the south by Broad Street, and on the west by 
what was afterwards called St. Mary's Street. It was 
" as level as a bowling green." The posts of its fences 
were cedar, the covering of its roof lead, and there 
were oflSces and a coach-house and stables, and every 
appointment to make it at once the grandest and, for 
want of purchaser, the cheapest establishment iu 
America. A bill was ordered to be drafted to be 
offered in Parliament for establishing bishoprics in 
America, but before its introduction its great patron- 
ess, Queen Anne, died. Mr. Talbot, who for twenty 
years had been incessant in toils and importunate 
in appeals for what he deemed the chief need of the 
provinces, sailed for England in 1720, leaving the 
parish with ex-Governor Bass as lay reader. Mr. 
Talbot was absent two years and a half, and at some 
time previous to the month of October in 1722 he 
was clandestinely consecrated to the office of a bishop 
by Dr. Ralph Taylor, a nonjuring bisho]i, who had 
been chaplain to the Protestants of the court of 
James II. in France. Returning to America the same 
year, Talbot, on the 13th of July, 172-4, made over for 
the use of his successors, the rectors of St. Mary's 
Church, forever, more than two hundred acres of land 
which he had purchased with a legacy of £100 left 
by Dr. Frampton, the deprived nonjuring Bishop of 



Gloucester. Dr. Welton, consecrated at the same 
time with Talbot, followed him in less than two years 
to Ameiica, and it soon transpired that they were in 
the episcopate. 

Sept. 7, 1724, Talbot writes, " I preacli once on Sun- 
day morn and Cjttechise or Homolize in the afternoon. 
I read the prayers of the Church, in the church, de- 
cently, according to the order of Morning and Even- 
ing Prayer, daily through the year, and that is more 
than is done in any Church that I know, apud Ameri- 

In 1725, Talbot was discharged from the service of 
the S. P. G., and ordered by the Governor of the 
province to "surcease officiating." He died in Bur- 
lington, Nov. 29, 1727, universally beloved and la- 

In 1730 the Rev. Robert Weynian became the rec- 
tor of St. Mary's, and remained so till his death in 

Mrs. Talbot, the bishop's widow, died in Philadel- 
phia in 1731, leaving a will sealed with her husband's 
seal, — a mitre with flowing ribbons, and a monogram 
in script letters, "JOHN TALBOT." 

On the 10th of May, 1738, the Rev. Colin Camp- 
bell arrived in Burlington as missionary and minister 
of the parish. In 1742 he founded the church at 
Mount Holly, and served it together with St. Mary's. 
His missionary rectorship continued until his death, 
Aug. 9, 17G6, a period of nearly twenty-nine years. 
He was buried under the church. 

On the 2Gth of July, 1767, the Rev. Jonathan Odell 
was inducted into the rectorship of St. Mary's Church 
by His Excellency William Franklin, Esq., Governor 
of the province of New Jersey. 

In 17G8-69, Mr. Odell was the leading spirit in found- 
ing the Corporation for the Relief of Widows and Or- 
phans of Deceased Clergymen, and was its first secre- 
tary. In 1769 he enlarged St. Mary's Church by an 
addition of twenty-three feet westward, placing a new 
bell in the belfry, and silk hangings, furnished by the 
wife of Governor Franklin, on " the pulpit, desk, and 
table." In 1771 he resumed the practice of medicine, 
for which he was originally educated, generously de- 
clining the salary from the parish till the debt for en- 
larging the church should be paid. At the outbreak 
of the Revolution, as a subject of Great Britain and 
a clergyman of the Church of England who had taken 
" the oath of supremacy," he used all eflbrts to preserve 
peace. In October, 1775, two letters of his were 
seized and referred to the " Council of Safety," and 
afterwards to the Provincial Congress, who declined 
to pass censure against him. 

A few days after the declaration of independence. 
Dr. Odell's parole was taken, restricting him to a cir- 
cle within eight miles of Burlington. In December, 
1776, he was hidden by a Quakeress in a secret cham- 
ber of her house from a party of armed Tory-hunters, 
and in the evening was placed in other lodgings, 
whence he escaped, leaving his wife and three chil- 

dren, the youngest not five weeks old. The vestry, on 
the following Easter, voted that his salary be continued 
notwithstanding his absence, — a pleasing proof of 
their attachment. During his ministry, a period of 
nine years and five months, the parish register has 
twenty-six closely-filled pages of neatly and accu- 
rately kept-records, the totals of which are: baptisms, 
249; marriages, 122; burials, 131, — a very large ex- 

From April, 1789, till April, 1793, the Rev. Levi 
Heath was the rector, and from July, 1793, till Au- 
gust. 1796, the Rev. Henry Van Dyke. During the 
rectorship of the latter Burlington Academy was in- 
corporated, an English and classical school, which 
was maintained for thifty years. In September, 1796, 
the Rev. Charles H. Wharton, D.D., was elected to 
the rectorship. In 1799 a new parsonage wa5 built 
on the corner of Broad and Talbot Streets, costing 
over twelve hundred and seventeen dollars. In Ai>ril, 
1803, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
deeded their fifteen acres of land in Burlington to St. 
Mary's Church. In 1811 the church building was en- 
larged. In 1816 a Sunday-school was founded, mainly 
through the exertions of Charles P. Mcllvaine, then 
a youth of seventeen years, and subsequently and for 
forty years Bishop of Ohio. Dr. Wharton died in 
1833, in the eighty-sixth year of his age, and thirty- 
sixth of his rectorshi]), and was succeeded by the 


Rt. Rev. George Washington Doane, the newly con- 
secrated Bishop of New Jersey. In 1834 the church 
was made cruciform by enlargement north and south, 
and in December of that year solemnly consecrated 
to the worship of Almighty God by Bishop Doane. 
In 1837, St. Mary's Hall was founded. In 1846, Bur- 
lington College was incorporated, and the same year 
the corner-stone of a new church of stone was laid. 



In 1847 a parish school for girls was opened. In 1853 
a parish school for boys was established. Aug. 10, 
1854, eight years after the corner-stone was laid, the 
new stone church was completed and consecrated by 
Bishop Doane, and daily morning and evening prayer 
and the weekly celebration of the Holy Communion 
was begun, and has been continued uninterruptedly. 
In 1856, St. Barnabas' Free Mission Chapel was 
opened. April 27, 1859, Bishop Doane died, being as 
remarkable in his death as in his life. In January, 
1860, the parish was placed in charge of the Rt. Rev. 
William H. Odenheimer, D.D., the newly consecrated 
Bishop of New Jersey, and in September following 
the Rev. William Croswell Doane, a son of the late 
Bishop, was chosen to the rectorship, and an act of the 
State was passed which was reported to the conven- 
tion as "making St. Mary's the Cathedral Church of 
the Diocese.-' In May, 1863, the Rev. Mr. Doane 
was succeeded by the Rev. Eugene A. Hoifman. 
During the latter's brief rectorship often months the 
parish debt of over nineteen thousand dollars was 
paid, and a chime of bells ordered from England. 
Mr. Hoffman was succeeded by the Rev. William 
Allen Johnson, who held the rectorship for nearly six 
years, during the earliest part of which the chime of 
eight bells was placed in the tower, and a fund to 
maintain a chimer was donated. These bells are pro- 
nounced the sweetest in tone of any in America. 
Two maiden sisters, the Misses Mcllvaine, gave this 
chime and its fund, as well as a large subscription to 
the church debt, in all over twenty-two thousand dol- 
lars. In August, 1870, the Rev. George Morgan Hills 
was elected rector, and "instituted" December 4th. 

In November, 1873, a rectory was purchased on the 
northeast corner of Broad and Wood Streets, at the cost 
of seven thousand dollars. During the winter of 1875- 
76 the old church, which had fallen into decay, was 
handsomely restored at the cost of six thousand dol- 
lars, and on February 2d it was formally reopened by 
Bishops Scarborough and Odenheimer, with an Office 
of Benediction prepared by the rector. In May follow- 
ing the Rev. Dr. Hills published a " History of the 
Church in Burlington," a large octavo of seven hun- 
dred and thirty-nine pages, for which he was made an 
honorary member of the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania. March 14, 1877, Dr. Hills prepared a con- 
stitution, and organized about a hundred leading par- 
ishioners, men and women, into a guild for all 
branches of parochial work, which association was 
subsequently incorporated under the laws of New 
Jersey. During the year 1878 legacies were received 
for various objects amounting to upwards of nine 
thousand dollars. On Nov. 29, 1879, being the one 
hundred and fifty-first anniversary of Talbot's death, 
a mural tablet to his memory was publicly unveiled 
in old St. Mary's Church, and presented to the vestry 
of the by Dr. Hills, as the gift of the Hon. 
John William Wallace, LL.D., president of the His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania. A few months later 

three other tablets were erected in the same venerable 
building, one " in memory of Anne, widow of Bishop 
Talbot;" "in memory of Robert Weyman, second 
rector of this church ;" and the third "in memory of 
Colin Campbell;" these completing memorials to all 
known to be buried beneath this church. On Palm 
Sunday, March 21, 1880, twenty young men, all com- 
municants and skilled in music, were formally in- 
stalled as vested singers, according to "A Form' for 
the Admission of Choristers," composed by Dr. Hills, 
it being the first service of the kind in America. 

The most notable works of the guild during 1881 
were the opening of a night school and a free read- 
ing-room. A mural tablet of Caen stone, inlaid with 
brass, was this year erected in the chancel "in memory 
of the Rt. Rev. William Henry Odenheimer," who 
departed this life in Burlington, Aug. 14, 1879, and 
was interred in his family lot, to the east of the chan- 
cel, in the presence of a large number of bishops, 
clergy, and laity. 

Nov. 15, 1881, the " choir guild of the diocese," 
being the vested choristers from five parishes, and 
numb^ing over a hundred voices, held its first festival 
in St. Mary's Church, both services being choral 

On Palm Sunday, April 2, 1882, Bishop Scarbor- 
ough, aided by divers clergy, the vested choristers, 
and a large congregation, consecrated the churchyard 
as a cemetery, in accordance with a form composed 
for the occasion by Dr. Hills. 

Since December, 1832, there have been one hundred 
and twenty admitted to holy orders in St. Mary's 
Church, including the consecration of Bishop Scar- 
borough. There is probably no other church in this 
country which has such a record. The Rev. John 
Dows Hills, the rector's son, is the assistant minister, 
and the parish was never in greater prosperity. 

William Heney Odexheimer, D.D., Bishop of 
New Jersey, was born in Philadelphia, Aug. 11, 1817, 
his father being John W. Odenheimer, a merchant of 
that city. After receiving preparatory instruction in 
St. Paul's College, Flushing, under the Rev. Dr. 
Muhlenberg, he entered the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and was there graduated in July, 1835, hold- 
ing so high a place in his class that, though less than 
eighteen years of age, he was chosen to deliver the 
valedictory address. As a candidate for holy orders 
he spent three years in the Greneral Theological Sem- 
inary, New York, graduating from that institution in 
June, 1838. In September, at the age of twenty-one, 
he was ordained deacon by Bishop Onderdonk, of 
Pennsylvania, and soon after married Anne D. R. 
Shaw, daughter of the late John R. Shaw, United 
States navy, and descended on her mother's side from 
Judge Berrien, the first supreme judge of New Jer- 
sey, appointed by the crown in colonial times.' 

1 It was at the house of Mrs. Odenheinier's preat-grandniotlior, .Tinlje 
Berrien's widow, near Princeton, that Gen. Washington wrote liis faro- 
well addres.s to the army. 




Soon after his ordination he became assistant to the 
Eev. Dr. De Lancey, then rector of St. Peter's Church, 
Piiiladelphia, and Bishop-elect of Western New York. 
Three months later, April, 1839, when Dr. De Lancey 
was consecrated bishop and vacated the parish to take 
charge of his diocese, his young assistant was invited 
to remain as officiating minister, and after holding 
this position less than a year he was elected as Bishop 
De Lancey's successor in the rectorship of this large 
parish, with an intellectual congregation and a vestry 
composed of men of culture and mature judgment. 
When he reached the age of twenty-four he was or- 
dained to the priesthood by Bishop Onderdonk, in Oc- 
tober, 1841, and was instituted rector of St. Peter's in 
the same month. Early in his administration of the 
parish he established the use of the daily morning 
and evening service, and St. Peter's was the first 
church in this country to maintain a daily prayer,